Facility Management - Part 6: Area and Space Measurement in Facility Management

This European Standard establishes a common basis for planning and design, area and space management, financial assessment, as well as a tool for benchmarking in the field of Facility Management.
This standard covers area and space measurement for existing owned or leased buildings as well as buildings in state of planning or development.
This standard presents a framework for measuring floor areas within buildings and areas outside of buildings. In addition, it contains clear terms and definitions as well as methods for measuring horizontal areas and volumes in buildings and/or parts of buildings, independent of their function.

Facility Management - Teil 6: Flächenbemessung im Facility Management

Dieses Dokument schafft eine gemeinsame Grundlage für die Planung und Auslegung für Flächenmanagement und Finanzbewertung und bietet ein Werkzeug für Benchmarking im Bereich des Facility Managements.
Dieses Dokument behandelt die Flächenmessung für bestehende im Eigentum befindliche oder gemietete Gebäude sowie die Bemessung für Gebäude in der Planungs- oder Entwicklungsphase.
Dieses Dokument bietet einen Rahmen für die Messung von Grundflächen in Gebäuden und Flächen außerhalb von Gebäuden. Darüber hinaus enthält sie eindeutige Begriffe und Definitionen sowie Verfahren zur Messung von horizontalen Grundflächen und Rauminhalten (Volumen) in Gebäuden und/oder Gebäudeteilen unabhängig von ihrer Funktion.

Facility management - Partie 6 : Mesure des surfaces et de l’espace en facility management

Le présent document établit une base commune applicable à la planification et à la conception, à la gestion des surfaces et de l’espace, à l’évaluation financière et constitue également un outil d’étalonnage comparatif dans le domaine du facility management.
Le présent document concerne la mesure des surfaces et de l’espace de bâtiments existants possédés ou loués, ainsi que de bâtiments au stade de planification ou de développement.
Le présent document spécifie un cadre de mesure des surfaces de plancher dans des bâtiments et des surfaces à l’extérieur des bâtiments. Il comprend par ailleurs des termes et définitions clairs, ainsi que des méthodes de mesure des surfaces horizontales et des volumes dans des bâtiments et/ou des parties de bâtiments, indépendamment de leur fonction.

Upravljanje objektov in storitev - 6. del: Merjenje površin in prostorov pri upravljanju objektov in storitev

General Information

Status
Not Published
Public Enquiry End Date
23-Jan-2019
Technical Committee
Current Stage
4020 - Public enquire (PE) (Adopted Project)
Start Date
08-Nov-2018
Due Date
28-Mar-2019
Completion Date
23-Jan-2019

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
oSIST prEN 15221-6:2019
01-januar-2019
Upravljanje objektov in storitev - 6. del: Merjenje površin in prostorov pri
upravljanju objektov in storitev
Facility Management - Part 6: Area and Space Measurement in Facility Management
Facility Management - Teil 6: Flächenbemessung im Facility Management
Facility management - Partie 6 : Mesure des surfaces et de l’espace en facility
management
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: prEN 15221-6
ICS:
03.080.10 Vzdrževalne storitve. Maintenance services.
Upravljanje objektov Facilities management
91.040.01 Stavbe na splošno Buildings in general
oSIST prEN 15221-6:2019 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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oSIST prEN 15221-6:2019
DRAFT
EUROPEAN STANDARD
prEN 15221-6
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
November 2018
ICS 03.080.10 Will supersede EN 15221-6:2011
English Version
Facility Management - Part 6: Area and Space
Measurement in Facility Management

Facility management - Partie 6 : Mesure des surfaces et Facility Management - Teil 6: Flächenbemessung im

de l'espace en facility management Facility Management

This draft European Standard is submitted to CEN members for enquiry. It has been drawn up by the Technical Committee

CEN/TC 348.

If this draft becomes a European Standard, CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations

which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration.

This draft European Standard was established by CEN in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other

language made by translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC

Management Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,

Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and United Kingdom.

Recipients of this draft are invited to submit, with their comments, notification of any relevant patent rights of which they are

aware and to provide supporting documentation.

