Testing of textiles - Evaluation of the action of microfungi

This standard specifies a method for determining long term resistance of textiles to attack by microorganisms/mixed cultures.

Prüfung von Textilien - Bestimmung der Einwirkung mikroskopischer Pilze (Mikrofungi)

Essais sur les textiles - Evaluation de l'action des champignons microscopiques

La présente Norme européenne spécifie des méthodes pour la détermination de la résistance des textiles a l'action des champignons microscopiques. Les résultats des essais sont évalués par un examen visuel et par le mesurage des propriétés physiques des textiles. Ces essais sont applicables a tous les produits textiles, y compris les textiles en fibres cellulosiques ou synthétiques (voir l'annexe B).

Preskušanje tekstilij - Ocenjevanje delovanja mikrogliv

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2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.Preskušanje tekstilij - Ocenjevanje delovanja mikroglivPrüfung von Textilien - Bestimmung der Einwirkung mikroskopischer Pilze (Mikrofungi)Essais sur les textiles - Evaluation de l'action des champignons microscopiquesTesting of textiles - Evaluation of the action of microfungi59.080.30TkanineTextile fabrics07.100.99Drugi standardi v zvezi z mikrobiologijoOther standards related to microbiologyICS:Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z:EN 14119:2003SIST EN 14119:2003en01-december-2003SIST EN 14119:2003SLOVENSKI

SIST EN 14119:2003

EUROPEAN STANDARDNORME EUROPÉENNEEUROPÄISCHE NORMEN 14119September 2003ICS 07.100.99; 59.080.30English versionTesting of textiles - Evaluation of the action of microfungiEssais sur les textiles - Evaluation de l'action deschampignons microscopiquesPrüfung von Textilien - Bestimmung der Einwirkungmikroskopischer Pilze (Mikrofungi)This European Standard was approved by CEN on 1 August 2003.CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this EuropeanStandard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such nationalstandards may be obtained on application to the Management Centre or to any CEN member.This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translationunder the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the Management Centre has the same status as the officialversions.CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece,Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and UnitedKingdom.EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATIONCOMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATIONEUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNGManagement Centre: rue de Stassart, 36
B-1050 Brussels© 2003 CENAll rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reservedworldwide for CEN national Members.Ref. No. EN 14119:2003 ESIST EN 14119:2003

EN 14119:2003 (E)2ContentsPageForeword.3Introduction.41Scope.52Normative references.53Terms and definitions.54Safety.55Principle.66Apparatus.77Reagents.78Test specimens.99Preparation of test specimens.1010Procedure.1111Evaluation.1712Expression of results.1813Accuracy of measurements.1814Test report.19Annex A (informative)
Recommendations for testing.20Annex B (informative)
Information on the test fungi.21SIST EN 14119:2003

EN 14119:2003 (E)3ForewordThis document (EN 14119:2003) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 248 “Textiles andtextile products”, the secretariat of which is held by BSI.This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identicaltext or by endorsement, at the latest by March 2004, and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn atthe latest by March 2004.Annexes A and B are informative.According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the followingcountries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark,Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands,Norway, Portugal, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom.SIST EN 14119:2003

EN 14119:2003 (E)4IntroductionUnder certain climatic and environmental conditions microfungi can settle on and colonise the surface oftextile products and can possibly deteriorate them.The tests and test conditions specified in this standard are empirical and cover most - but not all - potentialapplications.The actions of microfungi on textiles are quite different:a) Direct action: deterioration of the textile product which serve as a nutritive substance for the growth of themicrofungi;b) Indirect action: influence of metabolic products of the microfungi, e.g. discolouration or biochemicaldeterioration.This standard deals also with the combined action of these two processes.This standard is based on a part of ISO 846:1997 "Plastics - Evaluation of the action of microorganisms" andIEC 68-2-10:1988 "Basic environmental testing procedures, Part 2: Test J, Mould growth".SIST EN 14119:2003

