Fire hazard testing - Part 8-1: Heat release - General guidance (IEC 60695-8-1:2016)

IEC 60695-8-1 provides guidance on the measurement and interpretation of heat release from electrotechnical products and materials from which they are constructed. Heat release data can be used as part of  fire hazard assessment and in fire safety engineering, as described  in the future IEC 60695-1-10 and the future IEC 60695-1-11. This basic safety publication is intended for use by technical committees  in the preparation of standards in accordance with the principles laid down in IEC Guide 104 and ISO/IEC Guide 51. Major changes with respect to the first edition are as follows:  - editorial changes throughout,  - revised terms and definitions,  - new text concerning bomb calorimetry,  - revised Table 1a,  - new clause 5-Parameters used to report heat release data and introduction of intermediate scale fire test.

Prüfungen zur Beurteilung der Brandgefahr - Teil 8 -1: Wärmefreisetzung - Allgemeiner Leitfaden (IEC 60695-8-1:2016)

Essais relatifs aux risques du feu - Partie 8-1: Dégagement de chaleur - Guide général (IEC 60695-8-1:2016)

La CEI 60695-8-1 fournit les lignes directrices sur la mesure et l'interprétation du dégagement de chaleur des produits électrotechniques et des matériaux à partir desquels ils sont fabriqués. Il est possible d'utiliser les résultats de dégagement de chaleur pour évaluer les risques dus au feu et pour la mise au point technique de la sécurité vis-à-vis du feu, comme décrit dans la future CEI 60695-1-10 et dans la CEI 60695-1-11. Cette publication fondamentale de sécurité est destinée à être utilisée par les comités d'études pour l'établissement de leurs normes conformément aux principes exposés dans le Guide 104 de la CEI et dans le Guide ISO/CEI 51. Les principales modifications par rapport à l'édition antérieure sont indiquées ci-dessous:  - modifications rédactionnelles dans toute la publication;  - termes et définitions révisés;  - nouveau texte sur la bombe calorimétrique;  - Tableau 1a révisé;  - nouvel Article 5- Paramètres utilisés pour indiquer les résultats de dégagement de chaleur et introduction de l'essai au feu à échelle intermédiaire.

Preskušanje požarne ogroženosti - 8-1. del: Oddajanje toplote - Splošno navodilo (IEC 60695-8-1:2016)

Standard IEC 60695-8-1 zagotavlja smernice za merjenje in interpretacijo oddajanja toplote iz elektrotehničnih izdelkov in materialov, iz katerih so ti izdelki izdelani. Podatki o oddani toploti se lahko uporabljajo za oceno nevarnosti požara in v inženiringu požarne varnosti, kot bo opisano v prihodnjem standardu IEC 60695-1-10 in IEC 60695-1-11. Ta osnovna varnostna publikacija je namenjena tehničnim odborom za pripravo standardov v skladu z načeli vodil IEC 104 in ISO/IEC 51. Glavne spremembe glede na prvo različico so naslednje:  – uredniške spremembe v celotnem besedilu, – revidirani pogoji in definicije, – novo besedilo, ki zadeva merjenje z bombnim kalorimetrom, – revidirana preglednica 1a, – nova točka 5 – Parametri, ki se uporabljajo za poročanje podatkov o oddani toploti, in uvedba lestvice požarnih preskusov.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
01-Mar-2017
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
15-Feb-2017
Due Date
22-Apr-2017
Completion Date
02-Mar-2017

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN 60695-8-1:2017
01-april-2017
1DGRPHãþD
SIST EN 60695-8-1:2008
Preskušanje požarne ogroženosti - 8-1. del: Oddajanje toplote - Splošno navodilo
(IEC 60695-8-1:2016)

Fire hazard testing - Part 8-1: Heat release - General guidance (IEC 60695-8-1:2016)

Prüfungen zur Beurteilung der Brandgefahr - Teil 8 -1: Wärmefreisetzung - Allgemeiner

Leitfaden (IEC 60695-8-1:2016)

Essais relatifs aux risques du feu - Partie 8-1: Dégagement de chaleur - Guide général

