Radiological protection - X and gamma reference radiation for calibrating dosemeters and doserate meters and for determining their response as a function of photon energy - Part 2: Dosimetry for radiation protection over the energy ranges from 8 keV to 1,3 MeV and 4 MeV to 9 MeV (ISO 4037-2:2019)

This document specifies the procedures for the dosimetry of X and gamma reference radiation for the calibration of radiation protection instruments over the energy range from approximately 8 keV to 1,3 MeV and from 4 MeV to 9 MeV and for air kerma rates above 1 µGy/h. The considered measuring quantities are the air kerma free-in-air, Ka, and the phantom related operational quantities of the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU)[2], H*(10), Hp(10), H'(3), Hp(3), H'(0,07) and Hp(0,07), together with the respective dose rates. The methods of production are given in ISO 4037-1.
This document can also be used for the radiation qualities specified in ISO 4037-1:2019, Annexes A, B and C, but this does not mean that a calibration certificate for radiation qualities described in these annexes is in conformity with the requirements of ISO 4037.
The requirements and methods given in this document are targeted at an overall uncertainty (k = 2) of the dose(rate) of about 6 % to 10 % for the phantom related operational quantities in the reference fields. To achieve this, two production methods of the reference fields are proposed in ISO 4037-1.
The first is to produce "matched reference fields", which follow the requirements so closely that recommended conversion coefficients can be used. The existence of only a small difference in the spectral distribution of the "matched reference field" compared to the nominal reference field is validated by procedures, which are given and described in detail in this document. For matched reference radiation fields, recommended conversion coefficients are given in ISO 4037-3 only for specified distances between source and dosemeter, e.g., 1,0 m and 2,5 m. For other distances, the user has to decide if these conversion coefficients can be used.
The second method is to produce "characterized reference fields". Either this is done by determining the conversion coefficients using spectrometry, or the required value is measured directly using secondary standard dosimeters. This method applies to any radiation quality, for any measuring quantity and, if applicable, for any phantom and angle of radiation incidence. The conversion coefficients can be determined for any distance, provided the air kerma rate is not below 1 µGy/h.
Both methods require charged particle equilibrium for the reference field. However this is not always established in the workplace field for which the dosemeter shall be calibrated. This is especially true at photon energies without inherent charged particle equilibrium at the reference depth d, which depends on the actual combination of energy and reference depth d. Electrons of energies above 65 keV, 0,75 MeV and 2,1 MeV can just penetrate 0,07 mm, 3 mm and 10 mm of ICRU tissue, respectively, and the radiation qualities with photon energies above these values are considered as radiation qualities without inherent charged particle equilibrium for the quantities defined at these depths.
This document is not applicable for the dosimetry of pulsed reference fields.

Strahlenschutz - Röntgen- und Gamma-Referenzstrahlungsfelder zur Kalibrierung von Dosimetern und Dosisleistungsmessgeräten und zur Bestimmung ihres Ansprechvermögens als Funktion der Photonenenergie - Teil 2: Strahlenschutz-Dosimetrie in den Energiebereichen 8 keV bis 1,3 MeV und 4 MeV bis 9 MeV (ISO 4037-2:2019)

