Telecommunications and Internet Protocol Harmonization Over Networks (TIPHON); Analysis of existing roaming techniques applicable to TIPHON mobility services

Investigation and presentation of different roaming technologies, e.g. GSM, UMTS, IP. Recommendation of the application of roaming technology practices to TIPHON Scenarios

Harmonizacija telekomunikacij in internetnega protokola prek omrežij (TIPHON) - Analiza obstoječih tehnik sledenja, ki so uporabne za mobilne storitve TIPHON

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SIST-TP TR 101 338 V1.1.6:2004
Telecommunications and Internet Protocol Harmonization Over Networks (TIPHON);
Analysis of existing roaming techniques applicable to TIPHON mobility services
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: TR 101 338 Version 1.1.6
33.020 Telekomunikacije na splošno Telecommunications in
33.070.01 Mobilni servisi na splošno Mobile services in general
SIST-TP TR 101 338 V1.1.6:2004 en
2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST-TP TR 101 338 V1.1.6:2004

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SIST-TP TR 101 338 V1.1.6:2004
ETSI TR 101 338 V1.1.6 (2000-07)
Technical Report
Telecommunications and Internet Protocol
Harmonization Over Networks (TIPHON);
Analysis of existing roaming techniques applicable
to TIPHON mobility services

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SIST-TP TR 101 338 V1.1.6:2004
2 ETSI TR 101 338 V1.1.6 (2000-07)
internet, network, protocol, roaming, telephony
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© European Telecommunications Standards Institute 2000.
All rights reserved.

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SIST-TP TR 101 338 V1.1.6:2004
3 ETSI TR 101 338 V1.1.6 (2000-07)
Intellectual Property Rights.5
Foreword .5
1 Scope.6
2 References.6
3 Definitions and abbreviations .8
3.1 Definitions.8
3.2 Abbreviations .10
4 Overview of TIPHON mobility.12
4.1 Definition of the TIPHON mobility service .13
4.2 Mobility Management using a Layered Architecture .13
4.2.1 Physical layer and link layer .13
4.2.2 IP network layer and transport layer .13
4.2.3 Applications layer.14 Basic conversational voice applications and multimedia applications .14 Other Applications .14
4.2.4 Wireless Access and VoIP.14
5 Roaming technologies.15
5.1 Global System for Mobile communications (GSM) .15
5.1.1 GSM location update .15
5.1.2 GSM Call Routing .16 Routing within a PLMN .16 Call routing for an inter-network roaming subscriber .16 Support of Optimal Routing.16
5.2 US cellular system (ANSI-41).16
5.3 UMTS - Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP).18
5.3.1 UMTS PHASE-1 3GPP Release 99.18 UMTS Call-Unrelated Mobility .20 UMTS Call-related Mobility.21
5.3.2 UMTS Packet-Switched Domain Architecture .22
PS The Iu Interface .22
PS The Iu interface control plane.22
5.3.3 Using GPRS Gn Interface within UMTS.22
5.3.4 Use of Mobile IP within UMTS.23
5.3.5 UMTS Open Service Architecture.23
5.4 IMT 2000 .24
5.4.1 IMT 2000 Global roaming.24
5.4.2 IMT-2000 Virtual Home Environment .25
5.5 Universal Personal Telecommunication (UPT).25
5.6 Cellular Digital Packet (CDPD) .26
5.7 General Packet Radio Service (GPRS).27
5.7.1 GSM/GPRS .27 GPRS Mobility Elements: SGSN, GGSN, VLR and HLR.27 GPRS Registration and Context Activation Procedures.28 GPRS Mobility Management .29 GPRS Analysis and Comments .29
5.8 ANSI (IS-136)/GPRS.30
5.9 Mobility and roaming in datacom networks .31
5.9.1 Mobile IPv4 .31
5.9.2 Mobile IPv6 .32
5.9.3 Network Access Identifier .33
5.9.4 Session Initiation Protocol.34
5.10 H.323 Mobility.34

