Aerospace series - Anthropometric dimensioning of aircraft seats

This document describes the application of anthropometric data for the dimensioning of aircraft
passenger seats. The focus is on the use of statistical parameters of anthropometrical measurements as
given in CEN ISO/TR 7250-2 and similar sources. Even if methods described in this document might be
applicable for feasibility and safety issues the scope of this document is design for comfort.
The aim of this document is to give advice to designers to include methods of human-centred design
into the design of aircraft seats.

Luft- und Raumfahrt - Anthropometrische Dimensionierung von Flugzeugsitzen

Série aérospatiale - Dimensionnement anthropométrique des sièges passagers d’avion

Aeronavtika - Antropometrično dimenzioniranje letalskih sedežev

Ta dokument opisuje uporabo antropometričnih podatkov za dimenzioniranje
letalskih sedežev. Poudarek je na uporabi statističnih parametrov antropometričnih meritev, podanih v standardu CEN ISO/TR 7250-2 in podobnih virih. Tudi če bi bile metode, opisane v tem dokumentu, uporabne za vprašanja izvedljivosti in varnosti, se področje uporabe tega dokumenta navezuje na udobje.
Namen tega dokumenta je svetovanje oblikovalcem, da v zasnovo letalskih sedežev vključijo metode projektiranja, ki upoštevajo udobje potnika.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
06-Dec-2018
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
06-Dec-2018
Due Date
10-Feb-2019
Completion Date
07-Dec-2018

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN 4730:2019
01-februar-2019
$HURQDYWLND$QWURSRPHWULþQRGLPHQ]LRQLUDQMHOHWDOVNLKVHGHåHY
Aerospace series - Anthropometric dimensioning of aircraft seats
Luft- und Raumfahrt - Anthropometrische Dimensionierung von Flugzeugsitzen

Série aérospatiale - Dimensionnement anthropométrique des sièges passagers d’avion

Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN 4730:2018
ICS:
49.095 Oprema za potnike in Passenger and cabin
oprema kabin equipment
SIST EN 4730:2019 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN 4730:2019
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SIST EN 4730:2019
EN 4730
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
November 2018
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS
English Version
Aerospace series - Anthropometric dimensioning of
aircraft seats
Série aérospatiale - Dimensionnement Luft- und Raumfahrt - Anthropometrische
anthropométrique des sièges passagers d'avion Dimensionierung von Flugzeugsitzen
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 19 February 2018.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,

Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2018 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN 4730:2018 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN 4730:2019
EN 4730:2018 (E)
Contents
Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 4

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................... 5

1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................................... 6

2 Normative references .................................................................................................................................... 6

3 Terms and definitions ................................................................................................................................... 6

4 Engineering anthropometry ....................................................................................................................... 9

4.1 Anthropometric design ................................................................................................................................. 9

4.2 “Fit” and “Reach” problems ......................................................................................................................... 9

4.3 Percentiles and design limit ........................................................................................................................ 9

4.4 Means and procedure ................................................................................................................................. 10

5 Usage of anthropometric data ................................................................................................................. 11

5.1 Identification of target group .................................................................................................................. 11

5.2 Selection of data sets ................................................................................................................................... 11

5.2.1 Biases ................................................................................................................................................................ 11

5.2.2 International populations ......................................................................................................................... 11

5.3 Selection of relevant anthropometric measurements .................................................................... 12

5.4 Clothing and posture corrections ........................................................................................................... 12

5.5 Clearances and margins ............................................................................................................................. 12

5.6 Compression of cushion ............................................................................................................................. 12

5.7 Integration and evaluation ....................................................................................................................... 12

5.8 Documentation .............................................................................................................................................. 13

5.9 Examples ......................................................................................................................................................... 13

(informative) Statistical properties of anthropometrical measurements .......................... 17

A.1 Distribution parameters............................................................................................................................ 17

A.2 Accuracy, validity and reliability ............................................................................................................ 19

(informative) Estimates of missing anthropometric measurements ................................... 21

B.1 Ratio scaling ................................................................................................................................................... 21

B.2 Proportionality constants ......................................................................................................................... 22