Dieses Dokument legt die Methoden für die Dosimetrie von Röntgen- und Gamma-Referenzstrahlung zur Kalibrierung von Strahlenschutzmessgeräten im Energiebereich von etwa 8 keV bis 1,3 MeV und von 4 MeV bis 9 MeV und für Luftkermaleistungen größer als 1 Gy/h fest. Die berücksichtigten Messgrößen sind die Luftkerma frei in Luft, Ka, und die phantombezogenen Messgrößen der Internationalen Kommission für Ein-heiten und Messungen (ICRU) [2], H*(10), Hp(10), H'(3), Hp(3), H'(0,07) und Hp(0,07), zusammen mit den zugehörigen Dosisleistungen. Die Methoden zur Erzeugung von Röntgen- und Gamma-Referenzstrahlung sind in Teil 1 angegeben.
Dieses Dokument kann auch für die in ISO 4037 1:2019, Anhänge A, B und C, festgelegten Strahlungsqua-litäten verwendet werden, aber dies bedeutet nicht, dass ein Kalibrierzertifikat für die in diesen Anhängen angegebenen Strahlungsqualitäten in Übereinstimmung mit den Anforderungen von ISO 4037 ist.
Die in diesem Dokument angegebenen Anforderungen und Methoden sind darauf ausgerichtet, im Refe-renzfeld eine Gesamt-Messunsicherheit (k = 2) der Dosis(leistung) von etwa 6 % bis 10 % für die phantom-bezogenen Messgrößen zu erreichen. Um dies zu erreichen, werden in ISO 4037 1 zwei Erzeugungsmetho-den für das Referenzfeld vorgeschlagen.
Die erste besteht darin, „übereinstimmende Referenzstrahlungsfelder“ zu erzeugen, die den Anforderungen so genau entsprechen, dass empfohlene Konversionskoeffizienten verwendet werden können. Das Vorliegen einer nur geringen Abweichung der spektralen Verteilung des „übereinstimmenden Referenzstrahlungsfeldes“ im Vergleich zum nominellen Referenzstrahlungsfeld wird mit Prozeduren validiert, die in diesem Dokument im Detail beschrieben sind. Für übereinstimmende Referenzstrahlungsfelder sind in ISO 4037 3 empfohlene Konversionskoeffizienten angegeben, aber nur für festgelegte Abstände zwischen Quelle und Dosimeter, z. B. 1,0 m und 2,5 m. Für andere Abstände muss der Anwender entscheiden, ob diese Konversionskoeffi-zienten verwendet werden können.
Die zweite Methode besteht darin, „charakterisierte Referenzstrahlungsfelder“ zu erzeugen. Dies wird entwe-der durch Bestimmung der Konversionskoeffizienten mittels Spektrometrie erreicht, oder der benötigte Wert wird direkt unter Verwendung von Sekundärnormal-Dosimetern gemessen. Diese Methode ist für jede Strah-lungsqualität, jede Messgröße und, sofern zutreffend, für jedes Phantom und jeden Strahleneinfallswinkel anwendbar. Die Konversionskoeffizienten können für jeden Abstand bestimmt werden, vorausgesetzt, die Luftkermaleistung ist nicht unterhalb von 1 Gy/h.
Beide Methoden erfordern Sekundärteilchengleichgewicht geladener Teilchen im Referenzstrahlungsfeld. Dies ist jedoch nicht immer im Arbeitsplatzfeld, für das das Dosimeter kalibriert werden soll, vorhanden. Dies gilt insbesondere bei Photonenenergien ohne inhärentes Sekundärteilchengleichgewicht in der Bezugstiefe d, diese Eigenschaft hängt von der aktuellen Kombination von Energie und Bezugstiefe d. ab. Elektronen mit Energien oberhalb von 65 keV, 0,75 MeV bzw. 2,1 MeV können jeweils gerade 0,07 mm, 3 mm bzw. 10 mm von ICRU-Gewebe durchdringen, und die Strahlungsqualitäten mit Photonenenergien oberhalb dieser Werte werden als Strahlungsqualitäten ohne inhärentes Sekundärteilchengleichgewicht für die in diesen Tiefen definierten Größen angesehen.
Dieses Dokument ist nicht für die Dosimetrie in gepulsten Referenzstrahlungsfeldern anwendbar.