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SIST-TP TR 101 338 V1.1.6:2004
4 ETSI TR 101 338 V1.1.6 (2000-07)
5.11 Public Access Mobile Radio (PAMR) and Private Mobile Radio (PMR).35
5.11.1 Specificities of PAMR and PMR wireless digital networks.35 Mobility services in PMR/PAMR .35 TETRA.36 GSM Phase 2+ Advanced Speech Call Items (ASCI) .36 Inter technology SIM roaming.36
6 Analysis of roaming technologies.36
7 Recommended roaming technology.39

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SIST-TP TR 101 338 V1.1.6:2004
5 ETSI TR 101 338 V1.1.6 (2000-07)
Intellectual Property Rights
IPRs essential or potentially essential to the present document may have been declared to ETSI. The information
pertaining to these essential IPRs, if any, is publicly available for ETSI members and non-members, and can be found
in ETSI SR 000 314: "Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs); Essential, or potentially Essential, IPRs notified to ETSI in
respect of ETSI standards", which is available from the ETSI Secretariat. Latest updates are available on the ETSI Web
server (
Pursuant to the ETSI IPR Policy, no investigation, including IPR searches, has been carried out by ETSI. No guarantee
can be given as to the existence of other IPRs not referenced in ETSI SR 000 314 (or the updates on the ETSI Web
server) which are, or may be, or may become, essential to the present document.
This Technical Report (TR) has been produced by ETSI Project Telecommunications and Internet Protocol
Harmonization Over Networks (TIPHON).

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SIST-TP TR 101 338 V1.1.6:2004
6 ETSI TR 101 338 V1.1.6 (2000-07)
1 Scope
The present document focuses on basic services as defined in TR 101 306 [10].
It provides a definition of TIPHON mobility, concentrating on the roaming service, and contains an examination of the
different roaming technologies, e.g. Global System for Mobile communications (GSM), Universal Mobile
Telecommunications System (UMTS), Internet Protocol (IP) and recommends the adoption of a roaming technology for
TIPHON mobility.
2 References
The following documents contain provisions which, through reference in this text, constitute provisions of the present
• References are either specific (identified by date of publication, edition number, version number, etc.) or
• For a specific reference, subsequent revisions do not apply.
• For a non-specific reference, the latest version applies.
• A non-specific reference to an ETS shall also be taken to refer to later versions published as an EN with the same
[1] ITU-T Recommendation E.164 (1997): "The international public telecommunication numbering
[2] ETSI TR 101 307: "Telecommunications and Internet Protocol Harmonization Over Networks
(TIPHON); Requirements for service interoperability; Phase 2".
[3] ITU-T Recommendation Q.1701: "Framework for IMT-2000 networks".
[4] IETF RFC 1771: "A Border Gateway Protocol 4 (BGP-4)" - Y. Rekhter, T. Li, T.J. Watson
Research Center, IBM Corp., Cisco Systems Editors - March 1995.
[5] UMTS 22.05: "Digital cellular telecommunications system (Phase 2+) (GSM); Universal Mobile
Telecommunications System (UMTS); Mobile Station Application Execution Environment
(MExE); Service description; Stage 1 (3G TS 22.057 version 3.0.1 Release 1999)".
[6] 3G TR 23.920: "3rd Generation Partnership Project; Technical Specification Group Services and
Systems Aspects; Evolution of the GSM platform towards UMTS".
[7] GSM 02.79: "Digital cellular telecommunications system (Phase 2+); Support of Optimal Routeing
(SOR); Service definition (Stage 1)".
[8] GSM 03.79: "Digital cellular telecommunications system (Phase 2+); Support of Optimal Routeing
(SOR); Technical realization".
[9] ITU-T Recommendation Q.1711 (1998): "Network functional model for IMT-2000".
[10] ETSI TR 101 306 (V1.2.3): "Telecommunications and Internet Protocol Harmonization Over
Networks (TIPHON); Requirements for service interoperability; Scenario 1".
[11] ETSI TR 101 308: "Telecommunications and Internet Protocol Harmonization Over Networks
(TIPHON); Requirements for service interoperability; Scenario 3".
[12] ETSI ETS 300 392: "Terrestrial Trunked Radio (TETRA); Voice plus Data (V+D)".
[13] ETSI ETS 300 393: "Terrestrial Trunked Radio (TETRA); Packet Data Optimized (PDO)".