(informative) Estimates of updates ................................................................................................... 24

(informative) Estimates of percentile values (evaluation) ...................................................... 27

D.1 Normal distributed measurements ....................................................................................................... 27

D.1.1 Estimate of percentiles with given mean and standard deviation ............................................. 27

D.1.2 Estimate of accommodation rate ............................................................................................................ 29

D.2 Skewed distributions (log-normal) ....................................................................................................... 29

D.3 General approach ......................................................................................................................................... 30

(informative) Example: Evaluation of anthropometric accommodation rates of an

economy class aircraft seat ...................................................................................................................... 32

E.1 Seat geometry ................................................................................................................................................ 32

E.2 Anthropometric data .................................................................................................................................. 32

E.3 Estimation of accommodation ................................................................................................................. 35

E.3.1 Seat width between armrests .................................................................................................................. 35

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E.3.2 Total seat width ............................................................................................................................................. 35

E.3.3 Cushion height over floor .......................................................................................................................... 35

E.4 Documentation .............................................................................................................................................. 36

Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................. 37

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SIST EN 4730:2019
EN 4730:2018 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN 4730:2018) has been prepared by the Aerospace and Defence Industries

Association of Europe — Standardization (ASD-STAN).

After enquiries and votes carried out in accordance with the rules of this Association, this Standard has

received the approval of the National Associations and the Official Services of the member countries of

ASD, prior to its presentation to CEN.

This document shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identical text

or by endorsement, at the latest by May 2019, and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn at

the latest by May 2019.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia,

France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta,

Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and the United Kingdom.
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SIST EN 4730:2019
EN 4730:2018 (E)
Introduction

Flight passengers in commercial aviation spend the predominant part of their journey — which can

take 12 hours or more — on their seats. Therefore, aircraft passenger seats are designed to minimize

passengers’ discomfort. This includes the consideration of body size and its variation within the target

population.

This document gives guidance on the use of anthropometric data for the dimensioning of aircraft seats

to accommodate specific populations as well as mixed populations including the world population. This

document also gives advice on how to quantify seat comfort in terms of anthropometric

accommodation rates.
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SIST EN 4730:2019
EN 4730:2018 (E)
1 Scope

This document describes the application of anthropometric data for the dimensioning of aircraft

passenger seats. The focus is on the use of statistical parameters of anthropometrical measurements as

given in CEN ISO/TR 7250-2 and similar sources. Even if methods described in this document might be

applicable for feasibility and safety issues the scope of this document is design for comfort.

The aim of this document is to give advice to designers to include methods of human-centred design

into the design of aircraft seats.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

EN 4723:2015, Aerospace series — Standardized measurement methods for comfort and living space

criteria for aircraft passenger seats

EN ISO 15535:2012, General requirements for establishing anthropometric databases (ISO 15535:2012)

EN ISO 7250-1, Basic human body measurements for technological design — Part 1: Body measurement

definitions and landmarks

CEN ISO/TR 7250-2, Basic human body measurements for technological design — Part 2: Statistical

summaries of body measurements from national populations
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
— ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
3.1
anthropometry

study and measurement of the physical dimensions and mass of the human body and its constituent

(external) parts

Note 1 to entry: Taken from the Greek word anthropos (human being or Man) and metron, to measure.

[SOURCE: EN ISO 15535:2012, 3.6]
3.2
anthropometric data

dimensional measurements (such as heights, lengths, depths, breadths and circumferences) of the

human body and its component parts
[SOURCE: EN ISO 15535:2012, 3.7]
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EN 4730:2018 (E)
3.3
percentile

statistical parameter indicating the value a given percentage of observations in a population go below

Note 1 to entry: For example 5 % of a population is shorter than the 5th percentile of stature of this population.