Radioprotection - Rayonnements X et gamma de référence pour l'étalonnage des dosimètres et des débitmètres, et pour la détermination de leur réponse en fonction de l'énergie des photons - Partie 2: Dosimétrie pour la radioprotection dans les gammes d'énergie de 8 keV à 1,3 MeV et de 4 MeV à 9 MeV (ISO 4037-2:2019)

Le présent document définit les procédures de dosimétrie des rayonnements X et gamma de référence destinés à l'étalonnage des instruments de radioprotection dans les gammes d'énergie allant approximativement de 8 keV à 1,3 MeV et de 4 MeV à 9 MeV et pour des débits de kerma dans l'air supérieurs à 1 µGy/h. Les grandeurs de mesure considérées sont le kerma dans l'air en champ non perturbé, Ka, et les grandeurs opérationnelles associées aux fantômes de l'International Commission on Radiation Units et Measurements (ICRU)[2], H*(10), Hp(10), H'(3), Hp(3), H'(0,07) et Hp(0,07), ainsi que les débits de dose respectifs. Les méthodes de production sont données dans l'ISO 4037‑1.
Le présent document peut également être utilisé pour les qualités de rayonnement spécifiées dans l'ISO 4037‑1:2019, Annexes A, B et C, mais cela ne signifie pas qu'un certificat d'étalonnage pour les qualités de rayonnement décrites dans ces annexes est conforme aux exigences de l'ISO 4037.
Les exigences et méthodes données dans le présent document ciblent une incertitude globale (k = 2) de la valeur (de débit) de dose d'environ 6 % à 10 % pour les grandeurs opérationnelles associées aux fantômes dans les champs de référence. À cet effet, deux méthodes de production des champs de référence sont proposées dans l'ISO 4037‑1.
La première consiste à produire des «champs de référence adaptés» qui suivent si étroitement les exigences qu'il est possible d'utiliser les coefficients de conversion recommandés. Les «champs de référence adaptés» ne présentent qu'une légère différence de distribution spectrale par rapport au champ de référence nominal, qui est validée par des procédures qui sont données et décrites en détail dans le présent document. Pour les champs de rayonnement de référence adaptés, les coefficients de conversion recommandés sont donnés dans l'ISO 4037‑3 uniquement pour des distances spécifiées entre la source et le dosimètre, par exemple 1,0 m et 2,5 m. Pour d'autres distances, l'utilisateur doit décider si ces coefficients de conversion peuvent être utilisés.
La deuxième méthode consiste à produire des «champs de référence caractérisés». Soit cela est fait en déterminant les coefficients de conversion par spectrométrie, soit la valeur requise est mesurée directement en utilisant des dosimètres étalons secondaires. Cette méthode s'applique à toute qualité de rayonnement, pour toute grandeur de mesure et, le cas échéant, pour tout fantôme et tout angle d'incidence du rayonnement. Les coefficients de conversion peuvent être déterminés pour toute distance, à condition que le débit de kerma dans l'air ne soit pas inférieur à 1 µGy/h.
Les deux méthodes nécessitent des conditions d'équilibre électronique pour le champ de référence. Cependant, celles-ci ne sont pas toujours établies au poste de travail pour lequel le dosimètre doit être étalonné. Ceci est, en particulier, vrai à des énergies de photons hors condition d'équilibre électronique intrinsèque à la profondeur de référence d, qui dépend de la combinaison réelle de l'énergie et de la profondeur de référence d. Les électrons d'énergies supérieures à 65 keV, 0,75 MeV et 2,1 MeV peuvent seulement pénétrer respectivement 0,07 mm, 3 mm et 10 mm de tissu de l'ICRU, et les qualités de rayonnement avec des énergies de photons supérieures à ces valeurs sont considérées comme des qualités de rayonnement hors condition d'équilibre électronique intrinsèque pour les qualités définies à ces profondeurs.
Le présent docu

Radiološka zaščita - Referenčno sevanje z rentgenskimi in gama žarki za kalibracijo dozimetrov in merilnikov doze sevanja ter za ugotavljanje njihovega odzivanja kot funkcije fotonske energije - 2. del: Dozimetrija za zaščito pred sevanjem v energijskem območju od 8 keV do 1,3 MeV in od 4 MeV do 9 MeV (ISO 4037-2:2019)