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SIST-TP TR 101 338 V1.1.6:2004
7 ETSI TR 101 338 V1.1.6 (2000-07)
[14] ETSI ETS 300 396: "Terrestrial Trunked Radio (TETRA); Technical requirements for Direct
Mode Operation (DMO)".
[15] IETF RFC 2002: "IP Mobility Support - C. Perkins, IBM - October 1996".
[16] IETF RFC 2003: "IP Encapsulation within IP - C. Perkins, IBM - October 1996".
[17] IETF RFC 2004: "Minimal Encapsulation within IP - C. Perkins, IBM - October 1996".
[18] IETF RFC 1701: "Generic Routing Encapsulation (GRE) - S. Hanks, T. Li, D. Farinacci, P. Traina,
Netsmiths, Ltd., Cisco Systems - October 1994".
[19] IETF RFC 2290: "Mobile-IPv4 Configuration Option for PPP IPCP - J. Solomon, S. Glass,
Motorola, FTP Software - February 1998".
[20] IETF RFC 2486: "The Network Access Identifier - B. Aboba, M. Beadles, Microsoft, WorldCom
Advanced Networks - January 1999".
[21] ETSI TR 101 300: "Telecommunications and Internet Protocol Harmonization Over Networks
(TIPHON); Description of technical issues".
[22] ITU-T Recommendation Q.700: "Introduction to CCITT Signalling System No.7".
[23] ETSI ETS 300 008-1: "Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN); Signalling System No.7;
Message Transfer Part (MTP) to support international interconnection; Part 1: Protocol
specification [ITU-T Recommendations Q.701 (1993), Q.702 (1988), Q.703 to Q.706 (1993),
[24] ETSI ETS 300 009-1: "Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN); Signalling System No.7;
Signalling Connection Control Part (SCCP) (connectionless and connection-oriented class 2) to
support international interconnection; Part 1: Protocol specification [ITU-T Recommendations
Q.711 to Q.714 and Q.716 (1993), modified]".
[25] ETSI ETS 300 287-1: "Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN); Signalling System No.7;
Transaction Capabilities (TC) version 2; Part 1: Protocol specification [ITU-T Recommendations
Q.771 to Q.775 (1993), modified]".
[26] SR 001 687: "Global Multimedia Mobility (GMM); Seamless service offering".
[27] SR 001 677: "Seamless service offering; Giving users consistent access to application/service
portfolios idenpendent of access network and core network; Companion document".
[28] ITU-T Recommendation H.323 (1999): "Packet-based multimedia communications systems".
[29] IETF RFC 2543: "SIP: Session Initiation Protocol".
[30] ETSI TS 101 337: "Telecommunications and Internet Protocol Harmonization over Networks
(TIPHON); Mobility and Access to Wireless Systems; Extensions to Requirements, Architecture
and Protocols".
[31] ANSI TIA/EIA-41: "Cellular Radio Telecommunications Intersystem Operations".
[32] 3G TS 23.101: "Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS); General UMTS

