Facility Management - Part 4: Taxonomy, Classification and Structures in Facility Management

FM covers and integrates a very broad scope of processes, products / services, activities and facilities. The approach of this standard is to consider the added value provided to the primary activities by adopting a product perspective as recognised by the primary processes or core business in the organisation. This standard therefore introduces the concept of standardised (classified) facility products.
The scope of this standard is to provide taxonomy for FM which includes:
-   relevant interrelationship of elements and their structures in FM;
-   definitions of terms and contents to standardise facility products which provide a basis for cross border trade, data management, cost allocation and benchmarking;
-   a high level classification and hierarchical coding structure for the standardised facility products;
-   expanding the basic FM model given in EN 15221-1 by adding a time scale in the form of the quality cycle called PDCA (Plan, Do, Check, Act);
-   a linkage to existing cost and facilities structures;
-   alignment with the primary activities requirements.
Additional benefits from this standard are:
-   Introducing a client rather than a specifically asset oriented view;
-   harmonisation of different existing national structures (e.g. building cost codes) on an upper level relevant for the organisation and its primary activities.

Facility Management - Teil 4: Taxonomie, Klassifikation und Strukturen im Facility Management

Facility Management behandelt und integriert einen sehr breiten Anwendungsbereich von Prozessen, Produkten/Dienstleistungen, Aktivitäten und Facilities. Der FM-Ansatz in dieser Norm besteht darin, den für Hauptaktivitäten geschaffenen Mehrwert aus Produktperspektive zu betrachten, wie sie von den Hauptprozessen bzw. dem Kerngeschäft in der Organisation gesehen wird. Diese Norm führt deshalb das Konzept der standardisierten (klassifizierten) Facility-Produkte ein.
Der Anwendungsbereich dieser Norm besteht in der Bereitstellung einer Taxonomie für das FM, die Folgendes umfasst:
— relevante Wechselbeziehungen von Elementen und deren Strukturen im FM;
— Definitionen von Begriffen und Inhalten zu standardisierten Facility-Produkten, die eine Grundlage für grenzüberschreitendes Handeln, Datenmanagement, Kostenumlage und für das Benchmarking bilden;
— eine übergeordnete Klassifikation und hierarchische Strukturierung für die standardisierten Facility-Produkte;
— Erweiterung des in ISO 41011 angegebenen FM-Grundmodells um eine Prozessdimension in Form des PDCA-Qualitätszyklus (PDCA, Plan, Do, Check, Act, de: Planen, Durchführen, Prüfen, Handeln);
— eine Verbindung zu bestehenden Kosten- und Facilities-Strukturen;
— Anpassung an die Anforderungen der Hauptaktivitäten.
Zusätzliche Vorteile dieser Norm sind:
— Einführung einer auftraggeberorientierten anstelle einer rein immobilienorientierten Betrachtungsweise;
— Harmonisierung von bestehenden, unterschiedlichen nationalen Strukturen (z. B. Gebäude-Kosten-schlüssel) auf einem für die Organisation und deren Hauptaktivitäten relevanten hohen Niveau.

Facility management - Taxinomie, classification et structures en facility management

Le FM couvre et intègre un très large éventail de processus, produits/services, activités et installations. L’approche de la présente norme consiste à étudier la valeur ajoutée aux activités principales du point de vue du produit tel que reconnu par les processus principaux ou les activités principales de l’organisme. La présente norme introduit par conséquent le concept de produits normalisés (classés) de gestion des installations.
La présente norme a pour objet de fournir une taxinomie relative au FM qui inclut :
— la corrélation pertinente entre les éléments et leurs structures en FM ;
— les définitions des termes et contenu de normalisation des produits de gestion des installations qui fournissent la base d’un commerce transfrontière, de la gestion des données, de la ventilation des coûts et de l’étalonnage comparatif ;
— une classification de haut niveau et une structure de codage hiérarchique pour les produits normalisés de gestion des installations ;
— l’extension du modèle de FM de base donné dans l’ISO 41011 en ajoutant une échelle de temps sous la forme d’un cycle de la qualité appelé roue de Deming (PDCA — Planifier, Réaliser, Vérifier, Agir) ;
— une relation avec les structures de coûts et d’installations existantes ;
— un alignement sur les exigences concernant les activités principales.
La présente norme présente les avantages supplémentaires suivants :
— introduction d’une vision orientée sur le donneur d’ordres et non d’une vision spécifiquement orientée sur les actifs ;
— harmonisation des différentes structures nationales existantes (par exemple, codes relatifs au coût de construction) à un niveau supérieur pertinent pour l’organisme et ses activités principales.