3.4
high percentile

percentile of a distribution of measurements of a body dimension representing a tall or corpulent

person
Note 1 to entry: For assessment of comfort usually the 95th percentile is used.
3.5
low percentile

percentile of a distribution of measurements of a body dimension representing a short person

Note 1 to entry: For assessment of comfort usually the 5th percentile is used.
3.6
sitting height (erect)

vertical distance from a horizontal sitting surface to the highest point of the head (vertex)

Note 1 to entry: The definition is in line with ISO 7250-1.
3.7
eye height, sitting

vertical distance from a horizontal sitting surface to the outer corner of the eye

Note 1 to entry: The definition is in line with ISO 7250-1.
3.8
cervicale height, sitting

vertical distance from a horizontal sitting surface to the cervicale (spinous process of the seventh

cervical vertebra)
Note 1 to entry: The definition is in line with ISO 7250-1.
3.9
elbow height, sitting

vertical distance from a horizontal sitting surface to the lowest bony point of the elbow bent at a right

angle with the forearm horizontal
Note 1 to entry: The definition is in line with ISO 7250-1.
3.10
shoulder (bideltoid) breadth

distance across the maximum lateral protrusions of the right and left deltoid muscles

Note 1 to entry: The definition is in line with ISO 7250-1.
3.11
hip breadth, sitting
Breadth of the body measured across the widest portion of the hips
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SIST EN 4730:2019
EN 4730:2018 (E)
Note 1 to entry: The definition is in line with ISO 7250-1.
3.12
lower leg length
popliteal height

vertical distance from the foot-rest surface to the lower surface of the thigh immediately behind the

knee, bent at right angles
Note 1 to entry: The definition is in line with ISO 7250-1.
3.13
thigh thickness
thigh clearance
vertical distance from the sitting surface to the highest point on the thigh
Note 1 to entry: The definition is in line with ISO 7250-1.
3.14
knee height

vertical distance from the floor to the highest point of the superior border of the patella

Note 1 to entry: The definition is in line with ISO 7250-1.
3.15
buttock-popliteal length (seat depth)

horizontal distance from the hollow of the knee to the rearmost point of the buttock

Note 1 to entry: The definition is in line with ISO 7250-1.
3.16
buttock-knee length

horizontal distance from the foremost point of the knee-cap to the rearmost point of the buttock

Note 1 to entry: The definition is in line with ISO 7250-1.
3.17
deat width between armrests
SWAR
shortest distance between two armrests flanking a seat place
Note 1 to entry: EN 4723 can be used for more information.
3.18
armrest top height over seat bottom cushion
TACH

distance between the compressed seat bottom and the highest point of the upper armrest contour

Note 1 to entry: EN 4723 can be used for more information.
3.19
vushion height above cabin floor level
CHoF

perpendicular distance from highest point at the front edge of the uncompressed cushion to the

airplane floor plane
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EN 4730:2018 (E)
Note 1 to entry: EN 4723 can be used for more information.
3.20
table height over bottom cushion edge

distance between the two parallel planes set up by the front lower edge of the meal tray table spread

horizontally to the rear and a horizontal plane touching the highest edge of the seat bottom cushion

Note 1 to entry: EN 4723 can be used for more information.
3.21
total seat width
TSW

shortest distance between the arm rest centre lines flanking a seat (SWAR plus 2 × half width of

armrest)
4 Engineering anthropometry
4.1 Anthropometric design

The objective of anthropometric design is to adjust the dimensions of workplaces, interior space of

vehicles, furniture, equipment, or protective clothing to the size of the human body. There are various

approaches to consider the variety of dimensions and proportions in populations: Sizing systems (e.g.

garment), adjustable elements (e.g. seat position in cars) or designing to critical cases (e.g. seats in

public transport vessels). Aircraft passenger seats belong to the latter category.

4.2 “Fit” and “Reach” problems

Design to critical cases means to dimension an item so as to fully accommodate all users with the

exception of few, which are beyond the critical case. Regarding the critical case “fit” and “reach”

problems might be distinguished. For instance, if the width of a seat is dimensioned according to the hip

width of a corpulent reference person; all individuals with smaller hips will also fit into the seat (“Fit”

problem). In contrast, the height of the seat pan should be dimensioned to allow a reference person

with short legs to reach the floor with the feet (“Reach problem”). Accommodation to people with

longer legs is given when they increase their knee angle. Generally, in case of “fit problems”

dimensioning is adjusted for a large reference person, in case of “reach problems” for a small reference

person.

