Key factors for the successful implementation of urban biowaste selective collection schemes

This CWA provides guidance for the implementation of biowaste selective collection schemes.
This CWA also paves the way to increase citizen engagement, as this is crucial for the successful implementation of urban biowaste selective collection schemes.
It is intended to be used by city managers and municipal waste managers with interest in implementing the selective collection of urban biowaste to produce high quality biowaste (i.e., minimal presence of non-required fractions) which can be then used in robust valorization processes with attractive business cases.

Schlüsselfaktoren für die erfolgreiche Einführung von Systemen zur getrennten Sammlung von Bioabfällen in Städten

Ključni dejavniki za uspešno izvajanje sistemov selektivnega zbiranja bioloških odpadkov v mestih

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
19-Sep-2022
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
16-Sep-2022
Due Date
21-Nov-2022
Completion Date
20-Sep-2022

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SIST CWA 17866:2022
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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST CWA 17866:2022
01-november-2022
Ključni dejavniki za uspešno izvajanje sistemov selektivnega zbiranja bioloških
odpadkov v mestih

Key factors for the successful implementation of urban biowaste selective collection

schemes
Schlüsselfaktoren für die erfolgreiche Einführung von Systemen zur getrennten
Sammlung von Bioabfällen in Städten
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: CWA 17866:2022
ICS:
13.030.40 Naprave in oprema za Installations and equipment
odstranjevanje in obdelavo for waste disposal and
odpadkov treatment
SIST CWA 17866:2022 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST CWA 17866:2022
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SIST CWA 17866:2022
CEN
CWA 17866
WORKSHOP
September 2022
AGREEMENT
ICS 13.030.40
English version
Key factors for the successful implementation of urban
biowaste selective collection schemes

This CEN Workshop Agreement has been drafted and approved by a Workshop of representatives of interested parties, the

constitution of which is indicated in the foreword of this Workshop Agreement.

The formal process followed by the Workshop in the development of this Workshop Agreement has been endorsed by the

National Members of CEN but neither the National Members of CEN nor the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre can be held

accountable for the technical content of this CEN Workshop Agreement or possible conflicts with standards or legislation.

This CEN Workshop Agreement can in no way be held as being an official standard developed by CEN and its Members.

This CEN Workshop Agreement is publicly available as a reference document from the CEN Members National Standard Bodies.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France,

Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of North

Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Türkiye and United Kingdom.

EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2022 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CEN national Members.

Ref. No.:CWA 17866:2022 E
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CWA 17866:2022 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................... 5

1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................................... 6

2 Normative references .................................................................................................................................... 6

3 Terms and definitions ................................................................................................................................... 6

4 General ................................................................................................................................................................ 7

5 Steps to follow before starting the collection (pre-planning)......................................................... 7

5.1 General ................................................................................................................................................................ 7

5.2 Biowaste typology ........................................................................................................................................... 7

5.3 Customer types ................................................................................................................................................ 8

5.4 Proposed location of collection points .................................................................................................... 8

5.5 Characteristics of the collection points ................................................................................................... 8

5.6 Communication to stakeholders of the initial planning ................................................................... 9

5.7 Customer communication process ........................................................................................................... 9

5.7.1 General ................................................................................................................................................................ 9

5.7.2 Letter from the Mayor ................................................................................................................................ 10

5.7.3 Communication through press, radio, TV, social media. From the general to the

particular ........................................................................................................................................................ 11

5.7.4 Face to face communication, from the particular to the general ................................................ 12

6 Steps to follow after starting the collection ........................................................................................ 15

6.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 15

6.2 Face-to-face actions ..................................................................................................................................... 16

6.3 Establish a meeting point .......................................................................................................................... 16

6.4 Conducting surveys ..................................................................................................................................... 16

6.5 Customer service hotlines......................................................................................................................... 16

7 How to correct deviations ......................................................................................................................... 17

8 Summary ......................................................................................................................................................... 17

Annex A (informative) Optimal biowaste typology ...................................................................................... 19

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European foreword

This CEN Workshop Agreement (CWA 17866:2022) has been developed in accordance with the CEN-

CENELEC Guide 29 “CEN/CENELEC Workshop Agreements – A rapid prototyping to standardization” and

with the relevant provisions of CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations – Part 2. It was approved by a

Workshop of representatives of interested parties on 2022-06-17, the constitution of which was

supported by CEN following the public call for participation made on 2020-09-01. However, this CEN

Workshop Agreement does not necessarily include all relevant stakeholders.

