Interior air of road vehicles - Part 3: Screening method for the determination of the emissions of volatile organic compounds from vehicle interior parts and materials - Micro-scale chamber method

This part of ISO 12219 specifies a fast, qualitative and semiquantitative screening method for vapour-phase organic compounds (volatile and some semi-volatile) released from vehicle trim materials under simulated realuse
conditions using micro-scale test chambers. This method is intended for evaluating new car interior trim components but can, in principle, also be applied to used car components. Target analytes include VOCs(conventionally defined as organic compounds in the volatility range of n-hexane to n-hexadecane) and volatile carbonyl compounds such as formaldehyde. The specified analytical procedure for VOCs is ISO 16000-6 and for formaldehyde and some other light carbonyl compounds is ISO 16000-3. NOTE 1: Some compounds more volatile than n-hexane and less volatile than n-hexadecane can also be analysed (for more information, see: ISO 16000-6:2011, Annex D; ISO 16017-1;[11] and Annex E). NOTE 2: For dry, homogeneous materials, results from tests of volatile organic emissions carried out using microscale chambers on newly manufactured products have been found to correlate well with data obtained using standard(reference) methods and conventional emission test chambers (ISO 12219-4, VDA 276[1] and ISO 16000-9[6]) or test cells (ISO 16000-10[7]). Correlation with emission data obtained using bags (ISO 12219-2) has also been reported. The practice specified in this part of ISO 12219 is therefore complementary to existing standards. This part of ISO 12219 provides third party test laboratories and manufacturing industry with a cost-effective approach for:
a) monitoring and screening VOC emissions as part of routine quality control;
b) monitoring product uniformity or conformity between formal certification tests;
c) comparing emissions from products within a range (e.g. different colours or patterns);
d) evaluating prototype, “low-emission” materials or products during development.

Air intérieur des véhicules routiers - Partie 3: Méthode de criblage pour la détermination des émissions de composés organiques volatils des parties et matériaux intérieurs des véhicules - Méthode de la micro-chambre

Notranji zrak v cestnih vozilih - 3. del: Presejalna metoda za določevanje emisij hlapnih organskih spojin iz notranjih delov in materialov - Metoda z mikro komoro

Ta del standarda ISO 12219 določa hitro, kvalitativno in polkvantitativno metodo presejanja za organske spojine v parni fazi (hlapne in nekatere polhlapne), ki se sprostijo iz materialov v notranjosti vozila pod simuliranimi pogoji pri realni uporabi z uporabo mikro preskusnih komor. Ta metoda je namenjena za vrednotenje novih sestavnih delov v notranjosti vozila, vendar jo je načeloma mogoče uporabiti tudi za rabljene avtomobilske dele. Med ciljne analite spadajo hlapne organske spojine (po dogovoru opredeljene kot organske spojine v območju hlapnosti n-heksana do n-heksadekana) in hlapne karbonilne spojine, kot je formaldehid. Analizni postopek za hlapne organske spojine je določen v standardu ISO 16000-6, za formaldehid in nekatere druge lahke karbonilne spojine pa v standardu ISO 16000-3. OPOMBA 1: Analizirati je mogoče tudi nekatere spojine, ki so bolj hlapne kot n-heksan in manj hlapne kot n-heksadekan (za več informacij glej: dodatek D k standardu ISO 16000-6:2011; standard ISO 16017-1;[11] in dodatek E). OPOMBA 2: Pri suhih, homogenih materialih so rezultati preskusov hlapnih organskih emisij, ki so bili opravljeni z mikro komorami na novo proizvedenih izdelkih, v dobri korelaciji s podatki, pridobljenimi z uporabo standardnih (referenčnih) metod in običajnih emisijskih preskusnih komor (standard ISO 12219-4, VDA 276[1] in standard ISO 16000-9[6]) ali preskusnih celic (standard ISO 16000-10[7]). Ugotovljena je bila tudi korelacija s podatki o emisijah, pridobljenimi z uporabo vreč (standard ISO 12219-2). Praksa iz tega dela standarda ISO 12219 torej dopolnjuje obstoječe standarde. Ta del standarda ISO 12219 za preskusne laboratorije tretjih oseb in predelovalno industrijo zagotavlja stroškovno učinkovit pristop za:
a) spremljanje in presejanje emisij hlapnih organskih spojin v okviru rutinskega nadzora kakovosti;
b) spremljanje enotnosti ali skladnosti izdelkov med uradnimi preskusi ustreznosti;
c) primerjavo emisij iz izdelkov iz iste linije (npr. različnih barv ali vzorcev);
d) vrednotenje prototipnih materialov ali izdelkov »z nizko stopnjo emisij« med razvojem.

