Construction products - Assessment of release of dangerous substances - Part 3: Horizontal up-flow percolation test

This Technical Specification is applicable to determine the leaching behaviour of non-volatile inorganic and organic substances from granular construction products (without or with size reduction (see 6.2)). The construction products are subjected to percolation with water as a function of liquid to solid ratio under specified percolation conditions. The construction products are leached under hydraulically dynamic conditions. The method is a once-through column leaching test and the test results establish the distinction between different release patterns, for instance wash-out and release under the influence of interaction with the matrix, when approaching local equilibrium between construction product and leachant (for inorganic substances).
This test method produces eluates, which can subsequently be characterised by physical, chemical and ecotoxicological methods according to existing standard methods. The results of eluate analysis are presented as a function of the liquid/solid ratio. The test is not suitable for species that are volatile under ambient conditions. This up-flow percolation test is a parameter specific test as specified in TS351WG1XXX-1 and is therefore not necessarily producing results that mimic specific intended use situations. This measurement procedure allows the manufacturer to determine the information on the release performance to be provided with the CE-marking.
NOTE 1   Volatile organic substances include the low molecular weight substances in mixtures such as mineral oil.
NOTE 2   It is not always possible to optimise test conditions simultaneously for inorganic and organic substances and optimum test conditions may also vary between different groups of organic substances. Test requirements for organic substances are generally more stringent than those for inorganic substances. The test conditions suitable for measuring the release of organic substances will generally also be applicable to inorganic substances.

Bauprodukte - Bewertung der Freisetzung von gefährlichen Stoffen - Teil 3: Horizontale Perkolationsprüfung im Aufwärtsstrom

(1)   Diese Technische Spezifikation legt eine Perkolationsprüfung (PT, en: Percolation Test) im Aufwärtsstrom fest, die dafür geeignet ist, das Auslaugverhalten von anorganischen und nichtflüchtigen organischen Stoffen aus körnigen Bauprodukten zu bestimmen. Die Prüfung eignet sich nicht für Stoffe, die unter Umgebungsbedingungen flüchtig sind. Die Bauprodukte werden unter festgelegten Bedingungen einer Perkolation mit Wasser als Funktion des Flüssigkeits-/Feststoffverhältnisses ausgesetzt. Bei diesem Verfahren handelt es sich um eine Durchfluss-Säulen-Auslaugprüfung.
(2)   Diese Perkolationsprüfung im Aufwärtsstrom wird unter festgelegten Prüfbedingungen für Bauprodukte durchgeführt. Sie liefert nicht zwingend Ergebnisse, die die spezifischen bestimmungsgemäßen Verwendungsbedingungen nachbilden. Bei diesem Prüfverfahren werden Eluate erzeugt, die anschließend anhand von physikalischen, chemischen und ökotoxikologischen Verfahren nach vorhandenen Standardverfahren charakterisiert werden können. Die Ergebnisse der Eluatanalyse werden als Funktion des Flüssigkeits-/ Feststoffverhältnisses dargestellt. Die Prüfergebnisse ermöglichen die Unterscheidung zwischen verschiedenen Auslaugverhalten.
ANMERKUNG 1   Flüchtige organische Stoffe umfassen auch niedermolekulare Stoffe in Mischungen wie z. B. Mineralöl.
ANMERKUNG 2   Die Prüfbedingungen für anorganische und organische Stoffe können nicht immer gleichzeitig angepasst werden. Außerdem können die Prüfbedingungen bei verschiedenen Gruppen organischer Stoffe unterschiedlich sein. Die Prüfbedingungen für organische Stoffe sind im Allgemeinen strenger angelegt als die für anorganische Stoffe. Die Prüfbedingungen werden üblicherweise so beschrieben, dass sie sowohl für organische Stoffe als auch – je nach Prüfvorrichtung – für anorganische Stoffe verwendet werden können.
ANMERKUNG 3   Bei einer Ökotoxizitätsprüfung werden Eluate benötigt, die die Freisetzung sowohl von anorganischen Stoffen als auch von organischen Stoffen repräsentieren. Für die Anwendung dieses Dokuments schließen ökotoxikologische Prüfungen auch genotoxikologische Prüfungen mit ein.
Bauprodukte, die eine gesättigte hydraulische Leitfähigkeit von ca. 10-8 m/s oder mehr aufweisen, können für gewöhnlich mit diesem Verfahren geprüft werden. Dieses Verfahren gilt auch für Materialien, die in der Säule eine Verfestigung zeigen, wenn die endgültige hydraulische Leitfähigkeit im angegebenen Bereich liegt. Es sollten keine körnigen Inertstoffe zur Verbesserung der Permeabilität hinzugefügt werden, um ihre Prüfung zu ermöglichen.
ANMERKUNG 4   Dieses Verfahren ist im Allgemeinen nicht für Produkte anwendbar, die biologisch leicht abbaubar sind und für Produkte, die mit dem Elutionsmittel reagieren und beispielsweise zu einer übermäßigen Gasemission oder zu einer übermäßigen Wärmefreisetzung oder zur Bildung von undurchlässigen, hydraulisch gebundenen Produkten führen, oder für Produkte, die bei Kontakt mit Wasser quellen.

