Ambient air quality - Standard method for the measurement of Pb, Cd, As and Ni in the PM10 fraction of suspended particulate matter

This European Standard specifies a method for the determination of particulate lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As) and nickel (Ni) in ambient air that can be used in the framework of the European Council Directive on Ambient Air Quality Assessment and Management [1] and the 1st [2] and 4th [3] Daughter Directives. Performance requirements with which the method has to comply are specified in this European Standard. The performance characteristics of the method were determined in comparative field validation tests carried out at four European locations (see [4]).
This European Standard specifies a method for sampling of Pb, Cd, As and Ni as part of the PM10 aerosol, microwave digestion of the samples and analysis by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry or by inductively coupled plasma (quadrupole) mass spectrometry.
This European Standard is applicable for the measurement of Pb, Cd, As and Ni as part of the PM10 aerosol fraction in the concentration ranges listed in Table 1.
Table 1 - Working ranges of the method in ng/m3
   From   To
Pb   1   4 000
Cd   0,1   50
As   0,5   350
Ni   2   100
The actual lower limits of the working ranges depend upon the variability of the laboratory filter blank (5.3.1). The lower limits of the working ranges given in Table 1 are expected values based upon performance achieved in the field validation tests. Similarly the upper limits of the working ranges have been set arbitrarily based upon the maximum daily values measured during the field validation tests. The method can be applied to higher concentrations provided the PM10 collection characteristics of the sampler are not compromised.

Außenluftbeschaffenheit - Standardisiertes Verfahren zur Bestimmung von Pb/Cd/As/Ni als Bestandteil der PM10-Fraktion des Schwebstaubes

Diese Europäische Norm legt ein Verfahren zur Bestimmung von partikelgebundenem Blei (Pb), Cadmium (Cd), Arsen (As) und Nickel (Ni) in der Außenluft fest, das im Rahmen der Europäischen Ratsrichtlinie über die Beurteilung und Kontrolle der Luftqualität [1] und der ersten [2] bzw. vierten [3] Tochterrichtlinie eingesetzt werden kann. Verfahrensanforderungen, denen dieses Verfahren genügen muss, sind in dieser Europäischen Norm spezifiziert. Die Verfahrenskenngrößen wurden in vergleichenden Feldvalidierungstests an vier europäischen Messorten bestimmt (siehe [4]).
Diese Europäische Norm legt ein Probenahmeverfahren für Pb, Cd, As und Ni als Bestandteil des PM10-Aerosols, einen Mikrowellenaufschluss der Probe und die Analyse mittels Graphitrohr-Atomabsorptionsspektrometrie oder mittels Massenspektrometrie mit induktiv gekoppeltem Plasma (ICP-MS) fest.
Diese Europäische Norm gilt für die Messung von Pb, Cd, As und Ni als Bestandteil der PM10-Aerosolfraktion in den in Tabelle 1 aufgeführten Konzentrationsbereichen.
Tabelle 1 - Arbeitsbereiche des Verfahrens
   von   bis
Pb   1   4000
Cd   0,1   50
As   0,5   350
Ni   2   100
Die tatsächlichen unteren Grenzen der Arbeitsbereiche werden von der Variabilität der Laborfilterblindwerte (5.3.1) bestimmt. Die in Tabelle 1 angegebenen unteren Grenzen der Arbeitsbereiche sind Erwartungswerte, die auf den Ergebnissen der Feldvalidierungstests basieren. Entsprechend wurden die oberen Grenzen der Arbeitsbereiche orientierend an den maximalen Tageswerten während der Feldvalidierungstests festgelegt. Das Verfahren kann auch für höhere Konzentrationen eingesetzt werden sofern die PM10-Sammelcharakteristik des Probenahmegerätes nicht beeinträchtigt ist.