(IEC 60695-8-1:2016)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN 60695-8-1:2017
ICS:
13.220.40 Sposobnost vžiga in Ignitability and burning
obnašanje materialov in behaviour of materials and
proizvodov pri gorenju products
29.020 Elektrotehnika na splošno Electrical engineering in
general
SIST EN 60695-8-1:2017 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN 60695-8-1:2017
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SIST EN 60695-8-1:2017
EUROPEAN STANDARD EN 60695-8-1
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
February 2017
ICS 13.220.40; 29.020 Supersedes EN 60695-8-1:2008
English Version
Fire hazard testing - Part 8-1: Heat release - General guidance
(IEC 60695-8-1:2016)

Essais relatifs aux risques du feu - Partie 8-1: Dégagement Prüfungen zur Beurteilung der Brandgefahr - Teil 8-1:

de chaleur - Guide général Wärmefreisetzung - Allgemeiner Leitfaden
(IEC 60695-8-1:2016) (IEC 60695-8-1:2016)

This European Standard was approved by CENELEC on 2016-12-20. CENELEC members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC

Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration.

Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC

Management Centre or to any CENELEC member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation

under the responsibility of a CENELEC member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre has the

same status as the official versions.

CENELEC members are the national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, the Czech Republic,

Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia,

Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden,

Switzerland, Turkey and the United Kingdom.
European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization
Comité Européen de Normalisation Electrotechnique
Europäisches Komitee für Elektrotechnische Normung
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Brussels

© 2017 CENELEC All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CENELEC Members.

Ref. No. EN 60695-8-1:2017 E
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SIST EN 60695-8-1:2017
EN 60695-8-1:2017
European foreword

The text of document 89/1342/FDIS, future edition 3 of IEC 60695-8-1, prepared by IEC/TC 89 "Fire

hazard testing" was submitted to the IEC-CENELEC parallel vote and approved by CENELEC as EN

60695-8-1:2017.
The following dates are fixed:
(dop) 2017-09-20
• latest date by which the document has to be
implemented at national level by
publication of an identical national
standard or by endorsement
• latest date by which the national (dow) 2019-12-20
standards conflicting with the
document have to be withdrawn
This document supersedes EN 60695-8-1:2008.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CENELEC [and/or CEN] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such

patent rights.
Endorsement notice

The text of the International Standard IEC 60695-8-1:2016 was approved by CENELEC as a

European Standard without any modification.

In the official version, for Bibliography, the following notes have to be added for the standards indicated:

IEC 60695-1-10 NOTE Harmonized as EN 60695-1-10.
IEC 60695-1-11 NOTE Harmonized as EN 60695-1-11.
IEC 60695-1-12 NOTE Harmonized as EN 60695-1-12.
ISO 1716 NOTE Harmonized as EN ISO 1716.
IEC 60836:2015 NOTE Harmonized as EN 60836:2015.
IEC 61099:2010 NOTE Harmonized as EN 61099:2010.
IEC 60867:1993 NOTE Harmonized as EN 60867:1994.
IEC 60296:2012 NOTE Harmonized as EN 60296:2012.
ISO 13927 NOTE Harmonized as EN ISO 13927.
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SIST EN 60695-8-1:2017
EN 60695-8-1:2017
Annex ZA
(normative)
Normative references to international publications
with their corresponding European publications

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

NOTE 1 When an International Publication has been modified by common modifications, indicated by (mod), the relevant

EN/HD applies.

NOTE 2 Up-to-date information on the latest versions of the European Standards listed in this annex is available here:

www.cenelec.eu.
Publication Year Title EN/HD Year
IEC 60695-4 2012 Fire hazard testing -- Part 4: Terminology EN 60695-4 2012
concerning fire tests for electrotechnical
products
IEC 60695-8-2 - Fire hazard testing -- Part 8-2: Heat FprEN 60695-8-2 -
release - Summary and relevance of test
methods
IEC Guide 104 - The preparation of safety publications and - -
the use of basic safety publications and
group safety publications
ISO 13943 2008 Fire safety - Vocabulary EN ISO 13943 2010
ISO/IEC Guide 51 - Safety aspects - Guidelines for their - -
inclusion in standards
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SIST EN 60695-8-1:2017
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SIST EN 60695-8-1:2017
IEC 60695-8-1
Edition 3.0 2016-11
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
BASIC SAFETY PUBLICATION
PUBLICATION FONDAMENTALE DE SÉCURITÉ
Fire hazard testing –
Part 8-1: Heat release – General guidance
Essais relatifs aux risques du feu –
Partie 8-1: Dégagement de chaleur – Guide général
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
INTERNATIONALE
ICS 13.220.40; 29.020 ISBN 978-2-8322-3749-6