EN 14119:2003 (E)51 ScopeThis European Standard specifies methods for determining the resistance of textiles to the action ofmicrofungi. The results of the tests are evaluated by visual examination and by measuring the physicalproperties of the textiles. These tests are applicable to all textile products, including cellulosic or man-madefibre textiles (see annex A).2 Normative referencesThis European Standard incorporates, by dated or undated reference, provisions from other publications.These normative references are cited at the appropriate places in the text, and the publications are listedhereafter. For dated references, subsequent amendments to or revisions of any of these publications apply tothis European Standard only when incorporated in it by amendment or revision. For undated references thelatest edition of the publication referred to applies (including amendments).EN ISO 13934-1,Textiles - Tensile properties of fabrics - Part 1: Determination of maximum force andelongation at maximum force using the strip method (ISO 13934-1:1999).3 Terms and definitionsFor the purposes of this European Standard the following terms and definitions apply.3.1biodeteriorationchange of chemical or physical properties of materials due to the action of (micro-) organisms3.2fungistatic effectantimycotic effect of an antimicrobial treatment which prevents a given material from being overgrown by fungiunder moist conditions3.3biodegradationultimate degradation / mineralization of organic matter under aerobic conditions into CO2, water and microbialbiomass3.4rottingmicrobiogenous deterioration under moist or wet conditions, in contact with a microbiological active soil4 SafetyHandling of microorganisms which are potentially hazardous requires a high degree of technical competenceand can be subject to current national legislation and regulations. Only personnel trained in microbiologicaltechniques should carry out such tests. Codes of practice for disinfection, sterilisation and personal hygieneshall be strictly observed.NOTEIt is recommended that workers should consult appendix A "Danger to personnel" of IEC 68-2-10 and ISO7218 "Microbiology - General guidance for microbiological examinations".SIST EN 14119:2003

EN 14119:2003 (E)65 Principle5.1 GeneralThe tests involve exposing test specimens of textiles to the action of selected test strains of microfungi forspecified or agreed periods under specified temperature and humidity.At the end of the exposure, the test specimens are assessed before and/or after cleaning by visualexamination and/or change in physical properties, e.g. tensile strength.The results of the test specimens exposed to biological attack are compared with unexposed specimens.Brief descriptions of each method are given in 5.2 to Method A1: Fungal growth test on incomplete agar mediumThe test specimens are exposed on an incomplete nutritive medium (agar medium without a carbon source) toa standardized mixed spore suspension of the test fungi. The test fungi can only grow at the expense of thematerial. The standard contains fungi for testing cellulose or cellulose containing textiles. The influence of thetest fungi is evaluated by growth rating and tensile strength evaluation.5.3 Method A2: Fungal growth test in a moist chamberThe test specimens are inoculated with a standardized mixed spore suspension and exposed in a near to thepractice test (moist chamber test) to determine the influence of the test fungi. Test fungi are proposed forcellulose or cellulose containing textiles. The influence of the fungi is evaluated by growth rating and by tensilestrength evaluation.5.4 Method B1: Fungal growth test on a complete agar mediumThe test specimens are exposed on a complete nutritive medium (agar medium with a carbon source) to astandardized mixed spore suspension of the test fungi. The test fungi can grow on the agar medium and onthe textile, if the textile is not protected against fungal growth. The standard contains fungi for testing celluloseor cellulose containing textiles. The influence of the test fungi is evaluated by growth rating (determination ofthe antimycotic effect) and by tensile strength evaluation (determination of the resistance of the textile againstbiodeterioration).5.5 Antimycotic effect of a textile material5.5.1 Method B1: Fungal growth test on complete agar medium; antimycotic effectSee Method B2: Antimycotic activityThe test specimens are laid on an inoculated complete nutritive medium (agar with carbon source andincorporated fungal spores (single cultures). The test fungus can grow in and on the agar near the textilespecimen, if the textile is not protected against fungal growth. The standard test is using Aspergillus niger andChaetomium globosum for testing. The test germ spectrum can be adapted. The antimycotic effect against thetest strain is evaluated by growth rating (determination of the antimycotic effect) and measuring of a possiblyzone without fungal growth around the specimen.NOTE 1Method A allows the determination of the fungal resistance of cellulose or cellulose containing textiles or othersusceptible textiles and the evaluation of an antimicrobial finishing.NOTE 2Method B allows the determination of the action of a textile finishing against selected test strains. It allows thein vitro comparison of different finishings.SIST EN 14119:2003