Qualité de l'air ambiant - Méthode normalisée de mesure du plomb, du cadmium, de l'arsenic et du nickel dans la fraction MP10 de matiere particulaire en suspension

La présente Norme européenne spécifie une méthode pour le dosage du plomb (Pb), du cadmium (Cd), de l'arsenic (As) et du nickel (Ni) dans l'air ambiant, qui peut etre utilisée dans le cadre de la directive du Conseil de l'Union Européenne 96/62/CE [1], relative a l'évaluation et a la gestion de la qualité de l'air, et des premiere [2] et quatrieme [3] directives filles. Les exigences de performance auxquelles la méthode doit se conformer sont spécifiées dans la présente Norme européenne. Les caractéristiques de performance de la méthode ont été établies par des essais comparatifs de validation réalisés sur le terrain en quatre lieux distincts en Europe (voir [4]).
La présente Norme européenne spécifie une méthode de prélevement du plomb, du cadmium, de l'arsenic et du nickel contenu dans la fraction MP10 de l'aérosol, de digestion par micro-ondes des échantillons et d'analyse par spectrométrie d'absorption atomique en four graphite ou par spectrométrie de masse (quadripolaire) couplée a un plasma induit.
La présente Norme européenne est applicable a la mesure du plomb, du cadmium, de l'arsenic et du nickel, dans la fraction MP10 de l'aérosol dans les plages de concentrations indiquées dans le Tableau 1.
Tableau 1 - Plages de concentrations de la méthode en ng/m3
   De   A
Pb   1   4 000
Cd   0,1   50
As   0,5   350
Ni   2   100
Les limites inférieures des plages de concentration dépendent de la variabilité du filtre vierge de laboratoire (5.3.1). Les limites inférieures indiquées dans le Tableau 1 sont les valeurs escomptées sur la base des performances obtenues lors des essais de validation de terrain. De meme, les limites supérieures des plages de concentrations ont été fixées arbitrairement sur la base des valeurs journalieres maximales mesurées lors des essais de validation de terrain. La méthode est applicable a des concentrations supérieures a condition que les caractéristiques de collecte des MP10 du préleveur ne soient pas compromises.

Kakovost zunanjega zraka – Standardna metoda za določevanje Pb, Cd, As in Ni v frakciji PM10 lebdečih delcev

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
30-Nov-2005
Withdrawal Date
31-Mar-2006
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
01-Dec-2005
Due Date
01-Dec-2005
Completion Date
01-Dec-2005

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN 14902:2005
01-december-2005
.DNRYRVW]XQDQMHJD]UDND±6WDQGDUGQDPHWRGD]DGRORþHYDQMH3E&G$VLQ1LY
IUDNFLML30OHEGHþLKGHOFHY

Ambient air quality - Standard method for the measurement of Pb, Cd, As and Ni in the

PM10 fraction of suspended particulate matter

Außenluftbeschaffenheit - Standardisiertes Verfahren zur Bestimmung von Pb/Cd/As/Ni

als Bestandteil der PM10-Fraktion des Schwebstaubes
Qualité de l'air ambiant - Méthode normalisée de mesure du plomb, du cadmium, de

l'arsenic et du nickel dans la fraction MP10 de matiere particulaire en suspension

Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN 14902:2005
ICS:
13.040.20 Kakovost okoljskega zraka Ambient atmospheres
SIST EN 14902:2005 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN 14902:2005
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SIST EN 14902:2005
EUROPEAN STANDARD
EN 14902
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
August 2005
ICS 13.040.20
English version
Ambient air quality - Standard method for the measurement of
Pb, Cd, As and Ni in the PM10 fraction of suspended particulate
matter

Qualité de l'air ambiant - Méthode normalisée pour la Außenluftbeschaffenheit - Standardisiertes Verfahren zur

mesure de Pb, Cd, As et Ni dans la fraction MP10 de la Bestimmung von Pb/Cd/As/Ni als Bestandteil der PM10

matière particulaire en suspension Fraktion des Schwebstaubes
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 27 June 2005.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European

Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national

standards may be obtained on application to the Central Secretariat or to any CEN member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation

under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the Central Secretariat has the same status as the official

versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France,

Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia,

Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
Management Centre: rue de Stassart, 36 B-1050 Brussels

© 2005 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN 14902:2005: E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN 14902:2005
EN 14902:2005 (E)
Contents

.................................................................................................................................................. Page

Foreword .........................................................................................................................................................3

