Chemicals used for treatment of water intended for human consumption - Iron (III) chloride

This document is applicable to iron (III) chloride (a), iron (III) chloride hexahydrate (b), iron (III) chloride solution (c) used for treatment of water intended for human consumption. It describes the characteristics and specifies the requirements and the corresponding analytical methods for iron (III) chlorides (a), (b) and (c) (analytical methods are given in Annex B) and gives information for their use in water treatment.

Produkte zur Aufbereitung von Wasser für den menschlichen Gebrauch - Eisen(III)chlorid

Dieses Dokument gilt für Eisen(III)chlorid (a), Eisen(III)chloridhexahydrat (b) und Eisen(III)chloridlösung (c) zur Aufbereitung von Wasser für den menschlichen Gebrauch. Es beschreibt die Eigenschaften der Eisen(III)chloride (a), (b) und (c) und legt die Anforderungen sowie die entsprechenden Analysenverfahren für die Eisen(III)chloride (a), (b) und (c) fest (Analysenverfahren sind in Anhang B enthalten). Es gibt Informationen über die Anwendung der Eisen(III)chloride (a), (b) und (c) in der Wasseraufbereitung.

Produits chimiques utilisés pour le traitement de l'eau destinée a la consommation humaine - Chlorure de fer (III)

Kemikalije, ki se uporabljajo za pripravo pitne vode - Železov (III) klorid

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
28-Feb-2005
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
01-Mar-2005
Due Date
01-Mar-2005
Completion Date
01-Mar-2005

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN 888:2005
01-marec-2005
1DGRPHãþD
SIST EN 888:2000
Kemikalije, ki se uporabljajo za pripravo pitne vode - Železov (III) klorid

Chemicals used for treatment of water intended for human consumption - Iron (III)

chloride
Produkte zur Aufbereitung von Wasser für den menschlichen Gebrauch - Eisen(III)
chlorid

Produits chimiques utilisés pour le traitement de l'eau destinée a la consommation

humaine - Chlorure de fer (III)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN 888:2004
ICS:
13.060.20 Pitna voda Drinking water
71.100.80 .HPLNDOLMH]DþLãþHQMHYRGH Chemicals for purification of
water
SIST EN 888:2005 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN 888:2005
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SIST EN 888:2005
EUROPEAN STANDARD
EN 888
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
November 2004
ICS 71.100.80 Supersedes EN 888:1998
English version
Chemicals used for treatment of water intended for human
consumption - Iron (III) chloride

Produits chimiques utilisés pour le traitement de l'eau Produkte zur Aufbereitung von Wasser für den

destinée à la consommation humaine - Chlorure de fer (III) menschlichen Gebrauch - Eisen(III)chlorid

This European Standard was approved by CEN on 30 September 2004.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European

Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national

standards may be obtained on application to the Central Secretariat or to any CEN member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation

under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the Central Secretariat has the same status as the official

versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France,

Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia,

Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
Management Centre: rue de Stassart, 36 B-1050 Brussels

© 2004 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN 888:2004: E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN 888:2005
EN 888:2004 (E)
Contents
Page

Foreword..............................................................................................................................................................3

Introduction .........................................................................................................................................................4

1 Scope ......................................................................................................................................................5

2 Normative references ............................................................................................................................5

3 Description .............................................................................................................................................5

4 Purity criteria..........................................................................................................................................8

5 Test methods........................................................................................................................................10

6 Labelling – Transportation – Storage ................................................................................................13

Annex A (informative) General information on iron (III) chloride ...............................................................15

Annex B (normative) Analytical methods .....................................................................................................19

Annex C (informative) Reduction of Fe (III) on a silver column..................................................................34

Annex D (informative) Determination of cadmium, chromium, nickel and lead (inductively

coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP/OES)) ...........................................................35

Bibliography ......................................................................................................................................................37

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SIST EN 888:2005
EN 888:2004 (E)
Foreword

This document (EN 888:2004) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 164 “Water supply”, the

secretariat of which is held by AFNOR.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identical

text or by endorsement, at the latest by May 2005, and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn at the

latest by May 2005.
This document supersedes EN 888:1998.

Significant technical differences between this edition and EN 888:1998 are as follows:

a) replacement of the reference to EU Directive 80/778 of 15 July 1980 with the latest Directive in force

(see[1]);
b) expansion of annex A by addition of A.2 "Quality of commercial product";
c) deletion of annex E.