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Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
16-Dec-2020
Publication Date
21-Feb-2021
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
18-Feb-2021
Due Date
25-Apr-2021
Completion Date
22-Feb-2021

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 4037-2:2021
01-april-2021
Radiološka zaščita - Referenčno sevanje z rentgenskimi in gama žarki za
kalibracijo dozimetrov in merilnikov doze sevanja ter za ugotavljanje njihovega
odzivanja kot funkcije fotonske energije - 2. del: Dozimetrija za zaščito pred
sevanjem v energijskem območju od 8 keV do 1,3 MeV in od 4 MeV do 9 MeV (ISO
4037-2:2019)

Radiological protection - X and gamma reference radiation for calibrating dosemeters

and doserate meters and for determining their response as a function of photon energy -

Part 2: Dosimetry for radiation protection over the energy ranges from 8 keV to 1,3 MeV

and 4 MeV to 9 MeV (ISO 4037-2:2019)

Strahlenschutz - Röntgen- und Gamma-Referenzstrahlungsfelder zur Kalibrierung von

Dosimetern und Dosisleistungsmessgeräten und zur Bestimmung ihres
Ansprechvermögens als Funktion der Photonenenergie - Teil 2: Strahlenschutz-

Dosimetrie in den Energiebereichen 8 keV bis 1,3 MeV und 4 MeV bis 9 MeV (ISO 4037-

2:2019)
Radioprotection - Rayonnements X et gamma de référence pour l'étalonnage des

dosimètres et des débitmètres, et pour la détermination de leur réponse en fonction de

l'énergie des photons - Partie 2: Dosimétrie pour la radioprotection dans les gammes

d'énergie de 8 keV à 1,3 MeV et de 4 MeV à 9 MeV (ISO 4037-2:2019)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 4037-2:2021
ICS:
13.280 Varstvo pred sevanjem Radiation protection
17.240 Merjenje sevanja Radiation measurements
SIST EN ISO 4037-2:2021 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN ISO 4037-2:2021
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SIST EN ISO 4037-2:2021
EN ISO 4037-2
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
February 2021
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 17.240
English Version
Radiological protection - X and gamma reference radiation
for calibrating dosemeters and doserate meters and for
determining their response as a function of photon energy
- Part 2: Dosimetry for radiation protection over the
energy ranges from 8 keV to 1,3 MeV and 4 MeV to 9 MeV
(ISO 4037-2:2019)

Radioprotection - Rayonnements X et gamma de Strahlenschutz - Röntgen- und Gamma-

référence pour l'étalonnage des dosimètres et des Referenzstrahlungsfelder zur Kalibrierung von

débitmètres, et pour la détermination de leur réponse Dosimetern und Dosisleistungsmessgeräten und zur

en fonction de l'énergie des photons - Partie 2: Bestimmung ihres Ansprechvermögens als Funktion

Dosimétrie pour la radioprotection dans les gammes der Photonenenergie - Teil 2: Strahlenschutz-

d'énergie de 8 keV à 1,3 MeV et de 4 MeV à 9 MeV (ISO Dosimetrie in den Energiebereichen 8 keV bis 1,3 MeV

4037-2:2019) und 4 MeV bis 9 MeV (ISO 4037-2:2019)
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 18 January 2021.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2021 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 4037-2:2021 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN ISO 4037-2:2021
EN ISO 4037-2:2021 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

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SIST EN ISO 4037-2:2021
EN ISO 4037-2:2021 (E)
European foreword

The text of ISO 4037-2:2019 has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 85 "Nuclear energy,

nuclear technologies, and radiological protection” of the International Organization for Standardization

(ISO) and has been taken over as EN ISO 4037-2:2021 by Technical Committee CEN/TC 430 “Nuclear

energy, nuclear technologies, and radiological protection” the secretariat of which is held by AFNOR.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by August 2021, and conflicting national standards shall

be withdrawn at the latest by August 2021.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland,

Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of

North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the

United Kingdom.
Endorsement notice

The text of ISO 4037-2:2019 has been approved by CEN as EN ISO 4037-2:2021 without any

modification.
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SIST EN ISO 4037-2:2021
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SIST EN ISO 4037-2:2021
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 4037-2
Second edition
2019-01
Corrected version
2019-03
Radiological protection — X and
gamma reference radiation for
calibrating dosemeters and doserate
meters and for determining their
response as a function of photon
energy —
Part 2:
Dosimetry for radiation protection
over the energy ranges from 8 keV to
1,3 MeV and 4 MeV to 9 MeV
Radioprotection — Rayonnements X et gamma de référence
pour l'étalonnage des dosimètres et des débitmètres, et pour la
détermination de leur réponse en fonction de l'énergie des photons —
Partie 2: Dosimétrie pour la radioprotection dans les gammes
d'énergie de 8 keV à 1,3 MeV et de 4 MeV à 9 MeV
Reference number
ISO 4037-2:2019(E)
ISO 2019
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SIST EN ISO 4037-2:2021
ISO 4037-2:2019(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2019

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Fax: +41 22 749 09 47
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 4037-2:2021
ISO 4037-2:2019(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4 Standard instrument ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 3

4.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.2 Calibration of the standard instrument ............................................................................................................................. 3

4.3 Energy dependence of the response of the standard instrument ............................................................... 3

5 Conversion from the measured quantity air kerma, K , to the required phantom

related measuring quantity ...................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.2 Determination of conversion coefficients ........................................................................................................................ 6

5.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

5.2.2 Calculation of conversion coefficients from spectral fluence .................................................... 6

5.3 Validation of reference fields and of listed conversion coefficients using dosimetry................ 7

6 Direct calibration of the reference field in terms of the required phantom related

measuring quantity ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

7 Measurement procedures applicable to ionization chambers ............................................................................. 8

7.1 Geometrical conditions .................................................................................................................................................................... 8

7.2 Chamber support and stem scatter ....................................................................................................................................... 8

7.3 Location and orientation of the standard chamber ................................................................................................ 8

7.4 Measurement corrections ............................................................................................................................................................. 8

7.4.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

7.4.2 Corrections for air temperature, pressure and humidity variation from

reference calibration conditions ........................................................................................................................ 9

7.4.3 Corrections for radiation-induced leakage, including ambient radiation ...................... 9

7.4.4 Incomplete ion collection ......................................................................................................................................10

7.4.5 Beam non-uniformity ...............................................................................................................................................10

8 Additional procedures and precautions specific to gamma radiation dosimetry

using radionuclide sources .....................................................................................................................................................................10

8.1 Use of certified source output .................................................................................................................................................10

8.2 Use of electron equilibrium caps ..........................................................................................................................................10

8.3 Radioactive source decay ............................................................................................................................................................10

8.4 Radionuclide impurities ..............................................................................................................................................................10

8.5 Interpolation between calibration positions .............................................................................................................10

9 Additional procedures and precautions specific to X-radiation dosimetry .........................................11

9.1 Variation of X-radiation output ..............................................................................................................................................11

9.2 Monitor .......................................................................................................................................................................................................11

9.3 Adjustment of air kerma rate ..................................................................................................................................................11

10 Dosimetry of reference radiation at photon energies between 4 MeV and 9 MeV .......................12

10.1 Dosimetric quantities .....................................................................................................................................................................12

10.2 Measurement of the dosimetric quantities .................................................................................................................12

10.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................12

10.2.2 Air kerma (rate) .............................................................................................................................................................13

10.2.3 Phantom related operational quantities H*(10), H (10), H'(3) and H (3) .................13

p p

10.3 Measurement geometry ...............................................................................................................................................................13