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
28-Feb-2013
Publication Date
17-Mar-2013
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
04-Mar-2013
Due Date
09-May-2013
Completion Date
18-Mar-2013

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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 12219-3
First edition
2012-06-15
Interior air of road vehicles —
Part 3:
Screening method for the determination
of the emissions of volatile organic
compounds from vehicle interior parts and
materials — Micro-scale chamber method
Air intérieur des véhicules routiers —
Partie 3: Méthode de criblage pour la détermination des émissions de
composés organiques volatils des parties et matériaux intérieurs des
véhicules — Méthode de la micro-chambre
Reference number
ISO 12219-3:2012(E)
ISO 2012
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 12219-3:2012(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2012

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means,

electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and microfilm, without permission in writing from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s

member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
Case postale 56 • CH-1211 Geneva 20
Tel. + 41 22 749 01 11
Fax + 41 22 749 09 47
E-mail copyright@iso.org
Web www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2012 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 12219-3:2012(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ............................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ........................................................................................................................................................................ v

1 Scope ...................................................................................................................................................................... 1

2 Normative references ......................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ......................................................................................................................................... 2

4 Principle ................................................................................................................................................................. 2

5 Apparatus .............................................................................................................................................................. 2

6 Test conditions ..................................................................................................................................................... 3

6.1 Temperature .......................................................................................................................................................... 4

6.2 Air or gas flow rate through the micro-scale chamber ............................................................................. 4

6.3 Quality of supplied air or gas and background concentration of organic vapours .......................... 4

6.4 Control measures ................................................................................................................................................ 4

7 Test specimens .................................................................................................................................................... 4

7.1 General ................................................................................................................................................................... 4

7.2 Preparation of the test specimen .................................................................................................................... 5

8 Cleaning micro-scale chamber components ............................................................................................... 5

9 Test method .......................................................................................................................................................... 5

9.1 Sampling media ................................................................................................................................................... 5

9.2 Measuring background concentrations ........................................................................................................ 6

9.3 Vapour sampling .................................................................................................................................................. 6

9.4 Sealing the vapour sampling devices after gas sample collection ....................................................... 6

9.5 Analysis of vapour sampling devices ............................................................................................................ 6

9.6 Storage of the test specimen between emissions tests (if required) .................................................... 6

9.7 Cleaning the micro-scale chamber after use ............................................................................................... 6

10 Calculation of vapour concentrations and specific emission rates ...................................................... 7

11 Test report ............................................................................................................................................................. 8

12 Quality assurance/quality control ................................................................................................................... 9

Annex A (informative) Micro-scale chamber principles .........................................................................................10

Annex B (informative) Micro-scale chamber — Example 1 ...................................................................................12

Annex C (informative) Micro-scale chamber — Example 2 ...................................................................................14

Annex D (informative) Micro-scale chamber — Example 3 ...................................................................................16

Annex E (informative) Assessment of VOC recoveries ..........................................................................................18

Annex F (informative) Calculation of specific emission rates from micro-scale chamber

air concentration ...............................................................................................................................................19

Bibliography .....................................................................................................................................................................21

© ISO 2012 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO 12219-3:2012(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies

(ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO

technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been

established has the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and

non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the International

Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International Standards

adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publication as an

International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting a vote.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

ISO 12219-3 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 146, Air quality, Subcommittee SC 6, Indoor air, in

collaboration with Technical Committee ISO/TC 22, Road vehicles.

ISO 12219 consists of the following parts, under the general title Interior air of road vehicles:

— Part 1: Whole vehicle test chamber — Specification and method for the determination of volatile organic

compounds in cabin interiors

— Part 2: Screening method for the determination of the emissions of volatile organic compounds from

vehicle interior parts and materials — Bag method

— Part 3: Screening method for the determination of the emissions of volatile organic compounds from

vehicle interior parts and materials — Micro-scale chamber method

— Part 4: Screening method for the determination of the emissions of volatile organic compounds from

vehicle interior parts and materials — Small chamber method
The following part is under preparation:

— Part 5: Screening method for the determination of the emissions of volatile organic compounds from

vehicle interior parts and materials — Static chamber method
iv © ISO 2012 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO 12219-3:2012(E)
Introduction

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are widely used in industry and may be emitted by many everyday products

and materials. They have attracted attention in recent years because of their impact on indoor air quality. After

homes and workplaces, people spend a lot of time in their vehicles. It is important to determine the material

emissions of interior parts and to reduce them to an acceptable level, if required. Therefore it is necessary

to obtain comprehensive and reliable information about the types of organic compounds in the interior air of

vehicles and also their concentrations.