1 Scope ..............................................................................................................................................4

2 Normative references.....................................................................................................................5

3 Terms, definitions and abbreviations ...........................................................................................5

4 Principle..........................................................................................................................................8

5 Requirements .................................................................................................................................9

6 Reagents and gases.....................................................................................................................10

7 Apparatus .....................................................................................................................................11

8 Sampling.......................................................................................................................................12

9 Analysis ........................................................................................................................................14

10 Quality control..............................................................................................................................22

11 Calculation of results...................................................................................................................23

12 Estimation of the measurement uncertainty of the method......................................................26

13 Performance characteristics determined in field tests .............................................................27

14 Reporting of results .....................................................................................................................32

Annex A (informative) Examples of closed vessel microwave digestion procedures ....................................33

Annex B (informative) Typical laboratory filter blank values as determined in the field validation tests......35

Annex C (informative) Analytical interferences..................................................................................................36

Annex D (informative) Approach to uncertainty estimation used in the field validation tests .......................40

Annex E (normative) List of minimum QA / QC procedures..............................................................................46

Annex F (informative) Procedure for the determination of the uncertainty of the method for an

individual laboratory ....................................................................................................................48

Annex ZA (informative) Relationship with EU Directives ..................................................................................53

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................................................54

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SIST EN 14902:2005
EN 14902:2005 (E)
Foreword

This European Standard (EN 14902:2005) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 264 “Air quality”,

the secretariat of which is held by DIN.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identical text or

by endorsement, at the latest by February 2006, and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn at the latest

by February 2006.

This European Standard has been prepared under a mandate given to CEN by the European Commission and the

European Free Trade Association (see Annex ZA).

According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the following

countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark,

Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta,

Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.

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SIST EN 14902:2005
EN 14902:2005 (E)
1 Scope

This European Standard specifies a method for the determination of particulate lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), arsenic

(As) and nickel (Ni) in ambient air that can be used in the framework of the European Council Directive on Ambient

st th

Air Quality Assessment and Management [1] and the 1 [2] and 4 [3] Daughter Directives. Performance

requirements with which the method has to comply are specified in this European Standard. The performance

characteristics of the method were determined in comparative field validation tests carried out at four European

locations (see [4]).

This European Standard specifies a method for sampling of Pb, Cd, As and Ni as part of the PM10 aerosol,

microwave digestion of the samples and analysis by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry or by

inductively coupled plasma (quadrupole) mass spectrometry.

This European Standard is applicable for the measurement of Pb, Cd, As and Ni as part of the PM10 aerosol

fraction in the concentration ranges listed in Table 1.
Table 1 — Working ranges of the method in ng/m³
From To
Pb 1 4 000
0,1 50
As 0,5 350
Ni 2 100

The actual lower limits of the working ranges depend upon the variability of the laboratory filter blank (5.3.1). The

lower limits of the working ranges given in Table 1 are expected values based upon performance achieved in the

field validation tests. Similarly the upper limits of the working ranges have been set arbitrarily based upon the

maximum daily values measured during the field validation tests. The method can be applied to higher

concentrations provided the PM10 collection characteristics of the sampler are not compromised.

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SIST EN 14902:2005
EN 14902:2005 (E)
2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this European Standard. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document

(including any amendments) applies.

EN 12341:1998, Air quality – Determination of the PM10 fraction of suspended particulate matter – Reference

method and field test procedure to demonstrate reference equivalence of measurement methods.

ENV 13005:1999, Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement
3 Terms, definitions and abbreviations
3.1 Terms and definitions

For the purpose of this European Standard, the following terms and definitions apply.

3.1.1
analysis

all operations carried out after sample preparation to determine the amount or concentration of the metals or

metalloid of interest present in the sample
3.1.2
blank solution

solution prepared from a laboratory filter blank or a field filter blank by the process of sample dissolution

NOTE A laboratory filter blank solution or a field filter blank solution might need to be subjected to further operations, e.g.

dilution and/or addition of an internal standard(s), if such operations are applied to the sample solutions in order to produce test

solutions that are ready for analysis.
3.1.3
calibration blank solution

calibration solution prepared without addition of stock standard solution or working standard solution, for which the

concentration of the analyte(s) of interest is considered to be zero
3.1.4
calibration solution

solution used for calibration of the analytical instrument, containing the analyte(s) of interest at (a) suitable

concentration(s), prepared by dilution of the stock standard solution(s) or the working standard solution(s)

NOTE The technique of matrix-matching is normally used when preparing calibration solutions.