Warning : This document is not a European Standard. It is distributed for review and comments. It is subject to change without

notice and shall not be referred to as a European Standard.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2018 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. prEN 15221-6:2018 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................... 4

1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................................... 6

2 Normative references .................................................................................................................................... 6

3 Terms and definitions ................................................................................................................................... 6

4 Methods and units of measurement ......................................................................................................... 7

4.1 Units ..................................................................................................................................................................... 7

4.2 Distance .............................................................................................................................................................. 8

4.3 Area ................................................................................................................................................................... 11

4.4 Volume ............................................................................................................................................................. 12

5 Framework of area and space measurement of buildings ............................................................ 12

5.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 12

5.2 Level Area (LA) .............................................................................................................................................. 15

5.3 Non-functional Level Area (NLA) ............................................................................................................ 17

5.4 Gross Floor Area (GFA)............................................................................................................................... 18

5.5 Exterior Construction Area (ECA) .......................................................................................................... 20

5.6 Internal Floor Area (IFA) ........................................................................................................................... 21

5.7 Interior Construction Area (ICA) ............................................................................................................ 23

5.8 Net Floor Area (NFA) ................................................................................................................................... 24

5.9 Partition Wall Area (PWA) ........................................................................................................................ 26

5.10 Net Room Area (NRA) ................................................................................................................................. 27

5.11 Technical Area (TA) .................................................................................................................................... 29

5.12 Circulation Area (CA) .................................................................................................................................. 30

5.13 Amenity Area (AA) ....................................................................................................................................... 32

5.14 Primary Area (PA) ....................................................................................................................................... 33

6 Area and space measurement outside of buildings ......................................................................... 34

6.1 Additional terminology .............................................................................................................................. 34

6.2 Classification .................................................................................................................................................. 36

Annex A (normative) Area Matrix ...................................................................................................................... 38

Annex B (normative) Further illustrations ...................................................................................................... 41

B.1 Further illustrations for atria .................................................................................................................. 41

B.2 Further illustrations for covered areas and uncovered areas ..................................................... 42

B.3 Vehicle parking area ................................................................................................................................... 43

B.4 Further illustrations for staircases and stairwells .......................................................................... 43

B.5 Walls ................................................................................................................................................................. 44

Annex C (informative) Examples for subcategories to Technical Areas, Circulation Areas,

Amenity Areas and Primary Areas ......................................................................................................... 46

Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................. 49

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European foreword

This document (prEN 15221-6:2018) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 348 “Facility

Management”, the secretariat of which is held by NEN.
This document is currently submitted to the CEN Enquiry.
This document will supersede EN 15221-6:2011.

This European Standard is one of the series ISO 41000 and EN 15221 “Facility Management” which

consists of the following parts:
1. ISO 41011:2017 Facility Management - Vocabulary

2. ISO 41012:Facility Management – Guidance on strategic sourcing and the development of agreements

3. ISO 41013 Facility Management – scope, key concepts and benefits
4. EN 15221 Part 3: Guidance on quality in Facility Management

5. EN 15221 Part 4: Taxonomy, Classification and Structures in Facility Management

6. EN 15221 Part 5: Guidance on Facility Management processes
7. EN 15221 Part 6: Area and Space measurement in Facility Management
8. EN 15221 Part 7: Performance Benchmarking

Note With the addition of the ISO standards, Part 1 and Part 2 of EN 15221 are withdrawn.

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Introduction

In 2013 the initiative was taken to interest parties at ISO level for the FM suite of standards of Europe,

the EN 15221 parts 1 to 7. This resulted in the re-development of the standards for vocabulary,

sourcing and agreements.
The result consists of the parts:
• ISO 41011 Facility Management – Vocabulary

• ISO 41012 Facility Management – Guidance on strategic sourcing and the development of

agreements.
• ISO 41013 Facility Management – Scope. Key concepts and benefits.

These standards also build on widely accepted management principles, in particular value chain

(Porter, M E, (1985), “Competitive Advantage: creating and sustaining superior performance”, Free

Press, New York) and quality control (PDCA (Plan, Do, Check, Act). Deming, W E (1986), “Out of the

Crisis”, MIT, Cambridge). Reference to ISO 10014:2006, Quality management – Guidelines for realizing

financial and economic benefits.

The principles of the Deming cycle (PDCA) underpin all of the standards but are applied to a different

extent and depth in each. In fact, there are different types of PDCA cycles depending of the term (e.g.

long-term, short-term).

These standards align to EN ISO 9000 family of standards for Quality Management Systems and applies

specific guidance on the concepts and use of a process-based approach to management systems to the

field of Facility Management.