The final text of CWA 17866:2022 was provided to CEN for publication on 2022-07-01.

Results incorporated in this CWA received funding from the European Union’s HORIZON 2020 research

and innovation programme under grant agreement number 818312.

The following organizations and individuals developed and approved this CEN Workshop Agreement:

• PREZERO, Mr. Pedro Gustavo Rodríguez – Chairperson
• UNE – Spanish Association for Standardization, Ms Tania Marcos – Secretary
• ITENE, Spain, Ms. Carla Bartolomé
• CETENMA, Spain, Ms. Gemma Castejón
• Balkan association of standard users, North Macedonia, Mr. Ljupcho Davchev
• Zero Waste Latvia, Latvia, Ms. Zane Gailite
• Kalundborg Kommune, Denmark; Mr. Johan Ib Hansen
• Zero Waste Latvia, Latvia, Ms. Mairita Lūse
• ECOGEOS, France, Ms. Marie-Amélie Marcoux
• ENVAC IBERIA S.A., Spain, Mr. César Morais
• Avfall Sverige, Sweden, Mr. Jon Nilsson
• EUBIA - European Biomass Industry Association, Belgium, Mr. Giulio Poggiaroni
• Latvian standard (LVS); Latvia, Ms. Guna Smilga
• CETENMA; Spain; Mr. Martín Soriano
• City of Murcia, Spain, Mr. Manuel Valls
• ATEGRUS, Spain, Ms. Esther Vecino
• FRITZ SCHÄFER GMBH, Germany, Dr. Armin Vogel
• Wellness Telecom S.L. (Wellness TechGroup -WTG-), Spain, Mr. Jose Antonio Cabo
• Wellnesstech Sustainability Horizon, S.L., Spain, Mr. Javier Gutiérrez.
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Attention is drawn to the possibility that some elements of this document may be subject to patent rights.

CEN-CENELEC policy on patent rights is described in CEN-CENELEC Guide 8 “Guidelines for

Implementation of the Common IPR Policy on Patent”. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying

any or all such patent rights.

Although the Workshop parties have made every effort to ensure the reliability and accuracy of technical

and non-technical descriptions, the Workshop is not able to guarantee, explicitly or implicitly, the

correctness of this document. Anyone who applies this CEN Workshop Agreement shall be aware that

neither the Workshop, nor CEN, can be held liable for damages or losses of any kind whatsoever. The use

of this CEN Workshop Agreement does not relieve users of their responsibility for their own actions, and

they apply this document at their own risk. The CEN Workshop Agreement should not be construed as

legal advice authoritatively endorsed by CEN/CENELEC.
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Introduction

Every year each European citizen produces on average 200 kg of municipal biowaste. This means that

between 118 and 138 million tons of biowaste arise annually in the EU. The municipal biowaste

management systems that currently exist in Europe, such as landfilling, do not give a second life to

materials or resources contained in the biowaste. Other alternatives such as incineration and composting

do not allow to take full advantage of the biowaste potential.

With the increase in biowaste production, the EU's priorities are to reduce food waste, increase separate

collection and reuse or recycling. One of the main challenges for biowaste management is to integrate a

valorization system in a city context, and to recover strategic products with a market value that offsets

the global cost of biowaste valorization.

Thus, the recovery and valorization of biowaste is one of the main lines of several EU-funded projects,

like VALUEWASTE , which proposes an integrated system for urban biowaste valorization into key

strategic products for the EU.

In order to implement successful valorization schemes to produce high value products with attractive

and sustainable business cases, it is imperative to feed the processes with high quality biowaste. High

quality biowaste relies on efficient selective collection systems and pre-treatments. Unfortunately, such

systems to ensure high quality biowaste are scarce in Europe, making current valorization systems

uneconomical and therefore underutilizing the potential of urban biowaste.

