Information container for linked document delivery - Exchange specification - Part 2: Link types (ISO 21597-2:2020)

This document provides the opportunity to add information about the contents of a container by further
specializing the generic types of links specified in ISO 21597-1. The defined link types have been chosen
to enhance the use of the container by allowing the addition of semantic relationships that are human
interpretable to provide greater clarity about those links.

Informationscontainer zur Datenübergabe - Austausch-Spezifikation - Teil 2: Dynamische Semantik (ISO 21597-2:2020)

Dieses Dokument bietet die Möglichkeit, Informationen über die Inhalte eines Containers durch weitere Spezialisierung der in ISO 21597 1 festgelegten generischen Typen von Links hinzuzufügen. Die festgelegten Linktypen wurden ausgewählt, um die Verwendung des Containers zu verbessern, indem die Ergänzung semantischer von Menschen auswertbarer Beziehungen ermöglicht wird, um eine größere Klarheit über diese Links zu erhalten.

Organisation de l'information concernant les travaux de construction - Conteneur d'information pour extraction de données (ICDD) - Partie 2: Titre manque (ISO 21597-2:2020)

Informacijski vsebnik za izročitev povezanih dokumentov - Specifikacija za izmenjavo - 2. del: Vrste povezav (ISO 21597-2:2020)

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
27-Nov-2018
Publication Date
17-Jan-2021
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
16-Dec-2020
Due Date
20-Feb-2021
Completion Date
18-Jan-2021

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 21597-2:2021
01-februar-2021
Informacijski vsebnik za izročitev povezanih dokumentov - Specifikacija za
izmenjavo - 2. del: Vrste povezav (ISO 21597-2:2020)

Information container for linked document delivery - Exchange specification - Part 2: Link

types (ISO 21597-2:2020)

Informationscontainer zur Datenübergabe - Austausch-Spezifikation - Teil 2: Dynamische

Semantik (ISO 21597-2:2020)
Organisation de l'information concernant les travaux de construction - Conteneur

d'information pour extraction de données (ICDD) - Partie 2: Titre manque (ISO 21597-

2:2020)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 21597-2:2020
ICS:
35.240.67 Uporabniške rešitve IT v IT applications in building
gradbeništvu and construction industry
91.010.01 Gradbeništvo na splošno Construction industry in
general
SIST EN ISO 21597-2:2021 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN ISO 21597-2:2021
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SIST EN ISO 21597-2:2021
EN ISO 21597-2
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
November 2020
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 35.240.67; 91.010.01
English Version
Information container for linked document delivery -
Exchange specification - Part 2: Link types (ISO 21597-
2:2020)

Conteneur d'informations pour la livraison de Informationscontainer zur Datenübergabe - Austausch-

documents liés - Spécification d'échange - Partie 2: Spezifikation - Teil 2: Dynamische Semantik (ISO

Types de liens (ISO 21597-2:2020) 21597-2:2020)
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 14 November 2020.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2020 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 21597-2:2020 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN ISO 21597-2:2021
EN ISO 21597-2:2020 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

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SIST EN ISO 21597-2:2021
EN ISO 21597-2:2020 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN ISO 21597-2:2020) has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 59

"Buildings and civil engineering works" in collaboration with Technical Committee CEN/TC 442

“Building Information Modelling (BIM)” the secretariat of which is held by SN.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by May 2021, and conflicting national standards shall be

withdrawn at the latest by May 2021.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland,

Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of

North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the

United Kingdom.
Endorsement notice

The text of ISO 21597-2:2020 has been approved by CEN as EN ISO 21597-2:2020 without any

modification.
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SIST EN ISO 21597-2:2021
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SIST EN ISO 21597-2:2021
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 21597-2
First edition
2020-11
Information container for linked
document delivery — Exchange
specification —
Part 2:
Link types
Conteneur d'informations pour la livraison de documents liés —
Spécification d'échange —
Partie 2: Types de liens
Reference number
ISO 21597-2:2020(E)
ISO 2020
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SIST EN ISO 21597-2:2021
ISO 21597-2:2020(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2020

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 21597-2:2021
ISO 21597-2:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3  Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.1 Terms and definitions ....................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.2 Abbreviated terms ............................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4  Specifications ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.1 Use of RDF, RDFS and OWL constructs............................................................................................................................... 2