Upravljanje objektov in storitev - 4. del: Taksonomija, klasifikacija in struktura pri upravljanju objektov in storitev

General Information

Status
Not Published
Public Enquiry End Date
23-Jan-2019
Technical Committee
Current Stage
4020 - Public enquire (PE) (Adopted Project)
Start Date
08-Nov-2018
Due Date
28-Mar-2019
Completion Date
23-Jan-2019

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
oSIST prEN 15221-4:2019
01-januar-2019

Upravljanje objektov in storitev - 4. del: Taksonomija, klasifikacija in struktura pri

upravljanju objektov in storitev

Facility Management - Part 4: Taxonomy, Classification and Structures in Facility

Management

Facility Management - Teil 4: Taxonomie, Klassifikation und Strukturen im Facility

Management

Facility management - Taxinomie, classification et structures en facility management

Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: prEN 15221-4
ICS:
03.080.10 Vzdrževalne storitve. Maintenance services.
Upravljanje objektov Facilities management
91.040.01 Stavbe na splošno Buildings in general
oSIST prEN 15221-4:2019 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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oSIST prEN 15221-4:2019
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oSIST prEN 15221-4:2019
DRAFT
EUROPEAN STANDARD
prEN 15221-4
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
November 2018
ICS 03.080.10 Will supersede EN 15221-4:2011
English Version
Facility Management - Part 4: Taxonomy, Classification
and Structures in Facility Management

Facility management - Taxinomie, classification et Facility Management - Teil 4: Taxonomie, Klassifikation

structures en facility management und Strukturen im Facility Management

This draft European Standard is submitted to CEN members for enquiry. It has been drawn up by the Technical Committee

CEN/TC 348.

If this draft becomes a European Standard, CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations

which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration.

This draft European Standard was established by CEN in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other

language made by translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC

Management Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,

Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and United Kingdom.

Recipients of this draft are invited to submit, with their comments, notification of any relevant patent rights of which they are

aware and to provide supporting documentation.

Warning : This document is not a European Standard. It is distributed for review and comments. It is subject to change without

notice and shall not be referred to as a European Standard.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2018 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. prEN 15221-4:2018 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 4

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................... 5

1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................................... 7

2 Normative references .................................................................................................................................... 7

3 Terms and definitions ................................................................................................................................... 7

3.1 General taxonomy of Facility Management related terms and definitions ................................ 8

3.2 Financial and administrative terms and definitions .......................................................................... 9

3.3 Definitions of main standardized facility products ......................................................................... 11

4 Derivation of Facility Products and Relationship Model ............................................................... 12

4.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 12

4.2 The generic structures needed to describe a facility product ..................................................... 13

4.3 Facility Management relationship model ............................................................................................ 14

4.4 Processes ......................................................................................................................................................... 17

4.4.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 17

4.4.2 Facility Management Processes .............................................................................................................. 17

4.4.3 Classification of facility products ........................................................................................................... 17

4.5 The quality cycle in the FM relationship model ................................................................................ 17

4.6 Client perspective and national customs............................................................................................. 18

5 Description of the Standardized Facility Products .......................................................................... 19

Annex A (informative) Graphic representation of the Facility Product Map ......................................... 72