NOTE Accommodation to an average person (mean or median of population data) is in most cases not a

reasonable option, since half of the population will likely not fit or reach.
4.3 Percentiles and design limit

Small and large reference persons are defined by statistical parameters of the distribution of the

respective sizes (e.g. leg length) in the population. Typically, this is done by fixing a low and a high

percentile level (design limit). The n percentile of a distribution is the value where n percent of all

cases in the distribution fall below. For instance, the 95 percentile of the stature of a population is the

body height where 95 % of the respective population is shorter (or 5 % are taller). Usually, a value

st th

between the 1 and the 5 percentile (i.e. for 1 resp. 5 % of the population the respective dimension is

th th

smaller) is used as small reference and a value between 95 and 99 percentiles as large reference.

NOTE 1 Percentile values (1st, 5th, 50th, 95th, and 99th) for various body measurements and populations can

be found in CEN ISO/TR 7250-2.
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NOTE 2 Additional information regarding statistical properties of anthropometrical data is given in Annex A.

th th

For comfort and efficiency related studies typically a range from 5 to 95 percentile is applied.

Generally, a decision for a design limit should be accompanied by considerations regarding the portion

of the population not accommodated within the defined range. Consequences of non-accommodation

can be impossibility of use, reduction of comfort, lack of safety or another restriction. A design limit

th th

defined by the 5 and 95 percentile can exclude 5 % of the population, and — in case several

measurements are critical at the same time — even more. For safety relevant dimensions the use of 1

and 99 percentile is recommended according to EN 547-1 and to EN 614-1.

NOTE 3 Aviation regulations can define individual percentiles or constants for certain tests (e.g. CS 25.562).

4.4 Means and procedure

In various phases of the product life-cycle anthropometric studies might be performed with different

means. The use of 2D Templates, 3D CAD manikins, anthropomorphic test devices (dummies) or tests

with a sample of real humans (EN ISO 15537 gives advice for the selection of test persons) are just

some examples. All methods should be based on appropriate anthropometrical data.

Some techniques have specific prerequisites, e.g. a digital 3D model or a physical prototype. The direct

use of percentilized measurement data as described in this document has minimal requirements and

can be performed in very early design stages.

NOTE Since 2D/3D templates or manikins cannot represent a certain percentile in all dimensions (e.g.

stature, trunk length, and leg length) at a time design results typically differ slightly from dimensioning with

tabulated percentile data.
The general procedure includes:

— identification of target group (according to parameters as nationality/ethnicity, gender, age range)

(5.1);

— selection of an appropriate data set (in terms of representing the target group) (5.2);

— selection of relevant anthropometric measurements (corresponding to required seat dimensions;

e.g. hip width for dimensioning seat width) (5.3);

— adjustment of anthropometrics dimensions by taking into acoount clothing and posture corrections

(5.4);

— calculation of design dimensions by adding clearances (for fit dimensions) or subtracting margins

(for reach dimensions) (5.5);
— consideration of compression of cushion (5.6);
— integration and evaluation of results (5.7);
— documentation (5.8).
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5 Usage of anthropometric data
5.1 Identification of target group

Target groups may be defined in terms of ethnicity, gender, age, occupation, and specific

selection/recruitment rules.

For the design of aircraft passenger seats it might be considered if an aircraft is dedicated for

world-wide or regional operation. In the latter case ethnicity may be confined. The distributions of

gender, age, and socio-economic factors (e.g. occupation) will be close to the respective distributions

within the general population.

Seats for flight crew or cabin crew have a more specific user population. Due to education and

retirement regulations the age range might be restricted. According to an airline’s recruitment policy a

certain nationality/ethnicity might be dominant. In addition recruitment policy may exclude very short

or very tall individuals.
5.2 Selection of data sets

The bases of anthropometric data sets are surveys, where large (typically: n > 1 000), representative

samples of individuals from a defined population are measured according to detailed instructions.

