Paints and varnishes - Determination of the resistance to rubbing using a linear abrasion tester (crockmeter) (ISO 21546:2019)

This document specifies a method for determining the resistance of a coating to rubbing by means of a loaded abrasive material which is linearly moved over the surface to be tested.
The method can also be applied to different material surfaces, such as plastics and metals.

Beschichtungsstoffe - Bestimmung des Widerstandes gegen Verkratzen mit einem Linearhubgerät (Crockmeter) (ISO 21546:2019)

Peintures et vernis - Détermination de la résistance à la rayure avec un abrasimètre linéaire (ISO 21546:2019)

Barve in laki - Ugotavljanje odpornosti proti drgnjenju z aparatom za vzdolžno drgnjenje (crockmeter) (ISO 21546:2019)

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
01-Oct-2020
Publication Date
27-Jan-2021
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
11-Jan-2021
Due Date
18-Mar-2021
Completion Date
28-Jan-2021

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 21546:2021
01-marec-2021
Barve in laki - Ugotavljanje odpornosti proti drgnjenju z aparatom za vzdolžno
drgnjenje (crockmeter) (ISO 21546:2019)

Paints and varnishes - Determination of the resistance to rubbing using a linear abrasion

tester (crockmeter) (ISO 21546:2019)
Beschichtungsstoffe - Bestimmung des Widerstandes gegen Verkratzen mit einem
Linearhubgerät (Crockmeter) (ISO 21546:2019)

Peintures et vernis - Détermination de la résistance à la rayure avec un abrasimètre

linéaire (ISO 21546:2019)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 21546:2020
ICS:
87.040 Barve in laki Paints and varnishes
SIST EN ISO 21546:2021 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN ISO 21546:2021
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SIST EN ISO 21546:2021
EN ISO 21546
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
December 2020
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 87.040
English Version
Paints and varnishes - Determination of the resistance to
rubbing using a linear abrasion tester (crockmeter) (ISO
21546:2019)

Peintures et vernis - Détermination de la résistance à la Beschichtungsstoffe - Bestimmung des Widerstandes

rayure avec un abrasimètre linéaire (ISO 21546:2019) gegen Verkratzen mit einem Linearhubgerät

(Crockmeter) (ISO 21546:2019)
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 30 November 2020.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2020 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 21546:2020 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN ISO 21546:2021
EN ISO 21546:2020 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

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SIST EN ISO 21546:2021
EN ISO 21546:2020 (E)
European foreword

The text of ISO 21546:2019 has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 35 "Paints and

varnishes” of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and has been taken over as

EN ISO 21546:2020 by Technical Committee CEN/TC 139 “Paints and varnishes” the secretariat of

which is held by DIN.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by June 2021, and conflicting national standards shall be

withdrawn at the latest by June 2021.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland,

Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of

North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the

United Kingdom.
Endorsement notice

The text of ISO 21546:2019 has been approved by CEN as EN ISO 21546:2020 without any modification.

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SIST EN ISO 21546:2021
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SIST EN ISO 21546:2021
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 21546
First edition
2019-02
Paints and varnishes — Determination
of the resistance to rubbing using a
linear abrasion tester (crockmeter)
Peintures et vernis — Détermination de la résistance à la rayure avec
un abrasimètre linéaire
Reference number
ISO 21546:2019(E)
ISO 2019
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SIST EN ISO 21546:2021
ISO 21546:2019(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2019

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Fax: +41 22 749 09 47
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 21546:2021
ISO 21546:2019(E)
Contents Page

Foreword .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Principle ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 2

5 Apparatus and ancillary materials .................................................................................................................................................... 2

5.1 Linear abrasion tester (crockmeter) .................................................................................................................................... 2

5.2 Abrasion tool ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 3

5.3 Felt cloth ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

5.4 Abrasive material, for lining the abrasion tool ............................................................................................................ 7

5.5 Abrasive medium .................................................................................................................................................................................. 7

5.6 Tools for assessing the friction marks ................................................................................................................................ 7

6 Test specimens........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 7

6.1 Test specimens ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 7

6.2 Film thickness .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

6.3 Conditioning .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 8

7 Procedure..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

7.1 Test conditions subject to agreement ................................................................................................................................. 8

7.2 Test environment .................................................................................................................................................................................. 8

7.3 Testing process ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

8 Evaluation .................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

9 Precision ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

9.1 Repeatability limit, r ......................................................................................................................................................................... 9

9.2 Reproducibility limit, R ................................................................................................................................................................... 9

10 Test report ................................................................................................................................................................................................................10

Annex A (informative) Usual test conditions ............................................................................................................................................11

Annex B (informative) Measuring template ...............................................................................................................................................12

Annex C (informative) Evaluation of gloss as test criterion .......................................................................................................13

Annex D (informative) Details on precision ...............................................................................................................................................14

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................18

© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved iii
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SIST EN ISO 21546:2021
ISO 21546:2019(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see www .iso

.org/iso/foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 35, Paints and varnishes, Subcommittee

SC 9, General test methods for paints and varnishes.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/members .html.
iv © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 21546:2021
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 21546:2019(E)
Paints and varnishes — Determination of the resistance to
rubbing using a linear abrasion tester (crockmeter)
1 Scope

This document specifies a method for determining the resistance of a coating to rubbing by means of a

loaded abrasive material which is linearly moved over the surface to be tested.