4.2 Symbols and notation........................................................................................................................................................................ 2

4.3 Container structure ............................................................................................................................................................................. 2

4.4 Link types .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.4.1 Overview ................................................................................................................................................................................. 3

4.4.2 Categories of link types .............................................................................................................................................. 3

4.4.3 Summary of the specified link types ............................................................................................................... 5

5 Link type description and usage .......................................................................................................................................................... 5

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

5.2 Identity........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

5.3 Conflict ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

5.4 Alternative .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 7

5.5 Specialization ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

5.6 Aggregation ................................................................................................................................................................................................ 8

5.7 Membership............................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

5.8 Replacement .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 9

5.9 Elaboration ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 9

5.10 Control .........................................................................................................................................................................................................10

6 Conformance requirements ...................................................................................................................................................................10

6.1 Overview ...................................................................................................................................................................................................10

6.2 General conformance requirements ..................................................................................................................................10

Annex A (informative) Use cases............................................................................................................................................................................12

Annex B (informative) How to validate with SHACL ..........................................................................................................................17

Annex C (normative) Extended Linkset ontology .................................................................................................................................21

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved iii
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SIST EN ISO 21597-2:2021
ISO 21597-2:2020(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 59, Buildings and civil engineering works,

Subcommittee SC 13, Organization and digitization of information about buildings and civil engineering

works, including building information modelling (BIM), in collaboration with the European Committee

for Standardization (CEN) Technical Committee CEN/TC 442, Building Information Modelling (BIM), in

accordance with the Agreement on technical cooperation between ISO and CEN (Vienna Agreement).

A list of all parts in the ISO 21597 series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 21597-2:2021
ISO 21597-2:2020(E)
Introduction

The ISO 21597 series has been developed in response to a need within the construction industry to be

able to handle multiple interrelated documents as a single information delivery.

In ISO 21597-1, a specification is given for a generic container format that stores documents using

various formats and structures, along with a means of linking otherwise disconnected data within

those documents (including individual parts). These documents can have any syntax and semantics.

This document extends that specification by the addition of common link types (that define

relationships) as specializations of the generic types provided in ISO 21597-1. This provides the ability

to add information about the contents of a container, rather than extending the contents.

The link types provide the ability to express comparison, ordering and dependency relationships

between the documents and entities within documents that form part of the payload of a container. This

contributes greatly to the value of the container by providing commentary, guidance and explanation

of the relationships between link elements which could otherwise be unclear or ambiguous, without

making any assumptions about, nor being dependent on the specific type of the link elements.

The specification of link types in this document deliberately uses only annotation to add further

details or meta data to the defined link types. This allows the container to be machine readable and

human interpretable while noting that machine reasoning is not within the scope of this document. The

concern is to avoid the risk of reading too much into the intention behind the expressed relationships. If

machine reasoning is needed, further specifications would be required that are not in the current scope

of this document.

The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) draws attention to the fact that it is claimed

that compliance with this document may involve the use of a patent.

ISO takes no position concerning the evidence, validity and scope of this patent right.

The holder of this patent right has assured ISO that he/she is willing to negotiate licences under

reasonable and non-discriminatory terms and conditions with applicants throughout the world. In

this respect, the statement of the holder of this patent right is registered with ISO. Information may be

obtained from the patent database available at www .iso .org/ patents.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights other than those in the patent database. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying

any or all such patent rights.
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved v
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SIST EN ISO 21597-2:2021
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SIST EN ISO 21597-2:2021
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 21597-2:2020(E)
Information container for linked document delivery —
Exchange specification —
Part 2:
Link types
1 Scope

This document provides the opportunity to add information about the contents of a container by further

specializing the generic types of links specified in ISO 21597-1. The defined link types have been chosen

to enhance the use of the container by allowing the addition of semantic relationships that are human

interpretable to provide greater clarity about those links.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 21597-1:2020, Information container for linked document delivery — Exchange specification — Part 1:

Container

W3C-OWL2-SPEC. Motik B., Patel-Schneider P.F., Parsia B., eds. OWL 2 Web Ontology Language:

Structural Specification and Functional-Style Syntax (Second Edition). W3C Recommendation, 11

December 2012 [viewed July 22nd 2019]. Latest version available at http:// www .w3 .org/ TR/ owl2

-syntax/

W3C-RDF11-CONCEPTS. Cyganiak R., Wood D., Lanthaler M. RDF 1.1 Concepts and Abstract Syntax.