Produits de construction - Evaluation de l’émission de substances dangereuses - Partie 3 : Essai horizontal de percolation à l’écoulement ascendant

Gradbeni proizvodi - Ocenjevanje sproščanja nevarnih snovi - 3. del: Horizontani preskus precejanja v koloni s tokom navzgor

Osnova:   CEN/TS 16637-3:2016
ICS:   91.100.01, 13.020.99
Ta tehnična specifikacija se uporablja za določanje izluževanja nehlapnih anorganskih in organskih snovi iz zrnatih gradbenih proizvodov (brez ali z zmanjšanjem velikosti (glej točko 6.2)). Gradbeni proizvodi so izpostavljeni precejanju, pri čemer voda je voda funkcija razmerja tekoče/trdno pri določenih pogojih precejanja. Izluževanje gradbenih proizvodov poteka pri hidravlično dinamičnih pogojih. Metoda je izluževanje z enkratnim pretokom skozi stolpec, rezultati pa določajo razliko med različnimi vzorci sproščanja, na primer izpiranje in sproščanje pod vplivom interakcije z matriko pri približevanju lokalnemu ravnovesju med gradbenim proizvodom in izluževalnim medijem (za anorganske snovi).
Ta preskusna metoda proizvede izlužke, ki jih je nato mogoče določiti s fizikalnimi, kemijskimi in ekotoksikološkimi metodami v skladu z obstoječimi standardnimi metodami. Rezultati analize izlužkov so predstavljeni kot funkcija razmerje tekoče/trdno. Preskus ni primeren za snovi, ki so hlapne pri okoljskih pogojih. Ta preskus precejanja v smeri pretoka je preskus z določenimi parametri, kot je določeno v dokumentu TS351WG1XXX-1 in zato morda ne zagotavlja rezultatov, ki posnemajo primere za določeno namensko rabo. Ta merilni postopek proizvajalcu omogoča, da določi informacije o sproščanju, ki morajo biti navedene skupaj z oznako CE.
OPOMBA 1:Hlapne organske snovi zajemajo snovi z nizko molekulsko maso v zmeseh, kot so mineralna olja.
OPOMBA 2:Istočasna optimizacija preskusnih pogojev za anorganske in organske snovi ni vedno mogoča, poleg tega pa se tudi optimalni preskusni pogoji lahko razlikujejo med različnimi skupinami organskih snovi. Preskusne zahteve za organske snovi so običajno strožje od zahtev za anorganske snovi. Preskusni pogoji, primerni za merjenje sproščanja organskih snovi se bodo na splošno uporabljali tudi za anorganske snovi.

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
02-Mar-2016
Publication Date
09-Feb-2017
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
02-Feb-2017
Due Date
09-Apr-2017
Completion Date
10-Feb-2017

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST-TS CEN/TS 16637-3:2017
01-marec-2017
*UDGEHQLSURL]YRGL2FHQMHYDQMHVSURãþDQMDQHYDUQLKVQRYLGHO+RUL]RQWDQL
SUHVNXVSUHFHMDQMDYNRORQLVWRNRPQDY]JRU
Construction products - Assessment of release of dangerous substances - Part 3:
Horizontal up-flow percolation test

Bauprodukte - Bewertung der Freisetzung von gefährlichen Stoffen - Teil 3: Horizontale

Perkolationsprüfung im Aufwärtsstrom

Produits de construction - Evaluation de l’émission de substances dangereuses - Partie