The term “facility services” is used as a generic description in the standards. The term “standardized

facility products” refers to the “standardized facility services” defined and described in EN 15221-4,

Facility Management – Part 4: Taxonomy, Classification and Structures in Facility Management.

Countries can decide to substitute the term “product” into “service”, when they consider that it is

important for a good acceptance and use of the standards in their own country.

The aim of all the standards is to provide guidance to Facility Management (FM) organizations on the

development and improvement of their FM processes to support the primary activities. This will

support organizational development, innovation and improvement and will form a foundation for the

further professional development of FM and its advancement in Europe. Therefore, generic examples

are provided in the standard to assist organizations.

These standards lay the foundation of the work that has to be done further more in developing Facility

Management, for e.g. benchmark standards prEN 15221-7.

In order to support a consistent European approach to Facility Management, this document provides a

constructive framework with clear terms, definitions and principles for measuring floor areas and

spaces in buildings, not least a common language amongst all stakeholders in the entire construction

industry.

The need for a harmonized European approach to “area and space measurement” is evidenced by the

fact that many European countries currently use different rules and definitions for assessing building

floor areas. Subsequently, space measurement data from different countries is difficult to interpret and

data comparisons are most likely to be inaccurate. It is this comparability of data which is eminently

important for a wide range of decision-makers, such as planners and architects, economists and

investors, owners and tenants, politicians and administrators, etc.
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Recent research by the European Committee of Construction Economists (CEEC) highlighted the fact

that all European countries use similar elements for measuring floor areas in buildings. The way these

components are grouped and coded, however, differs vastly between various countries. Subsequently,

comparisons between the Net Internal Area of an UK building as measured by RICS with the Net

Enclosed Area (Netto-Grundfläche) of a German building as measured by DIN or the Net Floor Area

(Netto Vloeroppervlakte) of a Dutch building as measured by NEN are highly misleading as the floor

areas are measured differently.

In short, the fact that measuring specific floor areas in one and the same building using different

national standards result in variations up to 30 % clearly highlights the need for a harmonized

European approach to “area and space measurement”.
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1 Scope

This document establishes a common basis for planning and design, area and space management,

financial assessment, as well as a tool for benchmarking in the field of Facility Management.

This document covers area and space measurement for existing owned or leased buildings as well as

buildings in state of planning or development.

This document presents a framework for measuring floor areas within buildings and areas outside of

buildings. In addition, it contains clear terms and definitions as well as methods for measuring

horizontal areas and volumes in buildings and/or parts of buildings, independent of their function.

2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 41011 Facility Management – Vocabulary
ISO/TR 41013 Facility Management – Scope. Key concepts and benefits
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 41011:2017 and the following

apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
3.1
distance

numerical expression of a one-dimensional figure, measured along the shortest line linking two points

3.2
area

numerical expression of a two-dimensional surface, calculated mostly as the product of two distance

measures
3.3
volume

numerical expression of a three-dimensional concept, calculated mostly as the product of all three

distance measures
3.4
space
area or volume bounded actually or theoretically
[SOURCE: ISO 6707-1]
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3.5
floor

generally the lower horizontal structure of a room which constitutes the bounding element of a building

or part thereof
3.6
ceiling
generally the upper horizontal surface of a room
3.7
roof
covering structure which constitutes the top level of a building or part thereof
3.8
wall

generally vertical structure which constitutes the bounding elements of a building or part thereof

Note 1 to entry: It is distinguished between both structural walls and non-structural walls as well as exterior

and interior walls (see B.5):
A Structural walls support floors or roofs and/or ensure structural integrity
B Non-structural walls are intended to divide/separate space only
1 Exterior walls divide/separate inside rooms from the outside
2 Interior walls divide/separate inside rooms only

Combinations of the above are possible (e.g. interior walls can be structural and exterior walls can be non-

structural).
3.9
room

part of a building, entirely or partially bounded by dividing elements and whose floor and/or ceiling

forms part of the construction of the building, accessible to people
3.10
building

undivided shelter comprising a space entirely or partially bounded by enclosing structures, intended for

specific purposes for its occupants
4 Methods and units of measurement
4.1 Units
The units of measurement differ according to the type of calculation:
— distances are measures of one dimension and should be expressed in metres (m);

— areas are measures of two dimensions and should be expressed in square metres (m );

— volumes are measures of three dimensions and should be expressed in cubic metres (m ).