3.1.5
certified reference material

reference material, in which one or more of property values are certified by a technically valid procedure,

accompanied by or traceable to a certificate or other documentation that is issued by a certifying body [5]

3.1.6
field filter blank

filter that is taken through the same procedure as a sample, except that no air is drawn through it. It is transported

to the sampling site, mounted in the sampling unit, dismounted, returned to the laboratory and worked up in the

same way as a sample
Equal to ISO Guide 30 (GUM) Geneva 1993.
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EN 14902:2005 (E)
3.1.7
internal standard solution

solution added to sample, blank and calibration solutions to correct for instrumental fluctuations during analysis,

containing (a) suitable element(s) at (a) suitable concentration(s)
3.1.8
instrumental detection limit

lowest amount of an analyte that is detectable using an instrument, as determined by repeated measurements of a

reagent blank
3.1.9
laboratory filter blank

unused filter that does not leave the laboratory and is taken through the same analytical procedure as a sample.

This filter is taken from the same batch as used for sampling
3.1.10
limit value

level fixed on the basis of scientific knowledge, with the aim of avoiding, preventing or reducing harmful effects on

human health and/or the environment as a whole, to be attained within a given period and not to be exceeded once

attained
3.1.11
matrix interference
non-spectral interference
matrix effect

interference of a non-spectral nature caused by a difference between the matrix of the calibration and test solutions

3.1.12
matrix-matching

technique, used to minimise the effect of matrix interferences on analytical results, that involves preparation of

calibration solutions in which the concentrations of acids and other major solutes are matched with those in the test

solutions
3.1.13
method detection limit

lowest amount of an analyte that is detectable using the method, as determined by analysis of laboratory filter

blanks
3.1.14
PM10
target specification for sampling the thoracic particles
[EN 12341:1998]
3.1.15
PM10 reference sampler

by convention, a sampling instrument that possesses the required performance characteristics, in order to assess

the PM 10 mass concentration
[EN 12341:1998]
3.1.16
PM10 sampler

sampling instrument whose performance has been demonstrated to be equivalent to a PM 10 reference sampler

3.1.17
quality control solution

solution that is analysed together with the sample solutions to provide information on the repeatability of the

analytical method, results for which are plotted on a quality control chart to verify that a method is performing

satisfactorily
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SIST EN 14902:2005
EN 14902:2005 (E)
3.1.18
quantification limit

lowest amount of an analyte that is quantifiable with a given confidence level using the method, as determined by

analysis of laboratory filter blanks
3.1.19
reagent blank solution

solution that contains all the reagents used during the analysis of the sample, but without the sample and filter

matrix
3.1.20
repeatability (of results of measurements)

closeness of the agreement between the results of successive measurements of the same measurand carried out

under the same conditions of measurement [6]
3.1.21
reproducibility (of results of measurements)

closeness of the agreement between the results of measurements of the same measurand carried out under

changed conditions of measurement [6]
3.1.22
sample solution
solution prepared from a sample by the process of sample dissolution

NOTE A sample solution might need to be subjected to further operations, e.g. dilution and/or addition of an internal

standard(s), in order to produce a test solution that is ready for analysis.
3.1.23
sampling method

all steps of the measuring procedure that describe the process of collecting an air sample

3.1.24
sample preparation

all operations carried out on a sample, after transportation and storage, to prepare it for analysis, including

transformation of the sample into a measurable state, where necessary
3.1.25
sample digestion
sample dissolution

process of obtaining a solution containing the analytes of interest from a sample. This can involve complete

dissolution of the sample
3.1.26
stock standard solution

solution used for preparation of calibration solutions, containing one or more of the analyte(s) of interest at (a)

concentration(s) traceable to national or International Standards
3.1.27
sub-sample (of a filter)

part of a large filter, cut out for analytical reasons, that is representative of the whole