Annex B (informative) Additional comments to specific Facility Products ........................................... 78

B.1 Reference to the concept of the FM model and interaction with organization ...................... 78

B.2 Product FM – Facility Management – Strategic Integration .......................................................... 79

B.3 Product 1000 Tactical Integration (Space and Infrastructure) and 2000 Tactical

Integration (People and Organization) ................................................................................................ 80

B.3.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 80

B.3.2 Roles .................................................................................................................................................................. 80

B.3.3 Space and Infrastructure products - organisational role model ................................................. 80

B.3.4 People and Organization products - organisational role model ................................................. 81

B.4 Product 9100 Sustainability ..................................................................................................................... 82

B.5 Product 9200 Quality .................................................................................................................................. 82

B.6 Product 1100 Space ..................................................................................................................................... 82

B.7 Product 1110 Building initial performance ....................................................................................... 84

B.8 Products 1120 Asset Replacement and Refurbishment and 1160 Maintenance and

Operation ........................................................................................................................................................ 86

B.9 Product 1170 Utilities ................................................................................................................................ 87

Annex C (informative) Graphic Representation of FM Process Matrix .................................................... 88

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Annex D (informative) Structures ......................................................................................................................... 91

D.1 Description of facilities and activities ................................................................................................... 91

D.1.1 Facilities (e.g. space, equipment, consumables) ............................................................................... 91

D.1.2 Facilities (e.g. space, equipment, consumables) ............................................................................... 91

D.1.3 Activities .......................................................................................................................................................... 92

D.2 Physical structure – facility product structure .................................................................................. 93

Annex E (informative) Cost and revenue considerations in Facility Management .............................. 94

E.1 Facility Management cycle ........................................................................................................................ 94

E.2 Model of FM as a cost centre providing facility products ............................................................... 95

E.3 Representation of Facility Management in accounting systems ................................................. 96

E.4 From standardized facility products to ‘individual’ facility services ........................................ 98

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................. 100

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European foreword

This document (prEN 15221-4:2018) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 348 “Facility

Management”, the secretariat of which is held by NEN.
This document will supersede EN 15221-4:2011.

This European Standard is one of the series ISO 41000 and EN 15221 “Facility Management” which

consists of the following parts:
1. ISO 41011:2017 Facility Management - Vocabulary

2. ISO 41012:Facility Management – Guidance on strategic sourcing and the development of

agreements
3. ISO 41013 Facility Management – scope, key concepts and benefits
4. EN 15221 Part 3: Guidance on quality in Facility Management

5. EN 15221 Part 4: Taxonomy, Classification and Structures in Facility Management

6. EN 15221 Part 5: Guidance on Facility Management processes
7. EN 15221 Part 6: Area and Space measurement in Facility Management
8. EN 15221 Part 7: Performance Benchmarking

NOTE With the addition of the ISO standards, Part 1 and Part 2 of EN 15221 are withdrawn.

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Introduction

In 2013 the initiative was taken to interest parties at ISO level for the FM suite of standards of Europe,

the EN 15221 parts 1 to 7. This resulted in the re-development of the standards for vocabulary,

sourcing and agreements.
The result consists of the parts:
• ISO 41011 Facility Management – Vocabulary

• ISO 41012 Facility Management – Guidance on strategic sourcing and the development of

agreements.
• ISO/TR 41013 Facility Management – Scope. Key concepts and benefits.

These standards also build on widely accepted management principles, in particular value chain

(Porter, M E, (1985), “Competitive Advantage: creating and sustaining superior performance”, Free

Press, New York) and quality control (PDCA. Deming, W E (1986), “Out of the Crisis”, MIT, Cambridge).

Reference to ISO 10014:2006, Quality management – Guidelines for realizing financial and economic

benefits.

The principles of the Deming cycle (PDCA) underpin all of the standards but are applied to a different

extent and depth in each. In fact, there are different types of PDCA cycles depending of the term (e.g.

long term, short-term).