NOTE Where other measurements are used, this can be transformed by using existing formulas e.g. square

feet vs. square metre.
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4.2 Distance

For distances, it is necessary to distinguish between length, width and height. The length is measured as

linear extent from end to end (measurement of a horizontal distance). The width is measured as linear

extent from side to side (measurement of a horizontal distance). The height is measured as linear extent

from top to bottom (measurement of vertical distance).
NOTE 1 Width is equal to or smaller than length.

For lengths, widths and heights it is distinguished between gross and net distance:

— the gross length / width is measured as horizontal distance between the outer limiting faces of

exterior walls or the horizontal distance between the centres of interior walls;

— the net length / width is measured as horizontal distance between the inner limiting faces of walls,

whereby incidental structural components are not taken into consideration;

— the gross height is measured as vertical distance between the top of a finished floor or the adjoining

land and the top of the finished floor of a room situated above it or the top of the roof structure;

For the lowest storey in the building, gross height has to be measured to the bottom of the floor (up to

the maximum of an ordinary floor).

— the net height is measured as vertical distance between the top of a finished floor or the adjoining

land and the bottom of a ceiling or roof situated above it, whereby incidental structural components

are not taken into consideration;

— the free height is measured as vertical distance between the top of a finished floor or ground level

and the underside of the suspended ceiling that is situated above it, whereby incidental structural

components are not taken into consideration.
NOTE 2 The minimum passage height can be less than the free height.
— The construction height is the difference between gross height and net height.
Examples are given in Figures 1 and 2.
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a) Measuring distances on a vertical plane
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b) — Measuring distances on a horizontal plane seen from above
Key
1 room 1 b gross width l gross length 2
2 room 2 b gross width room 1 l net length 1
g1 N1
3 exterior wall bg2 gross width room 2 lN2 net length 2
4 interior wall bp passage width h gross height
5 floor b net width 1 h construction height
N1 c
6 floor or roof b N2 net width 2 hp passage height
7 suspended ceiling l gross length hN net height
8 ceiling l net length h free height
N F
9 raised floor l gross length 1
Figure 1 — Measuring Distances
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Key
1 highest floor level
2 intermediate floor level
3 lowest floor level
4 enclosed area
5 covered area
6 building area above ground
7 column
h gross height

Figure 2 — Examples of measuring gross distances in different buildings with multiple levels

4.3 Area

Both horizontal and vertical areas are measured by their actual dimensions. Inclined planes such as

ramps are measured by their vertical projection onto an (imaginary) horizontal plane illustrated. Stair

flights with a height difference < 1,50 m are illustrated at the plane where they start, stair flights with a

height difference ≥ 1,50 m are illustrated at the plane where they end (projected upward to the next

plane).
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Key
b width
l length
Figure 3 — Vertical projection

Gross areas are determined by the gross distances, net areas are determined by the net distances.

Areas which are solely needed for maintenance and emergency exits are not taken into account in this

standard.
4.4 Volume

Volumes are measured by their actual dimensions. Inclined planes, whether floors or walls, define

inclined bounds to the volume. Gross volumes are determined by the gross distances, net volumes are

determined by the net distances. Note that Non-functional Level Area concepts such as voids do not

apply here. When measuring volumes, a multi-level space is measured as a single volume.

5 Framework of area and space measurement of buildings
5.1 General

Buildings, rooms and floors shall be measured at the floor level (at the height level to the top of a

finished floor). Every floor level shall be measured separately. Areas with varying net heights within

one floor level may be calculated separately.

The area of a floor shall be determined as the area of the vertical projection onto the horizontal plane.

Wall openings in interior and exterior walls are also measured by the vertical projection of their outer

limits at floor level onto the horizontal plane and belong to the volume and area of exterior and interior

walls.
See Annex B for further information.
For all categories of areas it is distinguished between:

A spaces which are entirely covered and enclosed on all sides up to their full height;

B spaces which are entirely covered, but not enclosed on all sides up to their full height (e.g. recessed

balconies);
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C spaces which are not covered, but contained within components (e.g. open balconies).