10.4 Monitor .......................................................................................................................................................................................................13

10.5 Determination of air kerma (rate) free-in-air ...........................................................................................................14

10.5.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................14

© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved iii
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SIST EN ISO 4037-2:2021
ISO 4037-2:2019(E)

10.5.2 Measurement conditions .......................................................................................................................................14

10.5.3 Direct measurement with an ionization chamber ...........................................................................14

10.5.4 Determination of air kerma (rate) from photon fluence (rate) ............................................17

11 Uncertainty of measurement ................................................................................................................................................................18

11.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................18

11.2 Components of uncertainty ......................................................................................................................................................18

11.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................18

11.2.2 Uncertainties in the calibration of a secondary standard .........................................................18

11.2.3 Uncertainties in the measurements of the reference radiation due to the

standard instrument and its use .....................................................................................................................19

11.3 Statement of uncertainty .............................................................................................................................................................19

Annex A (normative) Technical details of the instruments and their operation ................................................20

Annex B (informative) Measurement of photon spectra ..............................................................................................................23

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................26

iv © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 4037-2:2021
ISO 4037-2:2019(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following

URL: www .iso .org/iso/foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 85, Nuclear energy, nuclear technologies

and radiological protection, Subcommittee SC 2, Radiological protection.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 4037-2:1997), which has been technically

revised.
A list of all the parts in the ISO 4037 series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/members .html.

This corrected version of ISO 4037-2:2019 incorporates the following corrections:

— In 10.5.2.2, the subscripts to the values have been reapplied;
— In Table 5, the headers in columns 4 and 5 have been reinserted.
© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved v
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SIST EN ISO 4037-2:2021
ISO 4037-2:2019(E)
Introduction

The maintenance release of this document incorporates the improvements to high voltage generators

from 1996 to 2017 (e.g., the use of high frequency switching supplies providing nearly constant

potential), and the spectral measurements at irradiation facilities equipped with such generators

[1]

(e.g., the catalogue of X-ray spectra by Ankerhold ). It also incorporates all published information

with the aim to adjust the requirements for the technical parameters of the reference fields to the

targeted overall uncertainty of about 6 % to 10 % for the phantom related operational quantities of

[2]

the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) . It does not change the

general concept of the existing ISO 4037.

ISO 4037, focusing on photon reference radiation fields, is divided into four parts. ISO 4037-1 gives the

methods of production and characterization of reference radiation fields in terms of the quantities

spectral photon fluence and air kerma free-in-air. This document describes the dosimetry of the

reference radiation qualities in terms of air kerma and in terms of the phantom related operational

[2]

quantities of the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) . ISO 4037-3

describes the methods for calibrating and determining the response of dosemeters and doserate

[2]

meters in terms of the phantom related operational quantities of the ICRU . ISO 4037-4 gives special

considerations and additional requirements for calibration of area and personal dosemeters in low

energy X reference radiation fields, which are reference fields with generating potential lower or equal

to 30 kV.

In this document, two methods are given to determine the phantom related operational quantities.

Both methods need a reference field according to ISO 4037-1. The first method requires the dosimetry

with respect to air kerma free-in-air and after that the selected operational quantity is derived by the

application of a conversion coefficient that relates the air kerma free-in-air to the selected operational

quantity. For matched reference fields, this conversion coefficient is taken from ISO 4037-3, for

characterized reference fields the conversion coefficient is determined using spectrometry. The second

method, applicable for characterized reference fields, requires the direct dosimetry with respect to the

selected operational quantity. For all calibrations secondary standard instruments are required, which

have a nearly constant energy dependence of the response to the selected quantity.

