Geometrical product specifications (GPS) - Surface texture: Profile method - Nominal characteristics of contact (stylus) instruments (ISO 3274:1996)

Describes profiles and the general structure of contact (stylus) instruments for measuring surface roughness and waviness. Specifies the properties of the instrument which influence profile evaluation. Replaces the first edition of ISO 3274:1975 and ISO 1880:1979.

Geometrische Produktspezifikationen (GPS) - Oberflächenbeschaffenheit: Tastschnittverfahren - Nenneigenschaften von Tastschnittgeräten (ISO 3274:1996)

Diese Internationale Norm definiert Profile und den allgemeinen Aufbau von Tastschnittgeräten zum Messen der Oberflächenrauheit und Welligkeit, um die existierenden Normen für die praktische Profilauswertung anwenden zu können. Sie legt Eigenschaften der Meßgeräte fest, die Profilauswertung beeinflussen und sie beschreibt die grundlegenden Eigenschaften von Tastschnittgeräten (Meßgeräte und Profilausgabegeräte).

Spécification géométrique des produits (GPS) - Etat de surface: Méthode du profil - Caractéristiques nominales des appareils a contact (palpeur) (ISO 3274:1996)

La présente Norme internationale définit les différents profils et la structure générale des appareils à contact (palpeur) utilisés pour mesurer la rugosité et l'ondulation de surface, permettant ainsi d'appliquer les Normes internationales existantes à l'évaluation pratique des profils. Elle prescrit les caractéristiques des appareils qui influencent l'évaluation du profil et fournit un cadre de spécifications des appareils à contact (palpeur) (profilomètres et enregistreurs de profil). NOTES1 Une fiche technique présentant les caractéristiques des appareils à contact (palpeur), à remplir par le fabricant, est en cours de préparation. Elle fera l'objet d'une Norme internationale ultérieure sur les procédures d'étalonnage.2 Les relations entre la longueur d'onde de coupure d'ondulation λf, le rayon de pointe et le rapport des longueurs de coupure d'ondulation sont à l'étude et feront l'objet d'un amendement à la présente Norme internationale.

Geometrical product specifications (GPS) - Surface texture: Profile method - Nominal characteristics of contact (stylus) instruments (ISO 3274:1996)

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
30-Nov-2000
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
01-Dec-2000
Due Date
01-Dec-2000
Completion Date
01-Dec-2000

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 3274:2000
01-december-2000
Geometrical product specifications (GPS) - Surface texture: Profile method -
Nominal characteristics of contact (stylus) instruments (ISO 3274:1996)

Geometrical product specifications (GPS) - Surface texture: Profile method - Nominal

characteristics of contact (stylus) instruments (ISO 3274:1996)
Geometrische Produktspezifikationen (GPS) - Oberflächenbeschaffenheit:
Tastschnittverfahren - Nenneigenschaften von Tastschnittgeräten (ISO 3274:1996)

Spécification géométrique des produits (GPS) - Etat de surface: Méthode du profil -

Caractéristiques nominales des appareils a contact (palpeur) (ISO 3274:1996)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 3274:1997
ICS:
17.040.30 Merila Measuring instruments
SIST EN ISO 3274:2000 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN ISO 3274:2000
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SIST EN ISO 3274:2000
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SIST EN ISO 3274:2000
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SIST EN ISO 3274:2000
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SIST EN ISO 3274:2000
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SIST EN ISO 3274:2000
INTERNATIONAL IS0
STANDARD 3274
Second edition
1996-12-01
Geometrical Product Specifications
(GPS) - Surface texture: Profile method -
Nominal characteristics of contact (stylus)
instruments
Spbcification gbom&-ique des produits (GPS) - &at de surface: Mbthode
du profil- Caractkristiques nom&ales des appareils ;i contact (palpeur)
Reference number
IS0 32749 996(E)
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SIST EN ISO 3274:2000
IS0 3274:1996(E)
Page
Contents
.............................................................. . . . ......
1 Scope
..................................... . . . ......
2 Normative references
....................................................... . . * ......
3 Definitions
. . . ......
4 Nominal values for instrument characteristics
Annexes

A Instruments conforming to IS0 3274: 1975 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

B Background for the improvements introduced in this

International Standard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..-........ s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..-......

C Relation to the GPS matrix model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

D Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

0 IS0 1996

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form or

by any means, electronical or mechanical, including photocopyrng and microfiim, without