Table 1 — Hierarchy of floor areas in the building
Level Area (LA)
Gross Floor Area (GFA)
Internal Floor Area (IFA)
Net Floor Area (NFA)
Net Room Area (NRA)
Technical Circulation Amenity Area Primary Area
Area (TA) Area (CA) (AA) (PA)
examples of examples of examples of examples of
subdivisions subdivisions subdivisions subdivisions
see Annex C see Annex C see Annex C see Annex C
ee 5.15

When defining the Rentable Floor Area it is strongly recommended to use one of the defined

measurements of the table above.

The application of the framework given in Table 1 is illustrated in the following example.

A section of this building is being given in Figure 4. In the following figures, the grey coloured areas are

showing in each case the area described in the subclause.
Non-functional Level Area (NLA)
Exterior Construction Area (ECA)
Interior Construction Area (ICA)
Partition Wall Area (PWA)
Unrestricted Technical Area
(UTA)
Restricted Technical Area (RTA)
Unrestricted Circulation Area
(UCA)
Restricted Circulation Area (RCA)
Unrestricted Amenity Area (UAA)
Restricted Amenity Area (RAA)
Unrestricted Primary Area (UPA)
Restricted Primary Area (RPA)
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Figure 4 — Floor plan of the upper floor of the building used as an example
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5.2 Level Area (LA)

Level Area is a measured area for one level, including all areas contained inside and measured to the

outside permanent finished surface. This includes penthouses and mezzanines, basement and

enclosed/covered connecting walkways and linkways.
Separate buildings have to be measured independently.
Here follows an exhaustive list of the elements contained within this term:
a) voids, atriums and cavities;
b) perimeter wall thickness;
c) external columns and piers;
d) structural walls and partitions;
e) internal columns and piers;
f) non-structural walls;
g) flexible and movable partitions;

h) rooms for mechanical services installations (e.g. lift rooms and boiler rooms as well as heating and

cooling apparatus);

i) rooms for electrical services installations (e.g. conductors and generators as well as mains

communication rooms);

j) rooms for other services installations (e.g. waste management installations and facilities

maintenance stores);
k) stairwells, lift-wells and escalators;
l) corridors and other circulation areas;

m) amenities include all sanitary areas (e.g. toilets, showers and changing rooms as well as cleaners'

rooms);

n) central support spaces (e.g. entrance halls and catering spaces as well as social and recreational

spaces);

o) local support spaces (e.g. meeting spaces, filing and storage space as well as print and copy areas);

p) work spaces (e.g. cellular offices, laboratories, shop floors, teaching areas or operating theatres).

An example of the Level Area is shown in Figure 5.
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Figure 1 — Measuring Level Area
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The Level Area is then broken down into Non-functional Level Area and Gross Floor Area.

5.3 Non-functional Level Area (NLA)

Non-functional Level Area is a measured area, consisting of voids, atriums and cavities.

An example of the Non-functional Level Area is shown in Figure 6.
Key
1 atrium above stair room on ground floor
2 atrium above entrance area
3 atrium above internal yard
4 void above technical area on ground floor
Figure 6 — Measuring Non-functional Level Area
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5.4 Gross Floor Area (GFA)

Gross Floor Area is the calculated area of Level Area (LA) excluding the Non-Functional Level Area

(NLA).
LA-NLA = GFA

To differentiate the term, the areas included in it are being given in the following list:

a) perimeter wall thickness;
b) external columns and piers;
c) structural walls and partitions;
d) internal columns and piers;
e) non-structural walls;
f) flexible and movable partitions;

g) rooms for mechanical services installations (e.g. lift rooms and boiler rooms as well as heating and

cooling apparatus);

h) rooms for electrical services installations (e.g. conductors and generators as well as mains

communication rooms);

i) rooms for other services installations (e.g. waste management installations and facilities

maintenance stores);
j) stairwells, lift-wells and escalators;
k) corridors and other circulation areas;

l) amenities include all sanitary areas (e.g. toilets, showers and changing rooms as well as cleaners'

rooms);

m) central support spaces (e.g. entrance halls and catering spaces as well as social and recreational

spaces);

n) local support spaces (e.g. meetings spaces, filing and storage space as well as print and copy areas);

o) work spaces (e.g. cellular offices, laboratories, shop floors, teaching areas or operating theatres).

An example of the Gross Floor Area is shown in Figure 7.
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Key
1 atrium above stair room on ground floor
2 atrium above entrance area
3 atrium above internal yard
Figure 7 — Measuring Gross Floor Area

The Gross Floor Area is then broken down into Exterior Construction Area and Internal Floor Area.

...

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