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

Attention! Veuillez vous assurer que vous avez obtenu cette publication via un distributeur agréé.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
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SIST EN 60695-8-1:2017
– 2 – IEC 60695-8-1:2016  IEC 2016
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 4

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 6

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 7

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 7

3 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................... 7

4 Principles of determining heat release ........................................................................... 11

4.1 Complete combustion measured by the oxygen bomb calorimeter ......................... 11

4.2 Incomplete combustion ......................................................................................... 12

4.2.1 Measurement techniques ............................................................................... 12

4.2.2 Heat release by oxygen consumption ............................................................. 12

4.2.3 Heat release by carbon dioxide generation .................................................... 13

4.2.4 Heat release by increase of gas temperature ................................................. 13

5 Parameters used to report heat release data ................................................................. 15

5.1 Heat of combustion (gross and net) ...................................................................... 15

5.2 Heat release rate (HRR) ....................................................................................... 15

5.3 Heat release (HR) ................................................................................................. 16

5.4 Heat release rate per unit area (HRR*) ................................................................. 16

5.5 Total heat release ................................................................................................. 17

5.6 Peak heat release rate .......................................................................................... 17

5.7 Time to peak heat release rate .............................................................................. 17

5.8 Effective heat of combustion ................................................................................. 17

5.8.1 Measurement and calculation ........................................................................ 17

5.8.2 Examples....................................................................................................... 18

5.9 FIGRA index ......................................................................................................... 19

5.10 ARHE and MARHE ............................................................................................... 20

6 Considerations for the selection of test methods ............................................................ 22

6.1 Ignition sources .................................................................................................... 22

6.2 Type of test specimen ........................................................................................... 22

6.3 Choice of conditions ............................................................................................. 22

6.4 Test apparatus ...................................................................................................... 22

6.4.1 General ......................................................................................................... 22

6.4.2 Small-scale fire test apparatus ....................................................................... 22

6.4.3 Intermediate and large-scale fire test apparatus ............................................ 23

6.4.4 Comparison between small-scale and intermediate/large-scale fire test

methods ........................................................................................................ 23

6.5 Choice of fire tests ................................................................................................ 23

7 Relevance of heat release data ..................................................................................... 23

7.1 Contribution to fire hazard ..................................................................................... 23

7.2 Secondary ignition and flame spread .................................................................... 23

7.3 Determination of self-propagating fire thresholds .................................................. 24

7.4 Probability of reaching flash-over .......................................................................... 24

7.5 Smoke and toxic gas production ........................................................................... 24

7.6 The role of heat release testing in research and development ............................... 24

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 25

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SIST EN 60695-8-1:2017
IEC 60695-8-1:2016  IEC 2016 – 3 –

Figure 1 – Heat release rate (HRR) curve ............................................................................. 16

Figure 2 – Heat release (HR) curve ....................................................................................... 16

Figure 3 – Heat release rate per unit area (HRR*) curve ....................................................... 17

Figure 4 – Mass loss curve ................................................................................................... 18

Figure 5 – FIGRA curve derived from Figure 1 ...................................................................... 19

Figure 6 – Illustrative HRR curve .......................................................................................... 20

Figure 7 – FIGRA curve derived from Figure 6 ...................................................................... 20

Figure 8 – ARHE curve derived from Figure 1 ....................................................................... 21

Figure 9 – ARHE curve derived from Figure 6 ....................................................................... 21

Table 1 – Relationship between heat of combustion expressed in units of kJ·g of

fuel burned and kJ·g of oxygen consumed for a variety of fuels ........................................ 14