permissron in writrng from the publisher.
International Organization for Standardization
Case postale 56 l CH-1211 Geneve 20 l Switzerland
Printed in Switzerland
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SIST EN ISO 3274:2000
IS0 3274:1996(E)
@ IS0
Foreword
IS0 (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide
federation of national standards bodies (IS0 member bodies). The work of
preparing International Standards is normally carried out through IS0
technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for
which a technical committee has been established has the right to be
represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental
and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. IS0
collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission
(IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.
Draft International Standards adopted by the technical committees are
circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publication as an International
Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting
a vote.
International Standard IS0 3274 was prepared jointly by Technical Com-
mittees lSO/TC 57, Metrology and properties of surfaces, Subcommittee
SC I, Geometrical parameters - Instruments and procedures for
measurement of surface roughness and waviness, lSO/TC 3, Limits and
fits, and lSO/TC 10, Technical drawings, product definition and related
documentation, Subcommittee SC 5, Dimensioning and tolerancing.
This second edition of IS0 3274 cancels and replaces the first edition
(IS0 3274:1975) as well as IS0 1880:1979, which have been technically
revised.
In particular it takes into account the nominal characteristics of contact
(stylus) instruments and their technical development. Modern instruments
use phase-correct filters according to IS0 11562.
Annexes A, B, C and D of this International Standard are for information
only.
. . .
III
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SIST EN ISO 3274:2000
IS0 3274:1996(E) 0 IS0
Introduction
This International Standard is a Geometrical Product Specification (GPS)
standard and is to be regarded as a General GPS standard (see
lSO/TR 14638). It influences chain link 5 of the chain of standards for
roughness profile, waviness profile and primary profile.
For more detailed information of the relation of this standard to other
standards and the GPS matrix model, see annex C.
Filters for profile meters according to IS0 3274: ‘1975 were realized as a
series connection of two analog RC filters. This led to consrderable phase
shifts in the transition of the profile and therefore to asymmetrical profile
distortions. The influence of this distortion on the parameters Ra and Rz
are normally negligible if the sampling lengths (cut-of? wavelength)
according to IS0 4288:1985 are used. Therefore, analog instruments
according to IS0 3274:1975 or instruments using 2RC filters may be used
for assessment of /?a and Rz (see annex A). However, for other
parameters the distortion is relevant.
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SIST EN ISO 3274:2000
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD 0 IS0 IS0 3274:1996(E)
Geometrical Product Specifications (GPS) - Surface texture:
Profile method - Nominal characteristics of contact (stylus)
instruments
1 Scope

This International Standard defines profiles and the general structure of contact (stylus) instruments for measuring

surface roughness and waviness, enabling existing International Standards to be applied to practical profile

evaluation. It specifies the properties of the instrument which influence profile evaluation and it provides the basics

of the specification of contact (stylus) instruments (profile meter and profile recorder).

NOTES

1 A data sheet dealing with characteristics of contact (stylus) instruments to be completed by the instrument makers is under

preparation and will be introduced in a future standard on calibration procedures.

2 The relationships between the waviness cut-off If, tip radius and waviness cut-off ratio are under consideration and will be

added to this International Standard as an amendment.
2 Normative references

The following standards contain provisions which, through reference in this text, constitute provisions of this

International Standard. At the time of publication, the editions indicated were valid. All standards are subject to

revision, and parties to agreements based on this International Standard are encouraged to investigate the

possibility of applying the most recent editions of the standards indicated below. Members of IEC and IS0 maintain

registers of currently valid International Standards.

IS0 4287: 1996, Geometrical Product Specifications (GPS) - Surface texture: Profile method - Terms, definitions

and surface texture parameters.

IS0 4288: 1996, Geometrical Product Specifications (GPS) - Surface texture: Profile method - Rules and

proc ’edures for the assessment of surface texture.

ISO’ 5436: 1985, Calibration specimens - Stylus instruments - Types, calibration and use of specimens.

IS0 1 1562:1996, Geometrical Product Specifications (GPS) - Surface texture: Profile method - Metrological

characteristics of phase correct filters.
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SIST EN ISO 3274:2000
0 IS0
IS0 3274:1996(E)
Surface texture: Profile method - Motif parameters.
IS0 I 2085: 1996, Geometrical Product Specifications (GPS) -
Surface texture: Profile method; Surfaces having
IS0 13565-l : 1996, Geometrical Product Specifications (GPS) -
Part 7: Filtering and overall measuring conditions.
stratified functional properties -
- Surface texture: Profile method; Surfaces having
IS0 13565-2: 1996, Geometrical Product Specifications (GPS)
Part 2: Height characterization using the linear material ratio curve.
stratified functional properties -

1) Geometrical Product Specifications (G PS) - Surface texture: Profile method; Surfaces having

IS0 13565-3:- ,

stratified functional properties - Part 3: Height characterization using the material probability curve.

3 Definitions

For the purposes of this International Standard, the following definttions apply.

3.1 Profiles

3.1.1 traced profile: Locus of the centre of a stylus tip which features an ideal geometrical form (conical with

spherical tip) and nominal dimensions with nominal tracing force, as it traverses the surface within the intersect/on

plane.

This is the profile from which all other profiles defined in this lnternational Standard are derived.

NOTE -

3.1.2 reference profile: Trace on which the probe is moved within the intersection plane along the guide.

profile is th e practical re alization of a theoreti profile. Its nornIna devlatlons

NOTE- The shape of the reference cai exact

depend on the deviations of the guide a s well as on external and internal distur bances.

3.1.3 total profile: Digital form of the traced profile relative to the reference profile, with the vertical and

horizontal coordinates assigned to each other.

NOTE - The total profile is characterized by the vertical and horizontal digital steps.

3.1.4 primary profile: Total profile after application of the short wavelength filter, As.