According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the following

countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Czech Republic,

Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,

Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland

and United Kingdom.
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SIST EN 888:2005
EN 888:2004 (E)
Introduction

In respect of potential adverse effects on the quality of water intended for human consumption, caused by the

product covered by this document:

a) This document provides no information as to whether the product may be used without restriction in any

of the Member States of the EU or EFTA;

b) It should be noted that, while awaiting the adoption of verifiable European criteria, existing national

regulations concerning the use and/or the characteristics of this product remain in force.

NOTE Conformity with this standard does not confer or imply acceptance or approval of the product in any of the

Member States of the EU or EFTA. The use of the product covered by this document is subject to regulation or control by

National Authorities.
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SIST EN 888:2005
EN 888:2004 (E)
1 Scope

This document is applicable to iron (III) chloride (a), iron (III) chloride hexahydrate (b), iron (III) chloride

solution (c) used for treatment of water intended for human consumption. It describes the characteristics and

specifies the requirements and the corresponding analytical methods for iron (III) chlorides (a), (b) and (c)

(analytical methods are given in Annex B) and gives information for their use in water treatment.

2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced

document (including any amendments) applies.

EN ISO 3696, Water for analytical laboratory use – Specification and test methods (ISO 3696:1987).

ISO 3165, Sampling of chemical products for industrial use – Safety in sampling

ISO 5790: 1979, Inorganic chemical products for industrial use – General method for the determination of

chloride content- Mercurimetric method
ISO 6206, Chemical products for industrial use – Sampling – Vocabulary

ISO 8213, Chemical products for industrial use – Sampling techniques – Solid chemical products in the form

of particles varying from powders to coarse lumps
3 Description
3.1 Identification
3.1.1 Chemical name
(a) iron (III) chloride (FeCl ).
(b) iron (III) chloride hexahydrate (FeCl . 6 H O).
3 2
(c) iron (III) chloride solution.
3.1.2 Synonym or common names
(a) Ferric chloride, water free ferric chloride.
(b) Ferric chloride hexahydrate.
(c) Ferric chloride solution.
3.1.3 Relative molecular mass
(a) 162,21.for FeCl
(b) 270,31.for FeCl . 6 H O
3 2
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SIST EN 888:2005
EN 888:2004 (E)
3.1.4 Empirical formula
(a) FeCl .
(b) FeCl . 6 H O.
3 2
3.1.5 Chemical formula
(a) FeCl .
(b) FeCl . 6 H O.
3 2
3.1.6 CAS Registry Number
(a) and (c) 7705-08-0.
(b) 10025-77-1.
3.1.7 EINECS reference
231-729-4.
3.2 Commercial forms
Iron (III) chloride (a) is available as a crystalline powder.
Iron (III) chloride hexahydrate (b) is available as crystalline granules.
Liquid forms of iron (III) chloride (c) are available as solutions.
3.3 Physical properties
3.3.1 Appearance

Iron (III) chloride (a) is an hygroscopic, dark grey crystalline powder with a greenish sheen.

Iron (III) chloride hexahydrate (b) is an hygroscopic, yellow deliquescent crystalline granular material.

Liquid forms of iron (III) chloride (c) are dark brown solutions.
3.3.2 Density
The density of iron (III) chloride (a) is equal to 2,89 g/cm at 20 °C.

The density of iron (III) chloride hexahydrate (b) is equal to 1,8 g/cm at 20 °C.

The density of solutions of iron (III) chloride(c) is equal to 1,43 g/ml at 20 °C for a mass fraction of 40 % of

FeCl .
The bulk density of the products (a) and (b) is about 1,0 kg/dm .
1) Chemical Abstracts Service Registry Number
2) European Inventory of Existing Commercial Chemical Substances
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SIST EN 888:2005
EN 888:2004 (E)
3.3.3 Solubility (in water)
The solubility at 20 °C for the products
(a) and (b) is approximately up to a mass fraction of 47 % of FeCl .

The products (a), (b) and (c) can be diluted down to about a mass fraction of 1 % of FeCl . Below this

concentration, hydrolysis and formation of iron hydroxide will occur.
3.3.4 Vapour pressure
For the product (a) 0,1 kPa at 20 °C.
3.3.5 Boiling point at 100 kPa
For the product (a) decomposition occurs at 315 °C.
For the product (b) decomposition starts at 160 °C.
3.3.6 Melting point
For the product (a) 304 °C (point of sublimation).
For the product (b) 37 °C.