Table 2 – Relationship between heat of combustion expressed in units of kJ·g of

fuel burned and kJ·g of oxygen consumed for a variety of insulating liquids ...................... 15

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SIST EN 60695-8-1:2017
– 4 – IEC 60695-8-1:2016  IEC 2016
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
FIRE HAZARD TESTING –
Part 8-1: Heat release – General guidance
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote

international co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To

this end and in addition to other activities, IEC publishes International Standards, Technical Specifications,

Technical Reports, Publicly Available Specifications (PAS) and Guides (hereafter referred to as “IEC

Publication(s)”). Their preparation is entrusted to technical committees; any IEC National Committee interested

in the subject dealt with may participate in this preparatory work. International, governmental and non-

governmental organizations liaising with the IEC also participate in this preparation. IEC collaborates closely

with the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by

agreement between the two organizations.

2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international

consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation from all

interested IEC National Committees.

3) IEC Publications have the form of recommendations for international use and are accepted by IEC National

Committees in that sense. While all reasonable efforts are made to ensure that the technical content of IEC

Publications is accurate, IEC cannot be held responsible for the way in which they are used or for any

misinterpretation by any end user.

4) In order to promote international uniformity, IEC National Committees undertake to apply IEC Publications

transparently to the maximum extent possible in their national and regional publications. Any divergence

between any IEC Publication and the corresponding national or regional publication shall be clearly indicated in

the latter.

5) IEC itself does not provide any attestation of conformity. Independent certification bodies provide conformity

assessment services and, in some areas, access to IEC marks of conformity. IEC is not responsible for any

services carried out by independent certification bodies.

6) All users should ensure that they have the latest edition of this publication.

7) No liability shall attach to IEC or its directors, employees, servants or agents including individual experts and

members of its technical committees and IEC National Committees for any personal injury, property damage or

other damage of any nature whatsoever, whether direct or indirect, or for costs (including legal fees) and

expenses arising out of the publication, use of, or reliance upon, this IEC Publication or any other IEC

Publications.

8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of

patent rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

International Standard IEC 60695-8-1 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 89: Fire

hazard testing.

This third edition cancels and replaces the second edition published in 2008. This edition

constitutes a technical revision.

This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous

edition:
a) a modified Introduction;
b) reference to IEC 60695-1-12;
c) updated normative references;
d) revised terms and definitions;

e) new text in 4.2.2, 4.2.3, 6.1 and 6.4, including several mandatory statements;

f) mandatory statements in a new Subclause 6.5.
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SIST EN 60695-8-1:2017
IEC 60695-8-1:2016  IEC 2016 – 5 –
The text of this standard is based on the following documents:
FDIS Report on voting
89/1342/FDIS 89/1348/RVD

Full information on the voting for the approval of this standard can be found in the report on

voting indicated in the above table.

This publication has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

It has the status of a basic safety publication in accordance with IEC Guide 104 and

ISO/IEC Guide 51.
This standard is to be used in conjunction with IEC 60695-8-2.

A list of all the parts in the IEC 60695 series, under the general title Fire hazard testing, can

be found on the IEC website.
IEC 60695-8 consists of the following parts:
Part 8-1: Heat release – General guidance
Part 8-2: Heat release – Summary of test methods

The committee has decided that the contents of this publication will remain unchanged until

the stability date indicated on the IEC website under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data

related to the specific publication. At this date, the publication will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.
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SIST EN 60695-8-1:2017
– 6 – IEC 60695-8-1:2016  IEC 2016
INTRODUCTION

In the design of any electrotechnical product, the risk of fire and the potential hazards

associated with fire need to be considered. In this respect the objective of component, circuit

and equipment design as well as the choice of materials is to reduce the risk of fire to a

tolerable level even in the event of reasonably foreseeable (mis)use, malfunction or failure.

IEC 60695-1-10 [1] provides guidance on how this is to be accomplished.

Fires involving electrotechnical products can be initiated from external non-electrical sources.

Considerations of this nature are dealt with in an overall risk assessment.