The method can also be applied to different material surfaces, such as plastics and metals.

2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 105-F09, Textiles — Tests for colour fastness — Part F09: Specification for cotton rubbing cloth

ISO 845, Cellular plastics and rubbers — Determination of apparent density
ISO 1514, Paints and varnishes — Standard panels for testing
ISO 2808, Paints and varnishes — Determination of film thickness

ISO 3270, Paints and varnishes and their raw materials — Temperatures and humidities for conditioning

and testing
ISO 4618, Paints and varnishes — Terms and definitions

ISO 23321, Solvents for paints and varnishes — Demineralized water for industrial applications —

Specification and test methods
ASTM D2240, Standard Test Method for Rubber Property — Durometer Hardness

FEPA-Standard 43-2 , Grains of fused aluminium oxide, silicon carbide and other abrasive materials for

coated abrasives microgrits P 240 to P 2500
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 4618 apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https: //www .iso .org/obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http: //www .electropedia .org/
1) Under preparation. Stage at the time of publication: ISO/FDIS 23321:2019.

2) Federation of European Producers of Abrasives (FEPA). Reference source for FEPA standards: Staatliche

Materialprüfungsanstalt Darmstadt, Dr. Ing. P. Hof, Grafenstraße 2, 64283 Darmstadt, Germany, Tel.: +49-6151-16

65 82, Fax: +49-6151-16 60 46, E-Mail: hof@mpa-ifw .tu -darmstadt .de.
© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved 1
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SIST EN ISO 21546:2021
ISO 21546:2019(E)
4 Principle

A loaded abrasion tool, lined with agreed abrasive material and influenced by an agreed abrasive

medium, is moved over the coating using a linear abrasion tester (crockmeter). There are three

procedure variations, depending on the agreement and application (see Table 1).
Table 1 — Procedure variations
Abrasion tool Geometry of Contact surface to test specimen Test load Application
abrasion tool
A Cuboid Base surface (22 mm × 22 mm) (22,0 ± 0,5) N flat test panels
B Front surface (Ø 16 mm) flat test panels
Cylinder (9,0 ± 0,2) N
C Lateral surface (Ø 44 mm × 25 mm) flat and curved
test specimen

With limitations: Abrasion tool B is the original procedure variation; in most cases abrasion tool A is preferred also for

flat test specimen.

The contact surface is a part of the lateral surface, which depends on different parameters, see 5.2.3, Note 3.

The assessment of the friction mark shall be agreed and can be carried out e.g. visually or by means of

measuring the change in gloss, haze or brightness.
5 Apparatus and ancillary materials
5.1 Linear abrasion tester (crockmeter)

Linear abrasion tester in accordance with Figure 1, which is specified by the following properties.

5.1.1 The mechanism can be manual (as illustrated in Figure 1) or (electro) motor driven.

5.1.2 For the motoric version, an operation counter for pre-setting the number of double-strokes shall

be integrated and the mechanism shall have a stroke frequency of (1,0 ± 0,1) Hz and shall have a constant

velocity within the 70 mm measurement area.

5.1.3 The test load with which the abrasion tool (5.2) is pressed onto the test specimen shall be

(9,0 ± 0,2) N (for abrasion tool B and C) and (22,0 ± 0,5) N (for abrasion tool A).

NOTE Test devices intended for a test load of 9,0 N can be converted to a test load of 22,0 N by means of an

additional load of 13,0 N (corresponding to an additional weight with a mass of 1,33 kg).

5.1.4 The stroke length shall be selected in such a way that the length of the assessable friction mark is

(100 ± 30) mm.

NOTE 1 The assessable friction mark equals the total friction mark, less the expansion of the contact surface

of the abrasion tool in the direction of the stroke on both ends (see 7.3.1). Consequently, the stroke length is at

least 70 mm + 2 × expansion, in millimetres, of the contact surface of the abrasion tool in the direction of the

stroke. For the dimensions of the abrasion tools, see 5.2.

NOTE 2 Some devices exist with a length of the assessable surface less than 70 mm due to technical reasons.

2 © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 21546:2021
ISO 21546:2019(E)
Key
1 crank mechanism (crank handle)
2 abrasion tool B – see 5.2.2
3 test specimen
Direction of stroke motion.
Figure 1 — Crockmeter (example with manual crank mechanism)
5.2 Abrasion tool

5.2.1 Abrasion tool A, e.g. as shown in Figure 2 a). The felt insert shall have the dimensions

(22,0 ± 0,2) mm × (22,0 ± 0,2) mm × 6 mm and a bulk density of 0,44 g/cm . The coupling with the

crockmeter (5.1) is rigid.

NOTE Despite the rigid coupling a tilting of the front face of the abrasion tool A against the test specimen is

impossible due to the elastic felt insert.

5.2.2 Abrasion tool B, designed as a cylinder with a diameter of (16,0 ± 0,1) mm, the front surface of

which is facing the test specimen. The coupling with the crockmeter (5.1) is rigid.

NOTE 1 Due to the rigid coupling a tilting of the front surface of the abrasion tool B against the test specimen

is generally possible.

NOTE 2 Unlike abrasion tools A and C, abrasion tool B cannot be lined with abrasive material without

wrinkling.

5.2.3 Abrasion tool C, e.g. as shown in Figure 2 b). The radius of the tool shall be (19,0 ± 0,5) mm and

a width
...

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