Definitions and instructions for measurement of commonly surveyed body dimensions are given in

EN ISO 7250-1, but individual surveys may follow differing rules. Raw data are processed to gather

percentile values and other statistical parameters. Most studies record data for males and females

separately. Some surveys are restricted to specific groups (e.g. children, army, bus-drivers) or are

restricted to specific regions of the body (e.g. head, hands). Seat design requires measurements of trunk

and upper and lower limbs.
5.2.1 Biases

Data should be as up-to-date as possible, since there are temporal trends resulting in faultiness of

outdated data. The most dominant trends are the so-called secular trend in industrialized countries

resulting in an increase in stature in consecutive generations and the so-called obesity trend with an

increasing portion of overweight and obese persons.
NOTE Annex C gives advice how to estimate the effects of these trends.

Many anthropometric data were surveyed for an age range corresponding to national working forces

(e.g. 18 years to 65 years old). If a significant part of the target group is beyond this age range data

should be used with caution.
5.2.2 International populations

In the field of aviation the user population often is not restricted to a single nation. Recently there are

only few anthropometric data sets describing the populations of larger regions or even the world

population (e.g. EN ISO 14738, EN 547-3, Jürgens et al., 1990; ISO 7250-3). In addition, these are not

well suited for seat design, since they do not include all required measurements, and some of them are

outdated.

A simple method to estimate the design limit for combined populations is to use the lower percentiles

from a shorter population and the upper percentiles from a taller population. A good estimate for the

world population is to take the lower percentile from Asian data (e.g. from Japan, Korea, or Thailand)

and for the upper percentile European or North-American data (e.g. from The Netherlands, Germany, or

USA).
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EN 4730:2018 (E)
5.3 Selection of relevant anthropometric measurements

Since the primary function of a seat is to support the human body in a (comfortable) sitting posture

most of the main seat dimensions correspond to specific body dimensions; Table 1 gives an overview.

st th th th

After decision on the design limit, typically 1 and 99 percentiles or 5 and 95 percentiles, for each

measurement it shall be decided whether it is a “fit” dimension or a “reach” dimension (see Table 1).

Accordingly a lower or upper percentile is selected. When data for males and females are given apart

use the lower value of both of the genders for the low percentile and, analogous, the higher value for the

upper percentile.

NOTE If relevant measurements are missing in a data set estimates can be necessary. Annex B gives advice

for such estimates.
5.4 Clothing and posture corrections

Typically anthropometric measurements are recorded from participants in standardized postures

without or with minimum clothing. For practical applications some corrections are required. Regarding

postures measurements are taken in upright standing or sitting posture, in real scenarios there is

usually some slump. The effect of clothing is influenced by fashion (e.g. height of shoes) and season or

environmental temperature (light summer clothes to polar clothing). Military, working and protective

clothes may have an even larger impact. Corrections for various kinds of clothing are given in Pheasant,

S. & Haslegrave, C. M. (2006) or Tilley (2002). Table 1 gives corrections for light street clothing, which is

likely for commercial air travel.
5.5 Clearances and margins

It is advisable to provide some clearance for “fit” dimensions. Such clearances can reduce problems with

users beyond the design limit. In some cases clearances are a means to improve comfort. In cases where

non-accommodation makes the seat unusable, the 99 percentile should be used as design limit. An

th th

additional clearance can be computed as difference between the 99 and the 95 percentile of the

respective body dimension .

For “reach” dimensions analogously a margin (a “negative clearance”) can reduce the number of

unaccommodated users and may also increase comfort. For instance, an additional lowering of the seat

pan height reduces pressure in the popliteal for users with short legs.
5.6 Compression of cushion

Computations are related to a user sitting on the seat, i.e. cushion is compressed. Design dimensions

related to uncompressed cushion require a correction considering the elastic properties of the cushion.

5.7 Integration and evaluation

In aircraft cabins the available space for passenger (and crew) seats is restricted due to the cabin cross

section, legal requirements (e.g. aisle width), and operational considerations. Therefore, not all seat

dimensions can be realized. In addition, some dimensions might be incompatible which each other.

Finally, the optimization for the lower percentile may produce unacceptable seating conditions for

upper percentile persons and vice versa.
1) In ca
...

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