3 : Essai horizontal de percolation à l’écoulement ascendant
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: CEN/TS 16637-3:2016
ICS:
13.020.99 Drugi standardi v zvezi z Other standards related to
varstvom okolja environmental protection
91.100.01 Gradbeni materiali na Construction materials in
splošno general
SIST-TS CEN/TS 16637-3:2017 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST-TS CEN/TS 16637-3:2017
CEN/TS 16637-3
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION
SPÉCIFICATION TECHNIQUE
June 2016
TECHNISCHE SPEZIFIKATION
ICS 19.040; 13.040.20; 91.100.01
English Version
Construction products - Assessment of release of
dangerous substances - Part 3: Horizontal up-flow
percolation test

Produits de construction - Evaluation de l'émission de Bauprodukte - Bewertung der Freisetzung von

substances dangereuses - Partie 3 : Essai horizontal de gefährlichen Stoffen - Teil 3: Horizontale

percolation à l'écoulement ascendant Perkolationsprüfung im Aufwärtsstrom

This Technical Specification (CEN/TS) was approved by CEN on 15 March 2016 for provisional application.

The period of validity of this CEN/TS is limited initially to three years. After two years the members of CEN will be requested to

submit their comments, particularly on the question whether the CEN/TS can be converted into a European Standard.

CEN members are required to announce the existence of this CEN/TS in the same way as for an EN and to make the CEN/TS

available promptly at national level in an appropriate form. It is permissible to keep conflicting national standards in force (in

parallel to the CEN/TS) until the final decision about the possible conversion of the CEN/TS into an EN is reached.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,

Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Brussels

© 2016 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. CEN/TS 16637-3:2016 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 4

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................... 5

1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................................... 7

2 Normative references .................................................................................................................................... 7

3 Terms and definitions ................................................................................................................................... 8

4 Symbols and abbreviations ...................................................................................................................... 10

4.1 Symbols ............................................................................................................................................................ 10

4.2 Abbreviations ................................................................................................................................................ 11

5 Principle .......................................................................................................................................................... 11

6 Reagents .......................................................................................................................................................... 12

7 Equipment ...................................................................................................................................................... 12

8 Sample preparation ..................................................................................................................................... 14

8.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 14

8.2 Preparation of the test sample ................................................................................................................ 14

8.2.1 Principles ........................................................................................................................................................ 14

8.2.2 Rules of application ..................................................................................................................................... 15

8.3 Test portion .................................................................................................................................................... 16

8.4 Drying ............................................................................................................................................................... 16

8.5 Subsampling ................................................................................................................................................... 16

8.6 Sieving of samples into fractions ............................................................................................................ 16

8.7 Size reduction of particles ........................................................................................................................ 17

9 Test procedure .............................................................................................................................................. 17

9.1 Temperature .................................................................................................................................................. 17

9.2 Determination of dry residue .................................................................................................................. 17

9.3 Pre-treatment of the column.................................................................................................................... 17

9.4 Packing of the column ................................................................................................................................ 18

9.5 Start of the test .............................................................................................................................................. 18

9.5.1 Equilibration .................................................................................................................................................. 18

9.5.2 Calculation of the flow rate ....................................................................................................................... 18

9.6 Collection of eluates .................................................................................................................................... 18

9.7 Further preparation of the eluates for analysis ................................................................................ 21

9.8 Blank test ........................................................................................................................................................ 21

10 Evaluation of measurement results ...................................................................................................... 21

10.1 Expression of results in concentrations............................................................................................... 21

10.2 Expression of results in terms of mass related release .................................................................. 22

11 Documentation and test report............................................................................................................... 22

12 Test performance ......................................................................................................................................... 24

13 Indirect methods .......................................................................................................................................... 24

13.1 Definition ........................................................................................................................................................ 24

13.2 Provisions ....................................................................................................................................................... 24

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13.3 Examples of “indirect” methods .............................................................................................................. 24

Annex A (informative) Examples for sample preparation procedure ...................................................... 25

A.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 25

A.2 Example 1 ........................................................................................................................................................ 25

A.3 Example 2 ........................................................................................................................................................ 26

Annex B (informative) Illustration of the column and accompanying equipment .............................. 28

Annex C (normative) Procedures for packing and saturation of the column ........................................ 29

C.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 29

C.2 Column filling and packing ........................................................................................................................ 29

C.3 Procedure for packing ................................................................................................................................ 29