For the product (c) the melting and crystallization points depending on concentration are given in Table 1.

Table 1 – Melting point
Solution concentration
Melting, crystallization point
Mass fraction of FeCl
in %
34 -52
40 -12
45 +10
3.3.7 Specific heat
For the product (a) 600 kJ/kg.K.
For the product (b) not known.
For the product (c) not applicable.
3.3.8 Viscosity (dynamic)
For the products (a) and (b) it is not applicable.

For the product (c) the viscosity is about 10 mPa.s for a solution of a mass fraction of 40 % of FeCl at 20 °C.

3) 100 kPa = 1 bar
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SIST EN 888:2005
EN 888:2004 (E)
3.3.9 Critical temperature
Not applicable.
3.3.10 Critical pressure
Not applicable.
3.3.11 Physical hardness
Not applicable.
3.4 Chemical properties

The solutions of iron (III) chloride (a) and iron (III) chloride hexahydrate of (b), and the liquid forms of iron (III)

chloride (c) are acidic and highly corrosive. Very diluted solutions hydrolyse and form a precipitate of iron

hydroxide.
4 Purity criteria
4.1 General

This document specifies the minimum purity requirements for iron (III) chloride used for the treatment of water

intended for human consumption. Limits are given for impurities commonly present in the product. Depending

on the raw material and the manufacturing process other impurities may be present and, if so, this shall be

notified to the user and when necessary to relevant authorities.

NOTE Users of these products should check the national regulations in order to clarify whether it is of appropriate

purity for treatment of water intended for human consumption, taking account raw water quality, required dosage, contents

of other impurities and additives used in the products not stated in this product standard.

Limits have been given for impurities and chemical parameters where these are likely to be present in

significant quantities from the current production process and raw materials. If the production process or raw

materials lead to significant quantities of impurities, by-products or additives being present, this shall be

notified to the user.
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SIST EN 888:2005
EN 888:2004 (E)
4.2 Composition of commercial product

The concentration of active matter in the product expressed as mass fraction in % of FeCl or Fe (III) shall be

within ± 3 % of the manufacturer’s declared values.

The products shall conform to the following minimum requirements given in Table 2.

Table 2 – Minimum concentration of active matter
FeCl Fe (III)
Commercial form Mass fraction Mass fraction
in % in %
Solid (a) 99 34
Solid (b) 59 20,3
Solution (c) 40 13,7

The concentration of the solutions (c) shall be within the manufacturer's specifications.

4.3 Impurities and main by-products
The product shall conform to the requirements specified in Table 3.
The concentration limits refer to Fe (III).
Table 3 – Impurities
Limit
Mass fraction of Fe (III) content
Impurity
in %
Grade 1 Grade 2 Grade 3
Manganese max. 0,5 1 2
max. 2,5 2,5 2,5
Iron(II)
max. 0,2 0,2 0,2
Insoluble matters
Fe (II) has a lower coagulant efficiency compared to Fe (III).
Also hydrolysis of Fe (II) starts at pH value 8, and therefore Fe (II) can
remain into the water at lower pH values.
an excess of insoluble matters indicates the presence of foreign
matter Iron is a component of the product will usually be removed in the
treatment process.
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SIST EN 888:2005
EN 888:2004 (E)
4.4 Chemical parameters
The product shall conform to the requirements specified in Table 4.
The concentration limits are specified in milligrams per kilogram of Fe (III).
Table 4 – Chemical parameters
Limit
Parameter mg/kg of Fe (III)
type 1 type 2 type 3
Arsenic (As) max. 20 20 50
Cadmium (Cd) max. 1 25 50
Chromium (Cr) max. 50 350 500
Mercury (Hg) max. 0,3 5 10
Nickel (Ni) max. 60 350 500
Lead (Pb) max. 35 100 400
Antimony (Sb) max. 10 20 60
Selenium (Se) max. 10 20 60
NOTE Cyanide (CN),pesticides and polycyclic aromatic
hydrocarbons are not relevant since the raw materials used in the
manufacturing process are free of them. For maximum impact of iron (III)
chloride on trace metal content in drinking water see A.2.
5 Test methods
5.1 Sampling
5.1.1 General
Observe the general recommendations in ISO 3165 and take into account ISO 6206.
5.1.2 Solid

Prepare the laboratory sample required by the relevant procedure described in ISO 8213.