The aim of the IEC 60695 series of standards is to save lives and property by reducing the

number of fires or reducing the consequences of the fire. This can be accomplished by:

• trying to prevent ignition caused by an electrically energised component part and, in the

event of ignition, to confine any resulting fire within the bounds of the enclosure of the

electrotechnical product;

• trying to minimise flame spread beyond the product’s enclosure and to minimise the

harmful effects of fire effluents including heat, smoke, and toxic or corrosive combustion

products.

Fires are responsible for creating hazards to life and property as a result of the generation of

heat (thermal hazard), toxic and/or corrosive compounds and obscuration of vision due to

smoke. Fire risk increases as the heat released increases, possibly leading to a flash-over fire.

One of the most important measurements in fire testing is the measurement of heat release,

and it is used as an important factor in the determination of fire hazard; it is also used as one

of the parameters in fire safety engineering calculations.

The measurement and use of heat release data, together with other fire test data, can be

used to reduce the likelihood of (or the effects of) fire, even in the event of reasonably

foreseeable (mis)use, malfunction or failure of electrotechnical products.

When a material is heated by some external source, fire effluent can be generated and can

form a mixture with air, which can ignite and initiate a fire. The heat released in the process is

carried away by the fire effluent-air mixture, radiatively lost or transferred back to the solid

material, to generate further pyrolysis products, thus continuing the process.

Heat may also be transferred to other nearby products, which may burn, and then release

additional heat and fire effluent.

The rate at which thermal energy is released in a fire is defined as the heat release rate. Heat

release rate is important because of its influence on flame spread and on the initiation of

secondary fires. Other characteristics are also important, such as ignitability, flame spread

and the side-effects of the fire (see the IEC 60695 series of standards).
______________
Numbers in square brackets refer to the Bibliography.
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SIST EN 60695-8-1:2017
IEC 60695-8-1:2016  IEC 2016 – 7 –
FIRE HAZARD TESTING –
Part 8-1: Heat release – General guidance
1 Scope

This part of IEC 60695-8 provides guidance on the measurement and interpretation of heat

release from electrotechnical products and materials from which they are constructed.

Heat release data can be used as part of fire hazard assessment and in fire safety

engineering, as described in IEC 60695-1-11 [2] and IEC 60695-1-12 [3].

This basic safety publication is intended for use by technical committees in the preparation of

standards in accordance with the principles laid down in IEC Guide 104 and
ISO/IEC Guide 51.

One of the responsibilities of a technical committee is, wherever applicable, to make use of

basic safety publications in the preparation of its publications. The requirements, test

methods or test conditions of this basic safety publication will not apply unless specifically

referred to or included in the relevant publications.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their

content constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition

cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including

any amendments) applies.

IEC 60695-4:2012, Fire hazard testing – Part 4: Terminology concerning fire tests for

electrotechnical products

IEC 60695-8-2, Fire hazard testing – Part 8-2: Heat release – Summary and relevance of test

methods

IEC Guide 104, The preparation of safety publications and the use of basic safety publications

and group safety publications
ISO/IEC Guide 51, Safety aspects – Guidelines for their inclusion in standards
ISO 13943:2008, Fire safety – Vocabulary
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 13943:2008 and

IEC 60695-4:2012 (some of which are reproduced below), as well as the following, apply.

3.1
combustion
exothermic reaction of a substance with an oxidizing agent

Note 1 to entry: Combustion generally emits fire effluent accompanied by flames and/or glowing.

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SIST EN 60695-8-1:2017
– 8 – IEC 60695-8-1:2016  IEC 2016
[SOURCE: ISO 13943: 2008, 4.46]
3.2
combustion product
product of combustion
solid, liquid and gaseous material resulting from combustion

Note 1 to entry: Combustion products can include fire effluent, ash, char, clinker and/or soot.

[SOURCE: ISO 13943:2008, 4.48]
3.3
complete combustion
combustion in which all the combustion products are fully oxidized

Note 1 to entry: This means that, when the oxidizing agent is oxygen, all carbon is converted to carbon dioxide

and all hydrogen is converted to water.

Note 2 to entry: If elements other than carbon, hydrogen and oxygen are present in the combustible material,

those elements are converted to the most stable products in their standard states at 298 K.