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SIST-TP TR 101 338 V1.1.6:2004
8 ETSI TR 101 338 V1.1.6 (2000-07)
3 Definitions and abbreviations
3.1 Definitions
For the purposes of the present document, the following terms and definitions apply:
access network: comprises of the functional elements that enables communication between a terminal and the core
base station: land-based interface point for a wireless communications system. Many wireless systems require base
stations to enable remote wireless devices to communicate with a land-based transmission network.
NOTE 1: In cordless telephony, this term is used for the device that provides the transparent connectivity between
the handset and the Plain Old Telephone Service (POTS).
NOTE 2: In radio telephony such as cellular or Personal Communications Service (PCS), this term is used for the
system serving cell phones in a metropolitan area or a Private Integrated Services eXchange (PINX) that
serves cordless phones within a building.
border router: entity that resides at the edge of the network and provides connectivity between the access network and
the backbone network.
business role: see TR 101 306, V1.2.3 [10], clause 5.
care-of address: termination point of a tunnel toward a mobile node (see IETF RFC 2004 [17]).
clearinghouse: company that collects and processes roaming and billing information from a number of carriers. It then
transfers the compiled data to the proper carrier for credits and billing.
core network: architectural term relating to the part of a network which is independent of the connection technology of
the terminal (e.g. radio, wired).
correspondent node: network exchanging datagrams with a mobile node (see IETF RFC 2004 [17]).
Domain Name Server (DNS): distributed server hierarchy that resolves a known symbolic Internet address to its 32-bit
fixed access: property indicating that a user's equipment is physically connected to the network.
foreign agent: router handling visiting mobile nodes (see IETF RFC 2004 [17]).
foreign network: network other than the home network that is acting as host to a mobile node (see
IETF RFC 2004 [17]).
H.323 gatekeeper: gatekeeper is an H.323 entity on the network, which provides address translation, and controls
access to the network for H.323 terminals, Gateways, and MCUs. The Gatekeeper may also provide other services to the
terminals, Gateways, and MCUs such as bandwidth management and Gateway location.
H.323 gateway: H.323 GW is an endpoint on a network which provides for real-time, two-way communications
between H.323 Terminals on an IP based network and other terminals on a switched circuit network.
home agent: router forwarding packets to mobile nodes registered in foreign networks (see IETF RFC 2004 [17]).
home environment: responsible for enabling a user to obtain services in a consistent manner, regardless of the user's
location or terminal used (within the limitations of the serving network and current terminal).
home network: network that contains the users service profile.
IP application point of attachment: entity (e.g. an H.323 Gatekeeper) with which the IP application (e.g. H.323
terminal) is registered.
IP service provider: company or organization, which provides access to IP services which, could be either access to a
private IP network (Intranet) or to the Internet.

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SIST-TP TR 101 338 V1.1.6:2004
9 ETSI TR 101 338 V1.1.6 (2000-07)
Message Transfer Part (MTP): Signalling System Number 7 (SS7) protocol [23] responsible for the reliable transport
of signalling messages across the SS7 network.
mobile IP: mobility for Internet hosts IETF RFC 2004 [17].
mobile node: mobile IP host or router IETF RFC 2004 [17].
mobile subscriber: person or entity that has a subscription for mobile service with a service provider. An entity may
take responsibility for payment of charges incurred by one or more users.
network: generic term used by voice service providers and data service providers to refer to the infrastructure that
provides for the transport of user information.
(network) operator: maintains and runs the physical infrastructure over which runs user applications. A service
provider may be also be an operator and vice versa.
network point of attachment: point where one IP network is connected to another IP network. IP addresses are
topologically significant and unique only within a routing realm. For example, a network point of attachment maybe a
Gateway, border router, or an Internet service provider.
Public land mobile network (PLMN): telecommunications network providing services to mobile users.
roaming: use of a network other than the home network. This requires registration in the visited network.
routing: process of selecting a path through a network(s) over which information is passed. The selection is based on a
knowledge of the network topology, the network addressing scheme (e.g. telephone numbers. IP addresses) and (in some
cases) the network traffic levels.
NOTE 3: In connection-oriented environments, the path is selected at the time of connection establishment and it is
used for passing of information for the duration of the connection.
NOTE 4: In connectionless environments, the path is selected each time there is information to forward (for
example, datagrams). The forwarding entity may have knowledge of how to forward the information to its
ultimate destination, or may forward the information to another entity that will perform routing based on
its knowledge.
service provider: provides a subscriber with services, billing and customer care. A service provider may be also be an
operator and vice versa.
serving network: network to which the subscriber is attached. This may be a home network or a visited network.
Signalling Common Transport Protocol (SCTP): protocol being developed by the IETF (see RFC 2486 [20]). This
protocol is specifically designed to transport signalling protocols, which require a telecom carrier-grade Quality of
Service (QoS), over IP networks. It supports traditional telephony services and the new multimedia services.
Signalling Connection and Control Part (SCCP): SS7 protocol that enhances MTP routing functionality for efficient
use of the network to transport non-circuit control related information (see [24]). Interfaces to the SCCP are consistent
with the OSI Network Layer.
Signalling System Number 7 (SS7): internationally standardized common channel signalling system (see [22]). [22]
defines the architecture, network elements, interfaces, protocols and the management procedures for a network which
transports control information between network switches and between switches and databases.
NOTE 5: There are regional differences in SS7, e.g. there is a North American Version and also a European
terminal: device which is capable of providing access to services to users. Note the type of terminal is defined by the
context (e.g. H.323 terminal, GSM terminal, etc).