3.1.28
suspended particulate matter
notion of all particles surrounded by air in a given, undisturbed volume of air
[EN 12341:1998]
3.1.29
target value

concentration in the ambient air fixed with the aim of avoiding, preventing or reducing harmful effects on human

health and the environment as a whole, to be attained where possible over a given period [3]

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SIST EN 14902:2005
EN 14902:2005 (E)
3.1.30
test solution

blank solution or sample solution that has been subjected to all operations required to bring it into a state in which it

is ready for analysis, e.g. dilution and/or addition of an Internal Standard(s)

NOTE If subject to no further operations before analysis, then the blank test solution is identical to the blank solution. The

same is true for the sample test solution and sample solutions.
3.1.31
uncertainty (of a measurement)

parameter associated with the result of a measurement that characterises the dispersion of the values that could

reasonably be attributed to the measurand
[ENV 13005:1999]
3.1.32
working standard solution

solution prepared by dilution of the stock standard solution(s), that contains the analyte(s) of interest at (a)

concentration(s) better suited to preparation of calibration solutions
3.2 Abbreviations
AAS atomic absorption spectrometry;
amu atomic mass unit;
CRM certified reference material;
GFAAS graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry;
HDPE high density polyethylene;
HVS high volume sampler, as described in EN 12341:1998, Annex B.2;
ICP-MS inductively coupled plasma – mass spectrometry;
LDPE low density polyethylene;
LVS low volume sampler, as described in EN 12341:1998, Annex B.1;
PFA perfluoroalkoxy polymer;
PP polypropylene;
PTFE polytetrafluoroethylene;
SPM suspended particulate matter;
TFM tetrafluoromethoxil polymer.
4 Principle

The method is divided into two main parts: first the sampling in the field and second the analysis in the laboratory.

During sampling, particles containing Pb, Cd, As and Ni are collected by drawing a measured volume of air through

a filter mounted in a sampler designed to collect the PM10 fraction of suspended particulate matter. The sample

filter is transported to the laboratory and Pb, Cd, As and Ni are taken into solution by closed vessel microwave

digestion using nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide. The resultant solution is analysed by GFAAS or ICP-MS.

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EN 14902:2005 (E)
5 Requirements
5.1 Siting requirements
st th

The requirements for siting samplers given in the 1 Daughter Directive [2] (for Pb) and the 4 Daughter Directive

[3] (for Cd, As and Ni) shall be followed.
5.2 Sampling requirements

Sampling shall be performed using a PM10 sampler complying with the requirements of EN 12341. In general the

sampling time should be 24 h. However, low concentrations could require longer sampling times, whereas high

concentrations could require shorter ones.

NOTE In order to meet the requirements of this European Standard, particularly with respect to detection limits, it might be

necessary to increase the sampling time for samplers that have low flow rates.
5.3 Analytical requirements
5.3.1 Method detection limit

The method detection limits, based on laboratory filter blanks, shall be less than or equal to 10 % of the limit value

st th

for Pb and less than or equal to 10 % of the target values for Cd, As and Ni, as specified in the 1 and 4 Daughter

Directives [2], [3]. The method for calculating method detection limits is described in 11.5.

NOTE If it is necessary to perform measurements at lower concentrations within the working ranges of the method given in

Table 1, lower method detection limits will be necessary (see Table 7).
5.3.2 Recovery rate

The average recovery rates for the method, when determined in accordance with the procedure described in 10.3,

shall meet the requirements for recovery rates given in Table 2.
Table 2 — Minimum requirements for average recovery rates
Range of average
recovery rates
[%]
Pb 90 to 110
Cd 90 to 110
As 85 to 115
Ni 85 to 115
5.3.3 Homogeneity requirement for sub-samples

The relative standard deviation of the lead content of sub-samples, when determined in accordance with the

procedure described in 9.6, shall not exceed 5 %.
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EN 14902:2005 (E)
6 Reagents and gases
6.1 Water, ultrapure, distilled or deionised.