5.1.3 Liquid
5.1.3.1 Sampling from drums and bottles
5.1.3.1.1 General

5.1.3.1.1.1 Mix the contents of each container to be sampled by shaking the container, by rolling it or by

rocking it from side to side, taking care not to damage the container or spill any of the liquid.

5.1.3.1.1.2 If the design of the container is such (for example, a narrow-necked bottle) that it is

impracticable to use a sampling implement, take a sample by pouring after the contents have been thoroughly

mixed. Otherwise, proceed as described in 5.1.3.1.1.3.
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SIST EN 888:2005
EN 888:2004 (E)

5.1.3.1.1.3 Examine the surface of the liquid. If there are signs of surface contamination, take samples

from the surface as described in 5.1.3.1.2. Otherwise, take samples as described in 5.1.3.1.3.

5.1.3.1.2 Surface sampling

Take a sample using a suitable ladle. Lower the ladle into the liquid until the rim is just below the surface, so

that the surface layer runs into it. Withdraw the ladle just before it fills completely and allow any liquid adhering

to the ladle to drain off. If necessary, repeat this operation so that, when the other selected containers have

been sampled in a similar manner, the total volume of sample required for subsequent analysis is obtained.

5.1.3.1.3 Bottom sampling

Take a sample using an open sampling tube, or a bottom-valve sampling tube, suited to the size of container

and the viscosity of the liquid.

When using an open sampling tube, close it at the top and then lower the bottom end to the bottom of the

container. Open the tube and move it rapidly so that the bottom of the tube traverses the bottom of the

container before the tube is filled. Close the tube, withdraw it from the container and allow any liquid adhering

at the outside of the tube to drain off.

When using a bottom-valve sampling tube, close the valve before lowering the tube into the container and

then proceed in a similar manner to that when using an open sampling tube.
5.1.3.2 Sampling from tanks and tankers
From each access point, take samples as follows:
a) from the surface of the liquid, using a ladle as described in 5.1.3.1.2;

b) from the bottom of the tank or tanker, using a sampling tube as described in 5.1.3.1.3 or using specially

designed bottom-sampling apparatus;

c) from one or more positions, depending on the overall depth, between the bottom and the surface using a

weighted sampling can.
5.2 Analyses
5.2.1 Main product

Iron (III)chloride is determined as Fe (III) contents in the test sample. Fe (III) content is determined as the

difference between total iron content and Fe (II) content (see B.1).
5.2.2 Impurities
5.2.2.1 Manganese

The manganese content shall be determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) (see B.2).

5.2.2.2 Iron(II)
The iron (II) content is expressed as C (see B.1.2.5.3).
(II)
5.2.2.3 Insoluble matters

The mass fraction in % of the insoluble matters shall be determined in accordance with the method described

in B.3.
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SIST EN 888:2005
EN 888:2004 (E)
5.2.3 Chemical parameters
5.2.3.1 Preparation of sample solution
5.2.3.1.1 General
Oxidation and wet digestion is used to bring the samples into a stable solution.
5.2.3.1.2 Principle

Oxidation with hydrogen peroxide (H O followed by digestion with hydrochloric acid (HCl).

2 2
5.2.3.1.3 Reagents

All reagents shall be of a recognized analytical grade and the water used shall conform to the grade 3

specified in EN ISO 3696.
5.2.3.1.3.1 Hydrochloric acid (HCl), solution, mass fraction 30 %.
5.2.3.1.3.2 Hydrogen peroxide (H O ), solution, mass fraction 30 %.
2 2
5.2.3.1.4 Apparatus
Ordinary laboratory apparatus and glassware together with the following.
5.2.3.1.4.1 Analytical balance.
5.2.3.1.4.2 Graduated cylinder, capacity 50 ml.
5.2.3.1.4.3 Round flask with reflux condenser.
5.2.3.1.4.4 Hot plate.
5.2.3.1.4.5 Volumetric flask, capacity 200 ml.
5.2.3.1.5 Procedure

Dissolve with 20 ml of water 20,0 g of the iron salt or iron solution. Add 5 ml hydrogen peroxide solution

(5.2.3.1.3.2) to iron (III)-samples. After adding 50 ml hydrochloric acid (5.2.3.1.3.1) boil the solution for 15 min

by using a reflux condenser (5.2.3.1.4.3). Cool down the solution, transfer to a 200 ml volumetric flask

(5.2.3.1.4.5) and fill up to the mark with water. This is the sample solution.
5.2.3.2 Arsenic

The arsenic content shall be determined by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (see B.4).