Standardization of the influencing key factors for the improvement of the selective collection and

management of urban biowaste will help city managers and waste management service providers to

increase the quality of the selectively collected biowaste, enabling the development of robust biowaste

valorization processes. The influencing key factors will focus on actions to promote biowaste collection

and improve the perception of citizens on urban biowaste as a local source of valuable materials.

Therefore, standardization will bring citizens' sorting and recycling efforts to increase the biowaste

quality and contribute to pave the way for the transition of cities to a circular economy.

Part of this CWA is based on the biowaste selective collection experience implemented in the

VALUEWASTE project. This research project has received funding from the European Union’s

HORIZON 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement number 818312.

) https://valuewaste.eu/
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1 Scope

This CWA provides guidance for the implementation of biowaste selective collection schemes.

This CWA also paves the way to increase citizen engagement, as this is crucial for the successful

implementation of urban biowaste selective collection schemes.

It is intended to be used by city managers and municipal waste managers with interest in implementing

the selective collection of urban biowaste to produce high quality biowaste (i.e., minimal presence of non-

required fractions) which can be then used in robust valorization processes with attractive business

cases.
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https://www.iso.org/obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at https://www.electropedia.org/
3.1
biowaste

waste that is composed chiefly of organic matter and typically comprises biodegradable garden and park

waste, food and kitchen waste from households, restaurants, caterers and retail premises, and

comparable waste from food processing plants
Note 1 to entry: For further information see Annex A.
3.2
non-required fraction
waste fraction affecting negatively the valorization process.
Note 1 to entry: For further information see Annex A.
3.3
customer
biowaste producer.

Note 1 to entry: In this CWA there are two types of customers: citizen and large producer.

3.4
collection point
place where the customer deposits the biowaste on public areas for collection
3.5
mixed fraction

this is the fraction of the waste where the biowaste is actually being deposited before the selective

collection of biowaste begins
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3.6
D-day

day on which the selective collection of biowaste begins. All previous and subsequent planning is done in

reference to this day
3.7
biopatrols

staff whose mission is to interact with the customer, usually in a face-to-face mode. Their aim is to change

customer attitudes to increase the quantity and quality of biowaste
4 General

This document sets out a methodology for obtaining high quality biowaste and is intended to be of use to

those municipalities where separate collection of biowaste has not started and already have collection

systems in place.

In order to achieve high quality biowaste there are short- and long-term objectives. The short-term

objectives are oriented towards planning and implementation and include the development of the plan,

the definition of biowaste, the method of serving the different types of customers and the destination of

this biowaste after it has been treated.

There is no single programme that works for all areas. Each target area may have its own geographic and

demographic identity, way of collecting waste, market requirements, and legal and financial constraints.

For a biowaste collection scheme to be successful, all of these variables must be accounted and planned

for.

In this document, the factors common to all areas will be analyzed. However, the market requirements

and legal and financial constraints of a biowaste collection service are not within the scope. When

implementing the biowaste collection, it is important to consider the associated costs, logistics and

carbon footprint, which will be specific to each particular case.

The first decision to be taken is to decide the day on which the selective collection of biowaste begins in

an area (D-day). From this day onwards, there are a series of actions that shall be carried out before

(Clause 5) and after (Clause 6) this day.

Clause 7 establishes a contingency plan to correct the deviations which may arise in terms of quantity

and quality of biowaste.

Clause 8 is a summary of the key factors for the successful implementation of urban biowaste selective

collection schemes.
5 Steps to follow before starting the collection (pre-planning)
5.1 General

Pre-planning is crucial to the success of a biowaste collection scheme. Aspects not considered in this

phase are very difficult to change in the next phase, which is when the biowaste collection service begins.

Planning for biowaste collection begins with knowing the waste stream in a community, determining the

sources, quantities and characteristics of biowaste in the area in question.

Before D-day and in the order sets out here, the following actions shall be carried out:

5.2 Biowaste typology
There are two ways to know the amount of biowaste in the mixed fraction:
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a) Selecting the biowaste from each type of customer and taking samples of these. This way is more

expensive but more accurate. When taking samples, the seasonality of the biowaste must be taken

into account, so the characterizations of the residual fraction must be carried out, at least, for each of

the seasons of the year (spring, summer, autumn and winter). This characterization will normally be

carried out at the treatment center where the mixed fraction is taken.

b) Other more economical option is to use existing data on biowaste composition assuming that it

reflects the reality.