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SIST-TP TR 101 338 V1.1.6:2004
10 ETSI TR 101 338 V1.1.6 (2000-07)
TIPHON compliant system: system that complies with the mandatory requirements identified in the TIPHON
requirements documents together with compliance to the parts of the TIPHON specifications in which these
requirements are embodied:
• TR 101 306 [10] (for compliance with TIPHON phase 1);
• TR 101 307 [2] (for compliance with TIPHON phase 2); and
• TR 101 308 [11] (for compliance with TIPHON phase 3.
Transaction Capabilities Application Part (TCAP): SS7 application layer protocol used for the exchange of
non-circuit control related information between application processes operating in different network nodes, for example,
Switch-to-Switch and Switch-to-SCP (see [25]). [25] defines the messages, formats and procedures to establish and
maintain a dialogue between communicating applications processes.
tunnelling protocol: protocol that enables another protocol to be carried transparently within it.
value added service provider: provides services other than basic telecommunications service for which additional
charges may be incurred.
Virtual Home Environment (VHE): concept for portability of personal service environment (a combination of
services, profiles and personalization information) across network boundaries and between terminals.
visited network: network other than the home network that is acting as host to a mobile user.
wireline access: see fixed access.
3.2 Abbreviations
For the purposes of the present document, the following abbreviations apply:
3GPP Third Generation Partnership Project
ADSL Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line
AMPS Advanced Mobile Phone Service
ANSI American National Standards Institute
BS Base Station
BSC Base Station Controller
GSM-BSS Global System for Mobile communications - Base Station System
CAMEL Customized Applications for Mobile Network Enhanced Logic
CDMA Code Division Multiple Access
CN Core Network
DECT Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications
DHCP Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
DNS Domain Name Server
GGSN Serving GPRS Support Node
GII Global Information Infrastructure
GMM Global Multimedia Report
GMSC Gateway Mobile Switching Center
GPRS General Packet Radio Service
GSM Global System for Mobile communications
GSN GPRS Support Node
HDB Home DataBase
HLR Home Location Register
HPLMN Home Public Land Mobile Network
IMEI International Mobile Station Identity
IMSI International Mobile Subscriber Identity
IMT-2000 International Mobile Telecommunications - 2000
IMUI International Mobile User Identity
IMUN International Mobile User Number
IN Intelligent Network
IP Internet Protocol
IPCP IP Control Protocol

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SIST-TP TR 101 338 V1.1.6:2004
11 ETSI TR 101 338 V1.1.6 (2000-07)
ISDN Integrated Services Digital Network
LAI Location Area Identifier
LAN Locale Access Network
MAP Mobile Application Part
MD-BS Mobile Data Base Station
MD-IS Mobile Data Intermediate System
M-ES Mobile End System
MIN Mobile Identification Number
MM Mobility Management
MS Mobile Subscriber
MSISDN Mobile Subscriber ISDN
MSC Mobile Switching Center
MSRN Mobile Station Roaming Number
MT Mobile Terminal
MTP Message Transfer Part
NAI Network Access Identifier
NANP North American Numbering Plan
NNI Network to Network Interface
NPA Numbering Plan Area (Area Code) used in the North America Dialling Plan
NSS Network Sub System
PAMR Public Access Mobile Radio
PCCH Paging Control Channel
PDN Public Data Network
PDP Packet Data Protocol
PINX Private Integrates services Network eXchange
PLMN Public Land Mobile Network
PMR Private Mobile Radio
POTS Plain Old Telephony Service
PPP Point to Point Protocol
PSTN Public Switched Telephone Network
QoS Quality of Service
RADIUS Remote Authentication Dial In User Service
RAN Radio Access Network
RNC Radio Network Control
RTP Real-time Transport Protocol
SCCP Signalling Connection and Contro

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