EN 14119:2003 (E)75.6 Choice of properties for assessmentA visual examination of the biological attack, the fungal growth or formation of an inhibition zone against thetest fungi should always be made as the first stage in assessing the resistance of a textile.Tensile strength evaluation allows the determination of the resistance of a textile against microfungi. Tensilestrength tests are necessary for testing the resistance of cellulosic textiles.Further evaluations can be agreed. The choice depends on the aim of the testing.6 Apparatus6.1 Microbiological incubators, capable of controlling temperature to (29 ± 1) °C.6.2Oven capable of controlling temperature at (45 ± 1) °C for drying the test specimens.6.3Ambient conditioning to attain standard temperature and humidity conditions (20 °C and 65 % relativehumidity (r.h.)) for conditioning the specimens for tensile strength tests.NOTEAmbient conditions 23 °C and 50 % r.h. are optional and should be agreed between the partners.6.4Autoclave capable of attaining a temperature and pressure of 121 °C and 2 bar respectively.6.5Analytical balance (graduation of 1 mg) for preparing media.6.6Laboratory centrifuge.6.7Stereoscopic microscope (magnification 50 X).6.8Test containers: glass or plastic Petri dishes of approximately 90 mm diameter.6.9Glass or plastic containers, e.g. with a volume of about 1 l (height, 16 cm; diameter, 11 cm), forexample preserving jars with covers or another humid chamber facility.7 Reagents7.1 Distilled or deionised water with a conductivity of <1 µS/cm. for the preparation of solutions, nutritivemedia and the tests.7.2 Microbicidal solutions for cleaning the textile before and after the biotest, ethanol-water mixture at a massratio of 70:30.7.3 Test fungi - Test strains. The test fungi shall be obtained when ever possible from national culturecollections. The strains to be used are listed in table 1 and shall be stated in the test report.SIST EN 14119:2003

EN 14119:2003 (E)8Table 1 — Test strainsNameStrainAspergillus niger van TieghemATCC 6275DSM 1957 IMI 45551Chaetomium globosum Kunze:FriesATCC 6205DSM 1962IMI 45550Gliocladium virens Miller et al.ATCC 9645DSM 1963IMI 45553Paecilomyces variotii BainierATCC 18502DSM 1961IMI 40025Penicillium pinophilum ThomATCC 36839DSM 1944IMI 114933If there are technical reasons, and by agreement between the interested parties, additional species may beused (see annex B). The strains used shall be stated in the test report.7.4Stock strainsThe test fungi can be cultured in tubes on agar slants of the following composition:¾ oatmeal20 g¾ malt extract 10 g¾ agar20 g¾ distilled or deionized water1 000 mlSterilize at 121 °C for 15 min to 20 min in an autoclave with saturated water vapour.After incubation at (29 ± 1) °C well-sporulating cultures may be used. They should not be stored for more than4 weeks at this temperature.Because of the possibility of genetic and physiological changes in the test fungi during culturing on artificialmedia the intervals between subculturing should be reduced to a minimum by suitable measures (lyophilisedcultures, storage at +4 °C or in liquid nitrogen).7.5Solutions and media7.5.1Stock mineral salts solution (use substances of analytical or equivalent purity)¾ NaNO32,0 g¾ KH2PO40,7 g¾ K2HPO40,3 g¾ KCl0,5 g¾ MgSO4 × 7H2O
0,5 g¾ FeSO4 × 7H2O 0,01 g¾ H2O1 000 mlSIST EN 14119:2003