Once the amount of biowaste in the residual fraction is known, it is time to set a Key Performance

Indicator (KPI) for quantity:
KPI quantity = % of biowaste collected over total biowaste

The measurement of this KPI of quantity will be given by the data provided by the scales of the waste

treatment center and the estimation of biowaste contemplated according to the analysis of the rest

fraction.

This index indicates the percentage of participation in the selective collection of biowaste.

This KPI should be established for the different types of customers: citizens and large producers,

separating if it is possible both collections if there are weighing systems in the collection vehicle.

Another KPI which must be also analyzed, the quality KPI for biowaste. This measurement will be carried

out by taking a sample of biowaste when the vehicle arrives at its destination and will be:

KPI quality % = amount of biowaste in the sample (kg)/ Total sample (kg)
5.3 Customer types

There are two types of customers for biowaste: citizen customer and large producer customer.

They are differentiated by the amount of biowaste they generate daily. An average house produces a

volume of less than 10 litres of biowaste per day. If a customer generates more than 10 liters of biowaste

per day, it is considered as a large producer of biowaste.

A large producer customer will normally generate a higher quality biowaste than a citizen. It is a priority

to incorporate this type of customer into a selective biowaste collection programme.

5.4 Proposed location of collection points

Biowaste collection points should be placed next to the customer's usual waste collection point. To

improve the quality of the biowaste, the priority is to place the biowaste collection point where there are

other collection fractions such as paper, glass, packaging, etc.

The proposal for the location of collection points will determine the means to be used by the biowaste

collection service.
5.5 Characteristics of the collection points

The collection point is important because it is the meeting point between the customer and the collection

service. It should have its own identity.

This site must be sized to accommodate all biowaste generated by customers. The frequency of biowaste

collection will therefore affect the storage capacity of the biowaste at the collection point.

It is advisable to visit all the large producers in the area to find out the quantity and type of biowaste they

generate and thus determine more accurately the volume of biowaste to be collected.

The size of the lid of the element to deposit biowaste is a critical factor to obtain better biowaste quality.

The larger the size of the lid, the poorer the quality of the biowaste.
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It is therefore advisable to differentiate, if the collection point is on a public street, two types of lids of the

biowaste into the collection element:
— Citizen, lid of no more than 25 × 25 cm.

— Large producer, closed lid of at least 40 × 40 cm. This lid is opened with a key previously delivered

to the waste-generating establishment.

As biowaste is quite heavy, it is advisable to keep the height of the discharge lid as low as possible,

especially for large producers. Underground biowaste containers make it easier for large producers to

deposit biowaste. A reflection on the type of container is necessary, taking into account all technical,

economical and ergonomic aspects.

In the case of having several waste fractions at the collection point, it is advisable not to place the biowaste

collection point at the end of the collection point. This increases the quality of the biowaste because it

prevents the customer from depositing their waste at the first bin to which they have access.

The following order is recommended: mixed fraction, organic, packaging, paper and glass. That which

generates odor on one side and that which does not generate odor on the other. This order should be

respected as far as possible. In this way the customer gets used to always having the biowaste collection

point in the same place, avoiding errors when depositing the biowaste.

In addition, digital tools are needed to encourage and guide citizens. Examples of best practices related

to customer service are provided in Subclause 6.5.
5.6 Communication to stakeholders of the initial planning

Once the customers, the location of the collection point and its characteristics have been studied, it is

essential to involve the interested parties in the decision to be taken.
The main stakeholders in this project are:
— Customers.
— Technicians.
— City managers.

Non-participation at this stage may mean that after starting the biowaste collection service, there is no

participation from customers or no budget to address the separate collection of biowaste.

All stakeholder suggestions should be listened to. Some may be accepted, some may not.