C.4 Water saturation ........................................................................................................................................... 30

Annex D (informative) Assessment of release mechanism(s) ..................................................................... 32

D.1 Overview of release mechanisms ........................................................................................................... 32

D.2 Overview of release mechanisms ........................................................................................................... 33

D.3 Overview of release mechanisms ........................................................................................................... 37

D.4 Examples .......................................................................................................................................................... 38

Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................. 54

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European foreword

This document (CEN/TS 16637-3:2016) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 351

“Construction Products: Assessment of release of dangerous substances”, the secretariat of which is

held by NEN.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by December 2016 and conflicting national standards

shall be withdrawn at the latest by December 2016.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent

rights.

This document has been prepared under a mandate given to CEN by the European Commission and the

European Free Trade Association.
This Technical Specification was elaborated on the basis of CEN/TS 14405.

This Technical Specification specifies an up-flow percolation test to determine the leaching behaviour of

granular construction products under standardized percolation conditions.

CEN/TS 16637-1 deals with the determination and use of test methods for leaching of construction

products taking specific situations into account. CEN/TS 16637-2 specifies a dynamic surface leaching

test for determination of surface dependent release of substances from monolithic or plate-like or

sheet-like construction products or granular construction products with low hydraulic conductivity

under standardized conditions.

Background information on characterization of leaching behaviour of construction products can be

found in Technical Reports provided by CEN/TC 351 (i.e. CEN/TR 16098 and CEN/TR 16496).

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia,

France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta,

Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and the United Kingdom.
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Introduction

This introduction describes the interactions and interrelations between the three Technical

Specifications CEN/TS 16637-1, CEN/TS 16637-2 and CEN/TS 16637-3 developed to assess the release

of dangerous substances from construction products into soil, surface water and ground water in the

framework of the Mandate M/366. The horizontal test methods developed under the Mandate M/366

are intended to be used to show compliance with notified regulations. The tests cover the release of

substances from construction products and in particular, those that are regulated in notified regulations

in one or more EU member states.

CEN/TS 16637-1 specifies how the CEN Technical Product Committees and EOTA experts are to

determine the appropriate leaching test for the determination of the release of Regulated Dangerous

Substances from a construction product into soil, surface water and groundwater.

CEN/TS 16637-2 describes a test to assess surface dependent release from monolithic, plate-like or

sheet-like construction products while CEN/TS 16637-3 describes a horizontal test to assess release

from granular construction products. The test methods specified in CEN/TS 16637-2 and

CEN/TS 16637-3 can be used for both steps in the hierarchy (type testing and factory production

control) and are supposed to be used as the reference test for the intended uses and conditions

specified in CEN/TS 16637-1. In this hierarchy of testing conditionally “indirect tests” can be used, but

are not specified. CEN/TS 16637-2 includes a procedure with a modified tank leaching test GLHC for

testing granular products with a low hydraulic conductivity as determined by failure to achieve a

sufficient water flow in the percolation test.

The release of substances upon contact with water results in a potential risk to the environment during

the intended use of construction products. The intent of these tests is to identify the leaching behaviour

of construction products and thereby allow assessments of the release of Regulated Dangerous

Substances from such products to soil, surface water and groundwater under intended use conditions in

relation to CE marking.

Technical Product Committees are expected to apply the test standards developed in CEN/TC 351 for

their products in order to test the potential release of Regulated Dangerous Substances to soil, surface

water and groundwater. CEN/TS 16637-1 is intended to provide clear procedures to determine which

test method is appropriate for a given product. CEN/TS 16637-1 aims to provide the information,

needed in a CEN Technical Product Committee, on how to deal with the relevant test method(s) to

enable the producer to declare a performance in the CE marking as a result of the test. CEN Technical

Product Committees are referred to the informative Annexes A and B of CEN/TS 16637-1 and to

CEN/TR 16098 for background information on the following aspects:

a) identification of the products addressed in the product standards which have relevance with

respect to the release of dangerous substances into soil, surface water and groundwater (products

only applied in the interior of buildings are not subject to testing for these properties);

b) description of the intended use conditions of the construction product (e.g. above ground exposed

to the precipitation, or shielded from direct infiltration, in surface or ground water) in respect to

the release of dangerous substances into soil, surface water and groundwater;
c) identification of main release mechanisms.
Impact assessment is not part of the work of CEN/TC 351.