NOTES

1 The primary profile represents the basis for digital profile processing by means of a profile filter and calculation of the profile

parameters according to IS0 4287. It is characterized by the vertical and honzontal digital steps which may be different from

those of the total profile.

2 The best fit least squares form of the type indicated in the specification is not part of the primary profile and should be

excluded before filters are applied. For a circle, the radius should also be included in the least squares optimization and not

held fixed to the nominal value.
3 The nominal form is removed before the primary profile is obtained.

3.1.5 residual profile: Primary profile obtained by tracing an ideally smooth and flat surface (optical flat).

NOTE - The residual profile is composed of the deviations of the guide, external and internal disturbances, as well as

’ deviations in profile transmission. The determination of the causes of the deviations is not normally possible without special

equipment and a suitable environment.

3.2 stylus instrument: Measuring instrument which explores surfaces with a stylus and acquires deviations in

the form of a surface profile, calculates parameters and can record the profile (see figure 1).

NOTE - The diagram as shown represents only the essential operators required in a theoretically exact measuring system.

The specific inter-relationship of operators may be subject to design considerations. Therefore figure 1 should not be

considered as the only form of theoretically exact configuration.
1) To be published.
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SIST EN ISO 3274:2000
IS0 3274:1996(E)
\----
‘aL
E Q1
a ;z
2 - ii% -
E i?s
t t--u
- Schematic representation of a stylus instrument
Figure 1
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SIST EN ISO 3274:2000
@ IS0
IS0 3274:1996(E)

3.2.1 displacement sensitive, digitally storing stylus instrument: Stylus instrument whose profile presentation

contains deviations including long-wave components and set-up deviations.

NOTE - The profile is digitally stored and, if filtered, is phase-correct filtered. Parameters are digitally calculated and the

profile is recorded by means of a graphics system excluding deformation.
3.3 Stylus instrument components

measurement loop: Closed chain which comprises all mechanical components connecting workpiece and

3.3.1
workholding fixture, measuring stand, drive unit, probe (pick-up). (See
the stylus tip, e.g. positioning means,
figure 2.)

The measuring loop is subjected to external and internal disturbances and transmits them to the reference profile.

NOTE -

The influence of these disturbances depends on the individual measuring set-up, the measuring environment and the skill of

the user. The disturbances influence the residual value to a great extent.

3.3.2 reference guide: Component which generates the intersection plane and guides the probe in it on a

theoretically exact geometrical trace (reference profile), generally in a straight line.

NOTE - The guide is an essential part of the drive unit; it can be partially included in the probe. For the use of

skids, see annex A.

3.3.3 drive unit: Component which moves the probe along the reference guide and transmits the horizontal

position of the stylus tip in the form of a horizontal profile coordinate.
NOTE - Drive units are characterized by the longest selectable tracing length.
Measurement loop
/-- Drive unit
-Base
Example of measurement loop of a stylus instrument
Figure 2 -
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SIST EN ISO 3274:2000
0 IS0 IS0 3274:1996(E)

3.3.4 probe (pick-up): Component which contains the tracing element with the stylus tip and the transducer.

3.3.5 tracing element: Element which transmits the stylus tip displacement to the transducer.

3.3.6 stylus tip: Element which consists of a nominally right, circular cone of defined cone angle and of a

nominally spherical tip of defined radius.

lt is a very important element in profile acquisition when employing stylus instruments.

NOTE -

3.3.7 transducer: Device which converts the vertical coordinates of the traced profile referred to the reference

profile into the signal form used in the instrument.
NOTE - The transducer does not cause an intentional profile modification.

3.3.8 amplifier: Device which effects signal transformation in the instrument without causing any intentional

profile modification.

converter (ADC): Device which converts the signal form existing in the instrument into

3.3.9 analog-to-digital
digital values.
horizontal coordinates,

NOTE Together with the corresponding these values form the total profile. The ADC does not

cause intentional profile modification.
any

3.3.10 data input: Data interface that the instrument may have which allows input of one or more types of profile

from an external computer.

3.3.11 data output: Data inte rface that the instrument may have which allows output of one or more

types of
profile to an external c omputer.

3.3.12 profile filtering and evaluation: Operations carried out on the primary, roughness and waviness profiles

by means of parameters and characteristic functions according to IS0 4287, IS0 11562, IS0 12085, IS0 13565-1,

IS0 13565-2 and IS0 13565-3.

NOTE - The nominal value of the sampling length is equal to the wavelength cut-off k.

3.3.13 profile recorder: Recorder that the instrument may have which allows output of one or more types of

profile and/or parameter value.
3.4 Metrological characteristics of the instrument

3.4.1 static measuring force: Force exerted by the stylus tip when in its mean position as it rests on the surface.

static measuring Change of measuring which occurs when the stylus tip is
3.42 change of force
displaced.
NOTE - Normally this change is proportional to the displacement.

3.4.3 dynamic measuring force: Force resulting from the acceleration of the stylus tip when continuously tracing

the surface.
These dynamic measuring forces are superimposed on the static measuring force.
NOTE -

3.4.4 hysteresis: Difference between the indicated stylus tip displacements for the same actual stylus tip

...

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