At this stage, if needed, it is probably necessary to consider adapting the municipal legislation on waste

collection, establishing the obligation to separate waste. The date of the change of the legislation has to

be set before starting the collection of biowaste.
5.7 Customer communication process
5.7.1 General

Customer’s participation is crucial to the success of a biowaste collection scheme. The communication

process must have the following characteristics:
— There must be a personal and direct interaction with the citizen.
— Actions must be creative and well designed.
— They must have the right technology for intelligent information management.
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There is resistance to shift to recycle biowaste so public attitudes and objections to biowaste recycling

need to be identified.

There will be a proportion of customers who will participate in biowaste recycling regardless of the

quality of the campaign or the recycling facilities. This type of customer is usually environmentally

motivated. It is for this reason that a biowaste collection program should be linked to the municipal

circular economy concept and strategy. This type of customer should be offered the possibility to

participate in the communication process of the biowaste collection project.

On the other hand, there will be another proportion of customers who will not be willing to participate

in this type of program, so the effort should not be focused on this group.

However, the majority of customers can be made aware through specific programs and it is to this

segment that effort, knowledge and understanding should be dedicated.
To motivate these customers, the following considerations should be taken:

— The sources of information should be credible and come from relevant reference groups.

— Recommendations made should be related to beliefs and practices accepted by the individual.

— The information should raise awareness through the communication of the negative impacts

associated to traditional management schemes, and, at the same time, inform about the advantages

of the new proposed approach.
— The information should provide specific recommendations.

Prior to the starting of the collection service, it is important to know the degree of customer acceptance

of biowaste collection. This issue will be addressed later through the surveys.

In order to know the customer of an area in advance, it is recommended to use information that is

normally in the databases of the City Councils:
— How many customers are there?
— what kind of customers are there in the area?
— what is the age of the customers?
— income from customers?
— Do they have experience in recycling other waste fractions?

When to start a campaign is a critical issue, if it starts early it is forgotten; if it starts late it does not reach

the customer.

The start of an awareness campaign should not be timed to coincide with events that diminish its effect,

such as local holidays, Christmas, the start of school, etc.

It is recommended to always start by talking about the quality of the biowaste. Quantity will come later.

A customer who starts off with a bad biowaste selection process will be difficult to change in the future.

The following subclauses establish how to manage the communication process with the customer.

5.7.2 Letter from the Mayor

The mayor is the highest representative in a municipality, so it is recommended that the project of the

new biowaste collection is announced by him/her (credible source of information, personal interaction)

through an official letter.
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The purpose of this letter is to involve the customers in the new project.

It is advisable that this letter is delivered to each home/business in the area. This delivery also serves to

get to know the area better and know the number and type of customers. If a database of customers in

the area is not available, this section is mandatory.
This letter should include the following information:

a) It should be explained that there is going to be a new biowaste collection point in the area.

b) That we should avoid wasting food and that biowaste that are not usable should go to home

composting (if possible) and if not to the biowaste collection point.
c) It must be explained why this new service is going to be carried out:
— Environmental reasons: circular economy, climate change, use of resources.
— Legal reasons: European Regulations.

d) It is necessary to explain what is going to be done with this biowaste after it has been collected and

to set objectives.
e) It is advisable to explain what is going to happen in the next few days:
— Face to face communication with customers (biopatrols).

— Establishment of a meeting point for doubts, indicating where it will be located and its timetable.

— It is necessary to clarify which are the channels of communication in case of doubts: free hotline,

social media...

f) All the customers of the area should be congratulated for their collaboration, making them

participants of what their collaboration contributes.

Details of how to separate biowaste, where the collection point is, etc. are shown in the following clauses.

5.7.3 Communication through press, radio, TV, social media. From the general to the particular

Reliance on traditional media alone does not change behaviors unless you have personalized

communication. Therefore, focus all messages on personalizing them as much as possible.

It is advisable to start with the mass media (press, radio, TV) and then move on to more personal media

(website, social media, etc.).

The advertising campaign must unify all the elements of the biowaste collection in order to be easily

recognizable by the customer. These elements are:
— Image of the collection point.
— Printed communication.
— Verbal communication: slogans, radio, TV.
— Merchandising: collection buckets, magnets, etc.
In the messages the following information should be reported:
— That we all generate biowaste.
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— It is the waste that we produce the most by weight.

— That we cannot continue to exploit nature and the collection of this waste comes to solve this issue.

...

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