These standards align to EN ISO 9000 family of standards for Quality Management Systems and apply

specific guidance on the concepts and use of a process-based approach to management systems to the

field of Facility Management.

The term “facility services” is used as a generic description in the standards. The term “standardized

facility products” refers to the “standardized facility services” defined and described in EN 15221-4,

Facility Management — Part 4: Taxonomy, Classification and Structures in Facility Management.

Countries can decide to substitute the term “product' into “service”, when they consider that it is

important for a good acceptance and use of the standards in their own country.

The aim of all the standards is to provide guidance to Facility Management (FM) organizations on the

development and improvement of their FM processes to support the primary activities. This will

support organizational development, innovation and improvement and will form a foundation for the

further professional development of FM and its advancement in Europe. Therefore, generic examples

are provided in the standard to assist organizations.

These standards lay the foundation of the work that has to be done further more in developing Facility

Management, for example, benchmark standards EN 15221-7.

In the European Standard ISO 41011 Facility Management is defined as the integration of processes that

support the primary business of an organization. Facility Management (FM) according to this definition

envisages a business model that encourages an organization to optimize its support services. The key

focus is to improve the effectiveness of the primary activities of an organization by streamlining the

service provision and interaction of the parties.

Accessibility to the resources necessary to facilitate knowledge development, innovation and business

improvement are important in a global market where leading edge practices are maintaining or

improving competitive advantage as key objectives of a successful business or governmental

organization. Taxonomy provides a framework within which knowledge is able to be identified and

categorized for ease of access by practitioners.
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Based on various definitions, the most evident conclusion is that taxonomy is a classification system for

improved information management, which contributes to improving the capability of users to sustain

and improve the operations of their business. The key concept relates to how the use of taxonomy will

improve the operations of the business. In this regard, the structure of taxonomy should be closely

aligned to business processes so that the user’s access to information is intuitively driven.

EN 15221-4 provides a taxonomy with a relationship model which integrates the FM-model, the process

matrix, the product/service structure and a classification system. These are essential contributions to

the removal of barriers to harmonization and cross border trade.

This standard uses the term product in accordance with EN ISO 9000 which defines a product as the

result of a process. In the context of FM, a product is a result of a process and the respective activities /

facilities.

The standardized (classified) facility products are a well-defined (commodified) and hierarchically

organized set of facility services. They have been selected from the countless number of individual

(customised) facility services to provide a basis for standardization in the field of process definition,

cost allocation, standardized tendering etc. They have been selected from a client perspective and

attempt to integrate different European customs and practices.
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1 Scope

FM covers and integrates a very broad scope of processes, products / services, activities and facilities.

The approach of this standard is to consider the added value provided to the primary activities by

adopting a product perspective as recognized by the primary processes or core business in the

organization. This standard therefore introduces the concept of standardized (classified) facility

products.
The scope of this standard is to provide taxonomy for FM which includes:
— relevant interrelationships of elements and their structures in FM;

— definitions of terms and contents to standardize facility products which provide a basis for cross

border trade, data management, cost allocation and benchmarking;

— a high level classification and hierarchical coding structure for the standardized facility products;

— expanding the basic FM model given in ISO 41011 by adding a time scale in the form of the quality

cycle called PDCA (Plan, Do, Check, Act);
— a linkage to existing cost and facilities structures;
— alignment with the primary activities requirements.
Additional benefits from this standard are:
— Introducing a client rather than a specifically asset oriented view;

— Harmonization of different existing national structures (e.g. building cost codes) on an upper level

relevant for the organization and its primary activities.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 41011, Facility Management – Vocabulary
ISO/TR 41013, Facility Management – Scope, key concepts and benefits
EN 13306, Maintenance - Maintenance terminology
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
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3.1 General taxonomy of Facility Management related terms and definitions
3.1.1
adaptability

possibility (ability) of changing characteristics like volume or function or space in order to meet new

requirements
NOTE 1 Adaptability consists of:
— Elasticity: The possibility of changing the volume;
— Generality: The possibility of changing the function;
— Flexibility: The possibility of changing the distribution of space.
NOTE 2 Usability is defined in ISO 9241.
3.1.2
classification

system for grouping and categorizing items with similar characteristics (attributes)