W3C Recommendation, 25 February 2014 [viewed July 22nd 2019]. Latest version available at http://

www .w3 .org/ TR/ rdf11 -concepts/

W3C-RDF11-SCHEMA. Brickley D., Guha R.V. RDF Schema 1.1. W3C Recommendation, 25 February 2014

[viewed July 22nd 2019]. Latest version available at http:// www .w3 .org/ TR/ rdf -schema/

W3C-RDF11-XML. Gandon F., Schreiber G. RDF 1.1 XML Syntax. W3C Recommendation, 25 February

2014 [viewed July 22nd 2019]. Latest version available at http:// www .w3 .org/ TR/ rdf -syntax -grammar/

3  Terms and definitions
3.1  Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 21597-1 apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.2 Abbreviated terms

For the purposes of this document, the abbreviated terms given in ISO 21597-1 apply.

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 1
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SIST EN ISO 21597-2:2021
ISO 21597-2:2020(E)
4  Specifications
4.1 Use of RDF, RDFS and OWL constructs

All ontologies held in containers that conform to the ISO 21597 series shall be based on the languages

RDF [W3C-RDF11-CONCEPTS], RDFS [W3C-RDF11-SCHEMA] and OWL [W3C-OWL2-SPEC] (referred to

collectively in the ISO 21597 series as RDF(S)/OWL) and shall be serialized in RDF/XML [W3C-RDF11-

XML] or any other equivalent RDF serialization recommended by W3C.

The terms inverse, functional, transitive and symmetric as used in this document are defined in

paragraph 9.2 of the OWL 2 specification [W3C-OWL2-SPEC].

ISO 21597-1:2020, Table 1 lists the RDF/OWL constructs that are used in the ISO 21597 series and the

interpretation to be used when validating the contents of a container.
4.2 Symbols and notation

Throughout this document, the structure of the ontologies is illustrated using a UML notation as

described in ISO 21597-1:2020, 4.2.

In addition to the namespaces listed in ISO 21597-1:2020, Table 2, Table 1 lists the namespaces and

corresponding prefixes used in this document.
Table 1 — Namespaces and prefixes used in ontologies defined in this document
Ontology Prefix Namespace

Extended Linkset els https:// standards .iso .org/ iso/ 21597/ -2/ ed -1/ en/ ExtendedLinkset

ontology
4.3 Container structure

The structure of the container shall be the same as that of ISO 21597-1. Figure 1 shows the minimum

content of the ‘Ontology resources’ folder of an ICDD Part 2 container.
2 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 21597-2:2021
ISO 21597-2:2020(E)
Figure 1 — Minimum content of the “Ontology resources” folder
4.4 Link types
4.4.1 Overview

This document specifies nine link types that shall be used where there is a need to express relationships

between documents and/or elements within documents that form the payload of the container. These

are defined in the Extended Linkset ontology in Annex C and shall be referenced in any datasets that

conform to this document. The link types shall be used to propose semantic relationships between

documents and individual elements within the documents to suggest identity, taxonomy, meronomy

and other groupings, as well as precedence, conflicts and alternatives.

The proposed relationships represent the opinion of the authoring/providing party, and generally do

not have the same status as the linked elements referenced. In all cases, the intention is that recipients

use the link types to clarify their understanding and help them manage and use the information.

The provisional nature of the links shall be taken into account in all cases. For example, a conflict

relationship may be reported that on examination is not deemed critical by the receiver.