EN 14119:2003 (E)9Adjust the pH to 6.0 to 6.5 by adding 0,01 mol/l sterile NaOH solution.The following sterile solutions are prepared from the stock mineral salts solution.7.5.2 Mineral salts solution with wetting agent.
Add to 1 l of the stock mineral salts solution (7.5.1) 0,1 g ofa non-toxic wetting agent, such asN-methyltauride or polyglycol ether.Sterilize in an autoclave at 121 °C for15 min to 20 min.7.5.3Mineral salts solution with glucose. Add to the mineral salts solution (7.5.1) glucose to obtain aconcentration of (30 ± 1) g/l. Sterilize in an autoclave at 115 °C for 30 min.NOTEIn autoclaves with integrated cooling procedure it is possible to sterilize sugar containing media at 121 °C for15 min.7.5.4 Incomplete agar medium. Add to the mineral salts solution (7.5.1) agar to obtain a concentration of20 g/l. Dissolve the agar by boiling the solutions whilst stirring.Sterilize in an autoclave at 121 °C for 15 to 20 min.7.5.5Complete agar medium. Use the incomplete agar medium (7.5.4) and add glucose to obtain aconcentration of (20 ± 1) g/l.Sterilize in an autoclave at 115 °C for 30 min.Adjust the pH to between 6,0 and 6,5 at 20 °C after sterilisation with a 0,01 mol/l NaOH solution.NOTEIn autoclaves with integrated cooling procedure it is possible to sterilize sugar-containing media at 121 °C for15 min.8
Test specimens8.1 DimensionsThe shape and dimensions of the specimens will depend on tests to be carried out, see the followingprocedures.8.2 Numbers of specimensAt least 4 test specimens shall be taken from the same batch for visual examination.At least 6 test specimens shall be taken from the same batch for the determination of tensile strength.8.3 Batches of specimensFor each sample, each stage of ageing and each test method two batches of specimens should be prepared:¾ batch 0: control specimens, stored under standard temperature and moisture conditions;¾ batch I: specimens used for the biotest.SIST EN 14119:2003

EN 14119:2003 (E)109 Preparation of test specimens9.1 Cleaning of the test specimensDip the test specimens for methods A and B for 1 s to 2 s into an ethanol-water mixture (70:30, see 7.2) anddry at 45 °C for 4 h unless they are adversely affected by ethanol. Carry out all subsequent manipulations ofthe specimens using forceps to avoid extraneous organic contamination.Lay a sample of the cleaned specimens on sterile complete nutrient agar layers to control the cleaningprocedure.9.2 Labelling and storageStore the cleaned and labelled test specimens in a closed container for a minimum time of 72 h at ambienttemperature.9.3 Conditioning and tensile strength testing9.3.1 Tests for fungus resistance of a textileCondition the cleaned and dried specimens for at least 72 h in the standard climate before the tensile strengthtest.9.3.2 Tests for antimycotic effect of a textileNo conditioning in a standard climate is necessary.SIST EN 14119:2003

EN 14119:2003 (E)1110 Procedure10.1 Summary of test methodsA general scheme of the described test methods is shown in Table 2:Table 2 —
Summary of test proceduresTest proceduresMethodA1A2B1B2Reference10.210.310.410.5medium usedincomplete agarmediumnonecomplete agar mediuminoculummixed sporesuspensionsprayed over testspecimen and agarmediummixed sporesuspensionsprayed on testspecimenmixed sporesuspensionsprayed over testspecimen and agarmediumAspergillus niger resp.Chaetomium globosumspore suspensionincorporated in theagar mediumincubation time2 and 4 weeks2 weeksincubationtemperature29 °Chumidity> 95% r.h.provided by the agarmediumcontrolled humiditywithin the moistchamberprovided by the agar mediumassessmenta) growthb) tensile strengtha) growthb) growth inhibitionc) tensile strengtha) growthb) growth inhibition10.2 Procedure A 1:
Fungus resistance10.2.1 Filling the Petri dishesAfter sterilization pour the incomplete agar medium (5.5) into the sterile Petri dishes to give a depth of 5 mm.Leave to cool and solidify.10.2.2 Dimensions and number of specimensCut specimens of 2.5 cm x 8 cm (length in warp direction for woven textiles or in the direction of cellulosicyarns) and then make test specimens of exactly 20 mm width.SIST EN 14119:2003

EN 14119:2003 (E)12Use random samples with n = 6 for each batch.10.2.3 Arrangement of test specimensPlace the test specimens as flat as possible on the solidified medium. Use one test specimen per Petri dish.NOTEIf it is anticipated that the test specimens can lift from the medium, ballast them with weights.10.2.4 Preparation of spore suspension10.2.4.1 GeneralProduce a spo

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