3.1.3
facility manager

person responsible for the facility management organization who is the single point of contact for the

client on strategic level; leads the FM organization, ensures quality and continuous improvement and

conducts strategic projects and tasks

NOTE If he is a member of the board of the organization, the facility manager is also called Chief Facility

Management Officer CFMO or Chief Facility Executive CFE.
3.1.4
facility process
support process which is integrated and managed by FM
NOTE 1 The output of a facility process is a facility product.

NOTE 2 Facility processes are subdivided into facility management processes on strategic and tactical level and

facility services processes on operational level.
3.1.5
FM product map
structure of the standardized (classified) facility products in FM

NOTE Based on EN ISO 9000 the term product is used to cover service, software and hardware.

3.1.6
hierarchy
structure of levels in which each level includes its lower levels

NOTE Taxonomies are frequently arranged in a hierarchical structure. Typically they are related by

supertype-subtype, also called parent-child relationships.
3.1.7
real estate
encompasses land along with anything affixed to the land, such as buildings
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NOTE Real estate, immovable property, real property, realty are used synonymously.

3.1.8
standardised facility product

one of a defined set of classified and hierarchically organized facility services. Depending on national

language customs, the term standardized facility service may be used synonymously

NOTE 1 The term product is used in accordance with EN ISO 9000 being the output of a (facility) process which

can be a single or a package of material (hardware) or immaterial provisions (software), supplies or services

which support the primary activity of the organization and its properties.

NOTE 2 The term “Facility product” has been chosen due to its more commodified (classified) and therefore

more comparable nature to enable benchmarking while facility services generally are of a more individual and

customised nature. The products have been defined from a client perspective while considering different

European customs.

NOTE 3 In this standard the term “Facility” (= a tangible asset, see EN 15221-1) is used in the sense of

“facilitation”, to provide services, assets, tools and consumables to make work easier/to support the primary

activities. This includes a whole production site of an organization and goes down to a single sheet of paper which

needs to be purchased, stored, supplied, bound, archived and recycled. Facilities like a building or a sheet of paper

are always embedded in activities and the provision of services.
3.1.9
structure

relationships between classes, groups and categories and how they are linked together

3.1.10
support processes

workflow of activities not designated as primary activities (non-core activities)

NOTE Support processes which are integrated and delivered by FM are called facility processes.

3.1.11
taxonomy
practice and science of classification

NOTE A knowledge map of a topic typically realized as a controlled vocabulary of terms and or phrases. An

orderly classification of information according to presumed natural relationships. A classification system for

improved information management, which should contribute to improving the capability of users to sustain and

improve the operations of their business, into a series of hierarchical groups to make them easier to identify,

study, or locate.
3.1.12
tenant

individual or business which has temporary possession of or pays rent for real estate owned by another

party (landlord)
3.2 Financial and administrative terms and definitions

NOTE When registering, recording or collecting facility costs, as well as allocating them to products, it is

necessary to indicate the nature of the costs and revenue. A definition of cost types and terms related to costs used

in this standard is given below. For more detailed definitions this standard refers to national or international

accounting standards.
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3.2.1
asset management

activities aiming to optimize the life cycle costs of facilities which have a value for the organization

NOTE In the context of facility management, this is either an activity within the FM organization and each

standardized facility product concerning the facilities needed to provide its support services or a support service

to the primary activity and concerning e.g. its production facilities.
3.2.2
cost of capital
interest and provision for capital
3.2.3
cost of enhancement of initial performance (improvement costs)
costs needed to change a facility to meet new requirements
3.2.4
depreciation
estimated or expected decline in value of an asset