5.2.3.3 Cadmium

The cadmium content shall be determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (see B.6).

5.2.3.4 Chromium

The chromium content shall be determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (see B.6).

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SIST EN 888:2005
EN 888:2004 (E)
5.2.3.5 Mercury

The mercury content shall be determined by cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry (see B.5).

5.2.3.6 Nickel

The nickel content shall be determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (see B.6).

5.2.3.7 Lead

The lead content shall be determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (see B.6).

5.2.3.8 Antimony

The antimony content shall be determined by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (see B.4).

5.2.3.9 Selenium

The selenium content shall be determined by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (see B.4).

6 Labelling – Transportation – Storage
6.1 Means of delivery

In order that the purity of the product is not affected, the means of delivery shall not have been used

previously for any different product or it shall have been specially cleaned and prepared before use.

6.2 Risk and safety labelling according to the EU Directives
Iron (III) chloride is not subject to labelling regulations.

NOTE Annex I of the Directive 67/548/EEC on Classification, packaging and labelling of dangerous substances and

its amendments and adaptations in the European Union contains a list of substances classified by the EU. Substances not

in this Annex I should be classified on the basis of their intrinsic properties according to the criteria in the Directive by the

person responsible for the marketing of the substance.
6.3 Transportation regulations and labelling

The commercial product can be subject to transportation regulations and, if so, the iron (III) chloride (a) is

listed as UN Number 1773 and the liquid forms (c) as UN number 2582.
6) 7)
RID ADR : (a) class 8, classification code C2; packing group III;
(c) class 8, classification code C1; packing group III;
IMDG : (a) class 8; (c) class 8.
IATA : (a) class 8; (c) class 8.
4) See [2].
5) United Nations Number
6) Regulations concerning International carriage of Dangerous goods by rail

7) European Agreement concerning the international carriage of Dangerous goods by Road

8) International Maritime transport of Dangerous Goods
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SIST EN 888:2005
EN 888:2004 (E)
6.4 Marking
The marking shall include the following information:
 the name "iron (III) chloride", trade name, commercial form, grade and type;
 the net mass;
 the name and the address of the supplier and/or manufacturer;
 the statement "This product conforms to EN 888".
6.5 Storage
6.5.1 Long term stability
Products are stable, but for solution (c) see 6.5.2.
6.5.2 Storage incompatibilities

Products (a) and (b): keep barrels dry and tightly closed. Keep away from water, these products are

hygroscopic.

Solution (c): keep away from alkalis, this product reacts aggressively towards metals and strong oxidizing

agents (chlorites, hypochlorites and sulfites).
9) International Air Transport Association
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SIST EN 888:2005
EN 888:2004 (E)
Annex A
(informative)
General information on iron (III) chloride
A.1 Origin
A.1.1 Raw materials

Depending on the product and the manufacturer, the iron (III) chloride is manufactured from: iron, iron ore,

chlorine.

Depending on the product and manufacturer, the iron (III) chloride hexahydrate and the iron (III) chloride

solutions are manufactured from: iron, iron (II) chloride, chlorine, iron (III) oxide, hydrochloric acid.

A.1.2 Manufacturing process

Iron (III) chloride is produced by reaction of iron or iron (III) oxide with chlorine.

Iron (III) chloride hexahydrate and iron (III) chloride solution are produced by reaction of iron or iron (III) oxide

with chlorine or by reaction of iron (III) oxide and hydrochloric acid.
A.2 Quality of commercial product

The three types of iron (II) chloride specified in Table 4 reflect the quality of commercially available products.

Figures A.1 to A.3 show the maximum concentrations of trace metals that would be added to the raw water by

the addition of products corresponding to the purity levels specified in Table 4. It can be seen that the

concentrations of metal added are well below the Parametric Values given in the EU Directive 98/83/EC (see

[1]) at typical product doses. Furthermore, the figures overstate the concentrations of metals that would be

present in the treated water since a substantial proportion of the trace metals will be incorporated in the

sludge. Users of this product should select an appropriate grade and type to enable them to achieve treated

water quality targets taking into account raw water characteristics, required dosage, process plant conditions

and other relevant factors.
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SIST EN 888:2005
EN 888:2004 (E)
Key
1 Maximum addition to water µg/l metal
2 Product dosage mg/l Fe - Typical dose
A Element
B Drinking water limit µg/l