NOTE It is recommended that the water used be obtained from a water purification system that delivers ultrapure water

having a resistivity of 0,18 MΩ ·m or greater at 25 °C.

6.2 Nitric acid (HNO ), concentrated, ρ about 1,42 g/ml, mass fraction about 70 %, high purity grade

[concentration stated by the manufacturer or supplier < 0,005 mg/l for As, Cd, Ni and Pb (typical concentrations are

generally 10 times lower)], sub-boiled before use if necessary.

WARNING Concentrated nitric acid is corrosive and oxidising, and nitric acid fumes are irritants. Avoid exposure by contact

with the skin or eyes, or by inhalation of fumes. Use suitable personal protective equipment (including suitable gloves, face

shield or safety spectacles, etc) when working with the concentrated or dilute nitric acid.

6.3 Nitric acid for cleaning purposes, add approximately 800 ml of ultrapure water (6.1) to a 1 litre one-mark

volumetric flask. Carefully add 100 ml of concentrated nitric acid (6.2) to the flask and swirl to mix. Allow to cool,

dilute to 1 l with water and mix thoroughly.

6.4 Hydrogen peroxide (H O ), mass fraction about 30 %, high purity grade [concentration stated by the

2 2

manufacturer or supplier < 0,005 mg/l for As, Cd, Ni and Pb (typical concentrations are generally 10 times lower)].

WARNING Hydrogen peroxide is corrosive and oxidising. Avoid exposure by contact with the skin or eyes. Use suitable

personal protective equipment (including suitable gloves, face shield or safety spectacles, etc) when working with hydrogen

peroxide.

6.5 Stock standard solutions, single element or multi-element. Use commercial standard solutions with certified

concentrations traceable to national or International Standards. Observe the manufacturer's expiration date or

recommended shelf life.

6.6 Working standard solution, prepare a working standard solution containing the analyte(s) of interest at a

concentration(s) that is better suited to preparation of the calibration solutions, if desired, by appropriate dilution of

the stock standard solutions (see 6.5).

e.g. NH H PO , Mg(NO ) or Pd(NO ) , or a combination of these, if required, for GFAAS

6.7 Matrix modifier,
4 2 4 3 2 3 2
analysis.

6.8 Argon, liquid or cylinder of a purity suitable for use in GFAAS or ICP-MS analysis.

6.9 Certified Reference Material (CRM), with a sample matrix that is as representative as possible of ambient air

PM10 particulate matter ).

) “NIST 1648 “Urban Particulate Matter” from National Institute of Standards & Technology, USA, is an example of a suitable

product available commercially. This information is given for the convenience of users of this European Standard and does not

constitute an endorsement by CEN of this product. NIST 1648 was used as reference material during the validation of the

method and is named in the text as CRM 1.”
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SIST EN 14902:2005
EN 14902:2005 (E)
7 Apparatus
7.1 Sampling equipment

7.1.1 PM10 samplers, equivalent to EN 12341. HVS or LVS may be used and the samplers may be single-filter

devices or sequential samplers.

NOTE To minimise contamination of the sample, all components of the filter holder in contact with the filter should be made

of a suitable material with as low a metal content as possible, such as PTFE, glass, quartz etc.

7.1.2 Greasing agent, if required, suitable for greasing the sampler impaction plate.

7.1.3 Filters, of a diameter suitable for use with the samplers (7.1.1), with a separation efficiency of at least

99,5 % at an aerodynamic diameter of 0,3 µm. Each new batch of filters shall be tested to confirm that the filter

blank variability is sufficiently low so that the method detection requirements of 5.3.1 are met.

NOTE 1 It is recommended that filters used should be sourced from a manufacturer who has determined the separation

efficiency of the filter material according to standard methods such as [8] or [9].

NOTE 2 The metal content of the filter should be as low as possible because it is usually the case that higher filter blank

values lead to higher variability of the blank values.

NOTE 3 Quartz fibre filters, cellulose nitrate and cellulose acetate membrane filters have been found suitable in the field

validation tests (see Annex B). Further information can be found in [10].