NOTE The term is used in accounting, economics and finance to spread the cost of an asset over the span of

several years.
3.2.5
FM cost centres
element within the accounting system which captures FM-costs
3.2.6
material costs/costs of materials
costs of goods (e.g. consumables, tools, spare parts)
3.2.7
personnel costs/costs of personnel

wage costs (the gross annual salary, including social plans and taxes, holiday pay, gratuities, bonuses

and profit sharing) and other personnel costs
3.2.8
primary activity cost centres
element within the accounting system which captures costs

NOTE A cost centre often represents a division that adds to the cost of the organization.

3.2.9
revenue
earnings

NOTE Costs and revenue are linked to the time when they are generated. Costs therefore are not necessarily

equal to expenditure, and revenue does not, by definition, constitute receipts and vice versa.

3.2.10
tax costs

costs such as taxes, fees and offsetting of non-reclaimable VAT (value added tax)

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3.3 Definitions of main standardized facility products

NOTE Facility products are hierarchically structured. The principle structure is outlined in the body of this

standard and the terms are therefore added in this chapter. The structure follows the examples given in ISO 41011

with minor adaptations. A more detailed definition of these standardized facility products as well as the

definitions of the products on lower levels are given in Clause 5.
3.3.1
business support

services supporting mainly the management of an organization, for example, legal counsel

3.3.2
cleaning

services related to hygiene and cleanliness that maintain a proper working environment and help to

maintain assets in a good condition
3.3.3
Health, Safety, Security and Environment (HSSE)

services protecting from external dangers or internal risks and protect assets and the health and well-

being of the people and providing a safe and sustainable environment
3.3.4
hospitality

services providing a hospitable working environment making people feel welcome and comfortable

3.3.5
ICT
services related to information and communication technologies
3.3.6
logistics

services concerned with the transport and storage of goods and information and improving the relevant

processes
3.3.7
organisation specific

services related to people and organization which are specific to the type or branch of the organization

3.3.8
outdoors

services related to the outdoor areas including land, maintaining parking facilities, gardening etc.

3.3.9
primary activity specific (Industry sector specific)

services related to space and infrastructure which are specific to the type or branch of the organization

NOTE A boiler for example can supply heating for buildings or steam for industrial processes. The latter

would fall under this product to make investment and energy used in the buildings comparable to other buildings

and industry processes comparable to similar industry processes and thus enabling benchmarking.

3.3.10
space (accommodation)

services for the provision of accommodation like design and build, acquisition or renting of space,

including the administration and management of space and its disposal
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NOTE 1 It includes the utilities and technical infrastructure (technical building equipment) resulting in a

comfortable climate and supplying lighting/ shading, electrical power, water and gas.

NOTE 2 The investment costs of the technical infrastructure are generally included in the costs of space. The

consequences are that technical infrastructure cannot be a product of its own on this level.

NOTE 3 The term space has several other meanings as well. This definition applies in the context of the

standardized facility products.
3.3.11
sustainability

state in which components of the ecosystem and their functions are maintained for the present and

future generations
NOTE See ISO 15392 - Sustainability in building construction.
3.3.12
workplace

services related to the working environment, for example, furniture, equipment and tenants fit out

4 Derivation of Facility Products and Relationship Model
4.1 General

The principle reason FM exists as an entity is to support the primary activities of an organization more

effectively, therefore alignment of facility processes that deliver facility services or facility products

which are an essential support and/or add value to the client organization with the primary processes

is of fundamental importance.

In the field of Facility Management, there have been many different approaches to the definition,

structuring and allocation of costs. The varying requirements have historically not been met by one

single cost structure without compromise or repetition of items. This standard therefore defines

generic structures and methods for the classification of hierarchically organized and standardized

facility products which will allow consistent cost allocation and improve the ability to combine, analyse

and present information. Based on EN ISO 9000 the term product is used to cover service, software and

hardwar
...

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