The general procedures described in ISO 29661 are used as far as possible in this document. Also, the

used symbols are in line with ISO 29661.
vi © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 4037-2:2021
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 4037-2:2019(E)
Radiological protection — X and gamma reference
radiation for calibrating dosemeters and doserate meters
and for determining their response as a function of photon
energy —
Part 2:
Dosimetry for radiation protection over the energy ranges
from 8 keV to 1,3 MeV and 4 MeV to 9 MeV
1 Scope

This document specifies the procedures for the dosimetry of X and gamma reference radiation for the

calibration of radiation protection instruments over the energy range from approximately 8 keV to

1,3 MeV and from 4 MeV to 9 MeV and for air kerma rates above 1 µGy/h. The considered measuring

quantities are the air kerma free-in-air, K , and the phantom related operational quantities of the

[2]

International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) , H*(10), H (10), H'(3), H (3),

p p

H'(0,07) and H (0,07), together with the respective dose rates. The methods of production are given in

ISO 4037-1.

This document can also be used for the radiation qualities specified in ISO 4037-1:2019, Annexes A, B

and C, but this does not mean that a calibration certificate for radiation qualities described in these

annexes is in conformity with the requirements of ISO 4037.

The requirements and methods given in this document are targeted at an overall uncertainty (k = 2)

of the dose(rate) of about 6 % to 10 % for the phantom related operational quantities in the reference

fields. To achieve this, two production methods of the reference fields are proposed in ISO 4037-1.

The first is to produce “matched reference fields”, which follow the requirements so closely that

recommended conversion coefficients can be used. The existence of only a small difference in the

spectral distribution of the “matched reference field” compared to the nominal reference field is

validated by procedures, which are given and described in detail in this document. For matched

reference radiation fields, recommended conversion coefficients are given in ISO 4037-3 only for

specified distances between source and dosemeter, e.g., 1,0 m and 2,5 m. For other distances, the user

has to decide if these conversion coefficients can be used.

The second method is to produce “characterized reference fields”. Either this is done by determining the

conversion coefficients using spectrometry, or the required value is measured directly using secondary

standard dosimeters. This method applies to any radiation quality, for any measuring quantity and,

if applicable, for any phantom and angle of radiation incidence. The conversion coefficients can be

determined for any distance, provided the air kerma rate is not below 1 µGy/h.

Both methods require charged particle equilibrium for the reference field. However this is not always

established in the workplace field for which the dosemeter shall be calibrated. This is especially true

at photon energies without inherent charged particle equilibrium at the reference depth d, which

depends on the actual combination of energy and reference depth d. Electrons of energies above 65 keV,

0,75 MeV and 2,1 MeV can just penetrate 0,07 mm, 3 mm and 10 mm of ICRU tissue, respectively, and

the radiation qualities with photon energies above these values are considered as radiation qualities

without inherent charged particle equilibrium for the quantities defined at these depths.

This document is not applicable for the dosimetry of pulsed reference fields.
© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 13 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 4037-2:2021
ISO 4037-2:2019(E)
2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 4037-1, Radiological protection — X and gamma reference radiation for calibrating dosemeters and

doserate meters and for determining their response as a function of photon energy — Part 1: Radiation

characteristics and production methods

ISO 4037-3, Radiological protection — X and gamma reference radiation for calibrating dosemeters and

doserate meters and for determining their response as a function of photon energy — Part 3: Calibration of

area and personal dosemeters and the measurement of their response as a function of energy and angle of

incidence

ISO 4037-4, Radiological protection — X and gamma reference radiation for calibrating dosemeters and

doserate meters and for determining their response as a function of photon energy — Part 4: Calibration of

area and personal dosemeters in low energy X reference radiation fields

ISO 29661, Reference radiation fields for radiation protection — Definitions and fundamental concepts

ISO 80000-10, Quantities and units — Part 10: Atomic and nuclear physics

ISO/IEC Guide 98-3, Uncertainty of measurement — Part 3: Guide to the expression of uncertainty in

me a s ur ement (GUM: 1995)

ISO/IEC Guide 99, International vocabulary of metrology — Basic and general concepts and assoc

...

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