NOTE 4 In choosing a filter, the user should consider the initial pressure drop across the filter and the increase in this that

occurs due to the collection of the dust and ensure that there is no possibility of an excessive pressure drop developing during

sampling. This depends on the type of filter (i.e. membranes), unusual high concentrations of PM10, the use of longer sampling

time than 24 h and the capability of the sampling device to handle the resulting pressure drop. Quartz fibre filters are proven to

be efficient in most cases although they have weak mechanical properties.

7.1.4 Flowmeter, with a measurement uncertainty that is sufficient to enable the volumetric flow rate of the

samplers (7.1.1) to be measured to within ± 5 %. The calibration of the flowmeter shall be traceable to

(inter)national standards.

NOTE It is recommended that the flowmeter used should be capable of measuring the volumetric flow rate to within ± 2 %

or better.
7.2 Laboratory apparatus
Ordinary laboratory apparatus, and 7.2.1- 7.2.7.

7.2.1 Microwave digestion system, designed for closed vessel sample digestion in the laboratory, with power

output regulation, fitted with a temperature control system capable of sensing the temperature and automatically

adjusting the microwave power output. The microwave cavity shall be corrosion resistant and well ventilated, with

all electronics protected against corrosion to ensure safe operation.

NOTE A leakage detection or pressure control system is very useful, since it provides a safeguard against the possibility of

sample loss due to excessive pressure build-up and partial venting of the sample vessels.

WARNING Ensure that the manufacturer’s safety recommendations are followed.

7.2.2 Sample vessels, designed for high pressure microwave digestion, having a system for controlled

pressure relief, capable of withstanding an operating temperature of 220 °C and a pressure of at least 50 bar, and

having an internal volume of at least 50 ml, e.g. vessels having an inner liner and cover made of a microwave

transparent and chemically resistant material (usually a fluorocarbon polymer such as TFM or PFA).

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SIST EN 14902:2005
EN 14902:2005 (E)

7.2.3 One-mark volumetric flasks, made of borosilicate glass, quartz, polyethylene or fluorocarbon polymer.

NOTE Solutions with ultra-trace level analytes are commonly stored in thoroughly cleaned vessels made of polyethylene

(LDPE, HDPE) or fluorocarbon polymer (e.g. PFA, PTFE).

7.2.4 Punching tool, if required, suitable for taking sub-samples of large filters without contamination.

7.2.5 Transport containers, suitable for transport of filters from the sampling site back to the laboratory, made

of inert low metal background materials such as HDPE, PP, polycarbonate, PTFE, glass or quartz.

Either

7.2.6 Graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer, equipped with hollow cathode lamps or

electrodeless discharge lamps for the elements of interest, capable of carrying out simultaneous background

correction at the measurement wavelengths using a continuum source such as a deuterium lamp to correct for non-

specific attenuation (see 5.1.5 of [11]) or using a Zeeman background correction system.

7.2.7 Inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometer, quadrupole instrument capable of scanning the

mass range from 5 amu to 250 amu with a minimum resolution capability of 1 amu peak width at 5 % peak height,

equipped with a data system that allows correction of isobaric interferences and the application of the internal

standard technique.

NOTE The use of alternative ICP-MS instrumental configurations, e.g. high resolution mass spectrometers, quadrupole

mass spectrometers equipped with reaction or collision cells; cold plasma systems etc., can reduce spectral interferences.

8 Sampling
8.1 Preparation of the sampling equipment

8.1.1 Consult the manufacturer’s instruction manual to determine the minimum voltage and power requirements

of the sampler (7.1.1) and ensure that an adequate power supply is available at the sampling site.

8.1.2 Clean the sampler inlet, suction pipe, filter change mechanism, filter cassettes and all other parts of the

sampler that can come in contact with the filter before use according to the manufacturer’s specifications. Similarly,

inspect greased parts like impaction plates before use, clean them if necessary and grease them again.

8.2 Handling of filters

Handle small filters using non-metallic and non-serrated blunt tweezers, so as to avoid contamination and damage.

For large filters this procedure might not be practicable, in which case handle them carefully using

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