In addition to existing validation results, in 2011 CEN/TC 351 began an extensive research program on

robustness validation of the existing tank leaching and percolation tests. This was carried out by a

consortium of European experts on 20 construction products to unify differences from the protocols in

different CEN-Member States and to check the influence of testing conditions on the test result (e.g.

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temperature, flow rate, renewal scheme, particle size in the percolation test etc., see bibliography. The

results of the research program confirmed the robustness of the horizontal tests known from former

works. Conclusions from the program have been implemented into the Technical Specifications for the

test methods. However, the performance of the leaching test regarding repeatability and reproducibility

is dependent on the tested construction product and on the testing conditions. When these Technical

Specifications of the horizontal leaching tests are adopted by CEN, the leaching tests referred to in these

Technical Specifications will not yet be fully validated. No data will be available on repeatability and

reproducibility for the range of construction products. For other, sometimes comparable, matrices

performance data are available from national as well as EU validation studies.
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1 Scope

(1) This Technical Specification specifies an Up-flow Percolation Test (PT) which is applicable to

determine the leaching behaviour of inorganic and non-volatile organic substances from granular

construction products. The test is not suitable for substances that are volatile under ambient conditions.

The construction products are subjected to percolation with water as a function of liquid to solid ratio

under specified percolation conditions. The method is a once-through column leaching test.

(2) This up-flow percolation test is performed under specified test conditions for construction

products and does not necessarily produce results that mimic specific intended use conditions. This test

method produces eluates, which can subsequently be characterized by physical, chemical and

ecotoxicological methods according to existing standard methods. The results of eluate analysis are

presented as a function of the liquid/solid ratio. The test results enable the distinction between

different leaching behaviour.

NOTE 1 Volatile organic substances include the low molecular weight substances in mixtures such as mineral

oil.

NOTE 2 It is not always possible to adjust test conditions simultaneously for inorganic and organic substances

and test conditions may also vary between different groups of organic substances. Test conditions for organic

substances are generally more stringent than those for inorganic substances. The test conditions are generally

described in a way that they fit testing organic substances and are also applicable to inorganic substances

depending on the set-up.

NOTE 3 For ecotoxicity testing, eluates representing the release of both inorganic and organic substances are

needed. In this document, ecotoxicological testing is meant to include also genotoxicological testing.

Construction products that exhibit a saturated hydraulic conductivity of about 10 m/s or higher can

usually be subjected to this test. This procedure is also applicable to materials showing solidification in

the column, if the final hydraulic conductivity is within the specified range. Inert granular material

should not be added to improve permeability in order to enable their testing.

NOTE 4 This procedure is generally not applicable to products that are easily biologically degradable and

products reacting with the leachant, leading, for example, to excessive gas emission or excessive heat release,

impermeable hydraulically bound products or products that swell in contact with water.

2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

EN 933-1, Tests for geometrical properties of aggregates - Part 1: Determination of particle size

distribution - Sieving method

EN 14346, Characterization of waste - Calculation of dry matter by determination of dry residue or water

content
EN 16192, Characterization of waste - Analysis of eluates

CEN/TS 16637-1, Construction products - Assessment of release of dangerous substances - Part 1:

Guidance for the determination of leaching tests and additional testing steps

EN 16687, Construction products - Assessment of release of dangerous substances - Terminology

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EN ISO 3696, Water for analytical laboratory use - Specification and test methods (ISO 3696)

EN ISO 5667-3, Water quality - Sampling - Part 3: Preservation and handling of water samples

(ISO 5667-3)
ISO 7027, Water quality - Determination of turbidity
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
3.1
dry residue
remaining mass fraction of a sample after a drying process at 105 °C
[SOURCE: EN 14346:2006]
3.2
eluate
solution obtained from a leaching test
[SOURCE: EN 16687]
3.3
granular construction product

product composed of solid particles with a particle size smaller than a specified size or grading

Note 1 to entry: Granular products are usually tested by a percolation test.
3.4
laboratory sample
sample or sub-sample(s) sent to or received by the laboratory
[SOURCE: IUPAC 1990, 2.5.5]

Note 1 to entry: When the laboratory sample is further prepared by subdividing, cutting, sawing, coring, mixing,

drying, crushing, and curing or by combinations of these operations, the result is the test sample. When no

preparation of the laboratory sample is required, the laboratory sample is the test sample. A test portion is

removed from the test sample for the performance of the test/analysis or for the preparation of the test specimen.