[SOURCE: ISO 13943:2008, 4.50]
3.4
effective heat of combustion

heat released from a burning test specimen in a given time interval divided by the mass lost

from the test specimen in the same time period

Note 1 to entry: The value is the same as the net heat of combustion if the entire test specimen is converted to

volatile combustion products and if all the combustion products are fully oxidized.

Note 2 to entry: The typical units are kilojoules per gram (kJ·g ).
[SOURCE: ISO 13943:2008, 4.74]
3.5
fire

〈general〉 process of combustion characterized by the emission of heat and fire effluent and

usually accompanied by smoke, flame, glowing or a combination thereof

Note 1 to entry: In the English language the term “fire” is used to designate three concepts, two of which, fire (3.6)

and fire (3.7), relate to specific types of self-supporting combustion with different meanings and two of them are

designated using two different terms in both French and German.
[SOURCE: ISO 13943:2008, 4.96]
3.6
fire

〈controlled〉 self-supporting combustion that has been deliberately arranged to provide useful

effects and is limited in its extent in time and space
[SOURCE: ISO 13943:2008, 4.97]
3.7
fire

〈uncontrolled〉 self-supporting combustion that has not been deliberately arranged to provide

useful effects and is not limited in its extent in time and space
[SOURCE: ISO 13943:2008, 4.98]
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SIST EN 60695-8-1:2017
IEC 60695-8-1:2016  IEC 2016 – 9 –
3.8
fire effluent

totality of gases and aerosols, including suspended particles, created by combustion or

pyrolysis in a fire
[SOURCE: ISO 13943:2008, 4.105]
3.9
fire hazard

physical object or condition with a potential for an undesirable consequence from fire

[SOURCE: ISO 13943:2008, 4.112]
3.10
fire safety engineering

application of engineering methods based on scientific principles to the development or

assessment of designs in the built environment through the analysis of specific fire scenarios

or through the quantification of risk for a group of fire scenarios
[SOURCE: ISO 13943:2008, 4.112]
3.11
fire test

test that measures behaviour of a fire or exposes an item to the effects of a fire

Note 1 to entry: The results of a fire test can be used to quantify fire severity or determine the fire resistance or

reaction to fire of the test specimen.
[SOURCE: ISO 13943:2008, 4.132]
3.12
flashover

〈stage of fire〉 transition to a state of total surface involvement in a fire of combustible materials

within an enclosure
[SOURCE: ISO 13943: 2008, 4.156]
3.13
gross heat of combustion

heat of combustion of a substance when the combustion is complete and any produced water

is entirely condensed under specified conditions
cf. complete combustion (3.3)
Note 1 to entry: The typical units are kilojoules per gram (kJ·g ).
[SOURCE: ISO 13943: 2008, 4.170]
3.14
heat of combustion
DEPRECATED: calorific potential
DEPRECATED: calorific value
thermal energy produced by combustion of unit mass of a given substance

cf. effective heat of combustion (3.4), gross heat of combustion (3.13) and net heat of

combustion (3.19)
Note 1 to entry: The typical units are kilojoules per gram (kJ·g ).
[SOURCE: ISO 13943: 2008, 4.174]
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SIST EN 60695-8-1:2017
– 10 – IEC 60695-8-1:2016  IEC 2016
3.15
heat release
thermal energy produced by combustion
Note 1 to entry: The typical units are joules (J).
[SOURCE: ISO 13943: 2008, 4.176]
3.16
heat release rate
DEPRECATED: burning rate
DEPRECATED: rate of burning
rate of thermal energy production generated by combustion
Note 1 to entry: The typical units are watts (W).
[SOURCE: ISO 13943: 2008, 4.177]
3.17
intermediate-scale fire test
fire test performed on a test specimen of medium dimensions

Note 1 to entry: A fire test performed on a test specimen for which the maximum dimension is between 1 m and

3 m is usually called an intermediate-scale fire test.
[SOURCE: ISO 13943: 2008, 4.200]
3.18
large-scale fire test

fire test, that cannot be carried out in a typical laboratory chamber, performed on a test

specimen of large dimensions

Note 1 to entry: A fire test performed on a test specimen for which the maximum dimension is greater than 3 m is

usually calle
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