Furthermore, the relationships defined using these link types shall not duplicate or contradict each

other, nor shall any relationships found within the documents. The link types shall not be used to imply

any more specific relationships that depend on the semantics of the linked elements. For example, a

dependency relationship between two work-package descriptions shall not be assumed to imply

sequencing.
4.4.2 Categories of link types

The link types fall into two broad categories: those that are specialized from ls: DirectedBinaryLink

(Figure 2); and those specialized from ls: Directed1toNLink (Figure 3). As functional sub-class concepts,

these are all objectified concepts that can carry annotated properties and metadata in the form of

annotations. This ensures that they are machine readable and can be reported to the end user, but all

interpretation is left entirely to the human receiver.
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 3
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SIST EN ISO 21597-2:2021
ISO 21597-2:2020(E)
Figure 2 — Link types that use binary relationships

Each of the one-to-many link types depicted in Figure 3 has an explicitly defined inverse relationship

shown in Figure 4. This gives the user a clear choice to express the semantics using either the primary

or inverse relationship.
Figure 3 — Link types that use one-to-many relationships
Figure 4 — Inverses of the link types that use one-to-many relationships
4 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 21597-2:2021
ISO 21597-2:2020(E)
4.4.3  Summary of the specified link types
Table 2 provides a list of the link types specified in this document.
Table 2 — Link types specified in this document
Grouping Name Description

Binary links that This link type relates two link elements that are identical but

Identity
express comparative may be represented in different ways.
relationships
This link type relates two link elements that conflict with one
Conflict
another in some way.
This link type relates two link elements where one is an
Alternative
alternative to the other.

One-to-many links that This link type relates one link element to one or more other link

Specialization
express ordering elements that are specializations or sub-classes.
relationships
This link type relates one link element to one or more other link
Aggregation elements to form an assembly of parts where those parts exist
independently.
This link type relates one link element to one or more other link
Membership
elements to form a grouping based on some consistent criteria.

One-to-many links that This link type relates one link element to one or more other link

express dependency Replacement elements where they are a development of or supersede it in

relationships some way.
This link type relates one link element to one or more other link
Elaboration elements where they provide further explanation, reasoning,
derivation, information or usage.
This link type relates one link element to one or more other link
Control
elements over which it exercises some type of control.
5 Link type description and usage
5.1 General

This clause describes the link types specified in this document including examples of their intended

usage. Further examples are provided in Annex A, building on use case 1B in ISO 21597-1.

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 5
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ISO 21597-2:2020(E)
5.2 Identity
Name: els:I sIdenticalTo

This link type indicates that two link elements are actually the same thing even though having different

representations. It can be used to identify synonyms, multi representations, etc. and is intended to

help consolidate and cross-reference the information. It is generally intended to be interpreted as both

symmetric and transitive.
EXAMPLE 1: document to document
“SitePlan.gml” The link type declares that two documents represent the
same thing, only in different ways.
IsIdenticalTo
“SitePlan.pdf”
EXAMPLE 2: document to referenced part of a document
“FirstFloor.pdf” The link type declares that a document is the same as a
specific storey in a building model.
IsIdenticalTo
“Architectural.ifc:*.Name=’1st floor’ ”

EXAMPLE 3: referenced part of a document to a referenced part of another document

“Architectural.ifc:*.Name=’1st floor’ ” The link type declares that a building storey is the same in

two separate domain models, architectural and structural.
IsIdenticalTo
“Structural.ifc:*.Name=’+3.600’ ”
5.3  Conflict
Name: els: ConflictsWith

This link type indicates overlap in space and/or time, or difference in properties or difference in

relationships. It can be used to allow recipients to note the unresolved situation. It is generally intended

to be interpreted as symmetric but not transitive.
EXAMPLE 1: document to document

“ConstructionAccessPlan.gml” The link type declares an unspecified conflict between a

construction site layout plan and previous commitments to
ConflictsWith
neighbours that should be noted by the receiver.
“AdjacentOwnersLiaison.pdf”
EXAMPLE 2: document to referenced part of a document

“SteelFrameMethodStatement.pdf” The link type declares an unspecified conflict between a

method statement and members in a building model that
ConflictsWith
should be noted by the receiver.
“Structural.ifc:*.Name=’Bracing’ ”

EXAMPLE 3: referenced part of a document to a referenced part of another document

“Architectural.ifc:*.Name=’Wall034’ ” The link type declares an unspecified conflict between

elements within two domain models that should be noted
ConflictsWith
by the receiver.
“Structural.ifc:*.Name=’Beam078’ ”
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ISO 21597-2:2020(E)
5.4 Alternative
Name: els:I sAlternativeTo

This link type indicates alternative options or variants. It can be used for any type of document to

allow recipients to note the exist
...

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