Note 2 to entry: The laboratory sample is the final sample from the point of view of sample collection but it is

the initial sample from the point of view of the laboratory.
3.5
leachant

liquid that is brought into contact with the test portion in the leaching procedure

Note 1 to entry: Usually, demineralized water is used as leachant for laboratory leaching tests.

[SOURCE: EN 16687]
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3.6
leaching behaviour

release and change with time in release from a solid product in contact with a leachant as a function of

major release controlling factors
Note 1 to entry: Such factors are diffusion, pH, L/S-ratio or time.
[SOURCE: EN 16687]
3.7
liquid to solid-ratio
L/S

ratio between the total volume of liquid (L) percolated through the solid product and of solid product

(S) packed into the column
Note 1 to entry: L/S is expressed in l/kg dry matter.
[SOURCE: EN 16687]
3.8
local equilibrium

situation where chemical equilibrium exists between a substance in solution and the same substance in

the solid phase at any point in the column
[SOURCE: EN 16687]
3.9
percolation test
column test

release test method to determine the release of substances from a granular construction product

packed in a column with a leachant percolating through it
[SOURCE: EN 16687]
3.10
release
emission

liberation of chemical substances (e.g. non-volatile organic compounds, heavy metals, salts)

from a construction product into soil, surface water or groundwater into the leachant of a test facility

Note 1 to entry: Release to soil, surface and groundwater may be expressed in terms of area related release

(tank leaching test, e.g. mg/m ) or in terms of mass related release (percolation test, e.g. mg/kg).

[SOURCE: EN 16687]
3.11
release mechanism

physico-chemical processes that control the release of substances from a solid construction product

into a leachant

Note 1 to entry: In case of granular products the main release mechanisms are washout and solubility control.

Diffusion and additional factors like pH or DOC also have influence on the mechanism of the release.

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Note 2 to entry: The release mechanism for every substance can be determined using the results of the release

test (tank leaching test, percolation test). Determination of the release mechanism is relevant for modelling of the

source term and so for determination of the effects on soil and water over a time period.

[SOURCE: EN 16687]
3.12
sample
portion of material selected from a larger quantity of material
[SOURCE: IUPAC 1990, 2.1.1]

Note 1 to entry: The manner of selection of the sample should be prescribed in a sampling plan (3.13).

Note 2 to entry: The term “sample” is often accompanied by a prefix (e.g. laboratory sample, test sample)

specifying the type of sample and/or the specific step in the sampling process to which the obtained material

relates.
3.13
sampling plan

predetermined procedure for the selection, withdrawal, on-site pre-treatment, preservation and

transportation of samples to be removed from a population
[SOURCE: EN 16687]
3.14
test portion

amount of the test sample (3.15) taken for testing/analysis purposes, usually of known weight or

volume
[SOURCE: IUPAC 1990, 2.5.7]
3.15
test sample

sample, prepared from the laboratory sample (3.4), from which test portions (3.14) are removed for

testing or for analysis
[SOURCE: IUPAC 1990, 2.5.6]
4 Symbols and abbreviations
4.1 Symbols
For the purposes of this Technical Specification, the following symbols apply.
D sieve diameter 31,5 mm, 45 mm or 63 mm
max

E released quantity of a substance per quantity of sample for analysis in eluate fraction i,

expressed in milligrams per kilogram dry matter (mg/kg dry matter)

S sieve diameter for test sample preparation (crushing) to reduce the amount of oversized

product to fit the inner column diameter
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SIST-TS CEN/TS 16637-3:2017
CEN/TS 16637-3:2016 (E)

U measured cumulative release of a substance for cumulative L/S-ratio n including fraction i = 1

to n, expressed in milligrams per kilogram dry matter (mg/kg dry matter)
V volume of the eluate fraction i, expressed in litres (l)

V linear velocity of the leachant through the empty column, expressed in millimetres per day

(mm/d)
c concentration of the substance concerned in the eluate fraction i
d inner diameter of the column, expressed in millimetres (mm)
h packing height of the column, expressed in millimetres (mm)
m dry mass of the test portion, expressed in grams (g)
m mass of the undried test portion, expressed in grams (g)
t execution time of the test, expressed in days (d)
w dry residue of
...

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