Figure A.1 — Maximum impact of iron (III) chloride, type 1, on trace metal content of water

Key
1 Maximum addition to water µg/l metal
2 Product dosage mg/l Fe - Typical dose
A Element
B Drinking water limit µg/l

Figure A.2 — Maximum impact of iron (III) chloride, type 2, on trace metal content of water

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SIST EN 888:2005
EN 888:2004 (E)
Key
1 Maximum addition to water µg/l metal
2 Product dosage mg/l Fe - Typical dose
A Element
B Drinking water limit µg/l

Figure A.3 — Maximum impact of iron (III) chloride, type 3, on trace metal content of water

A.3 Use
A.3.1 Function
The products are used as primary coagulants.
A.3.2 Form in which it is used

The products are used up to about a mass fraction of 40 % of FeCl (the concentration should not be less

than a mass fraction of 1 % of FeCl , because solutions of lower concentration can hydrolyse and form a

precipitate).
A.3.3 Treatment dose

The treatment dose is variable depending on raw water quality and applications. In most cases, the treatment

dose corresponds to approximately 2 g/m to 10 g/m expressed as Fe.
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SIST EN 888:2005
EN 888:2004 (E)
A.3.4 Means of application

The products are applied in solution form usually dosed by positive displacement metering pump. Sufficient

turbulence should be provided at the point of addition to promote rapid dispersion. Product supplied as

solution can be dosed by metering of the neat product followed by dilution with carrier water.

A.3.5 Secondary effects
 Reduction of pH value
 Reduction of alkalinity.
 Increase in chloride concentration.
A.3.6 Removal of excess product

The coagulation process includes the hydrolysis of the ferric ions to ferric hydroxide. This precipitate is

removed by sedimentation, flotation, and/or filtration.
A.4 General rules relating to safety
A.4.1 Rules for safe handling and use
The supplier will provide current safety instructions.
A.4.2 Emergency procedures
A.4.2.1 First aid

In case of contact with skin, all contaminated clothing should be removed and the skin washed with plenty of

soap and water.

In case of contact with eyes, they should be rinsed with running water (15 min), with eyelids open.

In case of ingestion, the patient should be made to drink water.
In case of inhalation, the patient should be removed to fresh air.

In all cases of contact with skin and eyes, ingestion and inhalation: medical advice should be sought.

A.4.2.2 Spillage

The major of the spillage should be collected; the remainder should be neutralized with calcium hydroxide and

rinsed with plenty of water.
A.4.2.3 Fire

The products are not combustible. In case of excessive heat: chlorine and hydrogen chloride can be produced.

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EN 888:2004 (E)
Annex B
(normative)
Analytical methods
B.1 Determination of iron(III) chloride
B.1.1 Total iron
B.1.1.1 General

This method applies to products with iron contents greater than a mass fraction of 0,2 %.

B.1.1.2 Principle

Iron is reduced by tin (II) chloride and is subsequently titrated with potassium dichromate solution.

B.1.1.3 Reagents

All reagents shall be of a recognized analytical grade and the water used shall conform to the grade 3 in

accordance with EN ISO 3696.
B.1.1.3.1 Hydrochloric acid, HCl concentrated, density ρ = 1,19 g/ml.

B.1.1.3.2 Tin (II) chloride solution, c(SnCl .2H O) = 0,5 mol/l. Dissolve 22,6 g of SnCl 2H O with 20 ml of

2 2 2. 2

hydrochloric acid (B.1.1.3.1) and dilute with water to 200 ml. Keep this solution in the dark.

B.1.1.3.3 Mercury (II) chloride, saturated solution c(HgCl ) = 0,27 mol/l.
B.1.1.3.4 Sulfuric acid, H SO concentrated, density ρ = 1,84 g/ml.
2 4
B.1.1.3.5 Phosphoric acid, H PO concentrated, density ρ = 1,71 g/ml.
3 4

B.1.1.3.6 Barium diphenylamine sulfonate solution, c(Ba(C H -NH-C H SO ) ) = 8 mmol/l.

6 5 6 4 3 2
B.1.1.3.7 Potassium dichromate solution, c(K Cr O ) = 0,0166 mol/l.
2 2 7
B.1.1.4 Apparatus
Ordinary laboratory apparatus and glassware.
B.1.1.5 Procedure
B.1.1.5.1 Test solution
...

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