Monitoring emissions from vehicle trim components can be performed in several ways and the approach selected

depends upon the desired outcome and the material type. For example, to obtain emissions data from complete

assemblies (e.g. a dashboard or seat), it is necessary to employ emissions chambers or bags that have sufficient

volume to house the complete assembly (typically >1 m ). Such tests may take several hours or even days to

perform, depending on specified equilibration times and the requirements of the relevant test protocol.

This part of ISO 12219 outlines a method of measuring the types and levels of VOCs emitted using micro-scale

chambers (References [2]–[4]). These allow qualitative and semiquantitative screening of product emissions

after only minutes, rather than hours or days, of equilibration. Their capacity is limited so they are best suited to

small assemblies or representative samples of homogeneous vehicle interior parts and materials. Multiple test

specimens can also be readily evaluated from the same sample if required. Micro-scale chambers can provide

an ideal quick screening tool for quality control of production and other in-house tests by manufacturers. They

offer a complementary approach to large chamber or sampling bag approaches.
[5] [6] [7] [8] [9]

ISO 16000-3, ISO 16000-5, ISO 16000-6, ISO 16000-9, ISO 16000-10, ISO 16000-11, ISO 16000-24,

[10] [11] [12]

ISO 16000-25, as well as ISO 16017-1 and ISO 16017-2, also focus on VOC measurements.

© ISO 2012 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 12219-3:2012(E)
Interior air of road vehicles —
Part 3:
Screening method for the determination of the emissions of
volatile organic compounds from vehicle interior parts and
materials — Micro-scale chamber method

WARNING — It is the responsibility of the user of this part of ISO 12219 to establish appropriate safety

and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. National

regulations for precautions shall be followed.
1 Scope

This part of ISO 12219 specifies a fast, qualitative and semiquantitative screening method for vapour-phase

organic compounds (volatile and some semi-volatile) released from vehicle trim materials under simulated real-

use conditions using micro-scale test chambers. This method is intended for evaluating new car interior trim

components but can, in principle, also be applied to used car components.

Target analytes include VOCs (conventionally defined as organic compounds in the volatility range of n-hexane

to n-hexadecane) and volatile carbonyl compounds such as formaldehyde. The specified analytical procedure

for VOCs is ISO 16000-6 and for formaldehyde and some other light carbonyl compounds is ISO 16000-3.

NOTE 1 Some compounds more volatile than n-hexane and less volatile than n-hexadecane can also be analysed (for

[11]
more information, see: ISO 16000-6:2011, Annex D; ISO 16017-1; and Annex E).

NOTE 2 For dry, homogeneous materials, results from tests of volatile organic emissions carried out using micro-

scale chambers on newly manufactured products have been found to correlate well with data obtained using standard

[1] [6]

(reference) methods and conventional emission test chambers (ISO 12219-4, VDA 276 and ISO 16000-9 ) or test cells

[7]

(ISO 16000-10 ). Correlation with emission data obtained using bags (ISO 12219-2) has also been reported. The practice

specified in this part of ISO 12219 is therefore complementary to existing standards.

This part of ISO 12219 provides third party test laboratories and manufacturing industry with a cost-effective

approach for:
a) monitoring and screening VOC emissions as part of routine quality control;

b) monitoring product uniformity or conformity between formal certification tests;

c) comparing emissions from products within a range (e.g. different colours or patterns);

d) evaluating prototype, “low-emission” materials or products during development.

NOTE 3 All volatile carbonyl compounds except formaldehyde can be analysed according to ISO 16000-6.

2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document

(including any amendments) applies.

ISO 12219-1, Interior air of road vehicles — Part 1: Whole vehicle test chamber — Specification and method

for the determination of volatile organic compounds in cabin interiors

ISO 16000-3:2011, Indoor air — Part 3: Determination of formaldehyde and other carbonyl compounds —

Active sampling method
© ISO 2012 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
ISO 12219-3:2012(E)

ISO 16000-6:2011, Indoor air — Part 6: Determination of volatile organic compounds in indoor and test chamber

air by active sampling on Tenax TA sorbent, thermal desorption and gas-chromatography using MS or MS–FID

3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 16000-6, ISO 12219-1 and the

following apply.
3.1
vehicle trim component
vehicle interior part or material
4 Principle

The principle of the test is to determine the area (or mass) specific emission rate of VOCs emitted from

automotive products. The test is performed in a micro-scale test chamber at a constant temperature and flow

rate. The surface area (or mass) of the sample in the micro-scale test chamber is constant and, by measuring

the mass or vapour-phase concentrations of emitted compounds, the area (or mass) specific emission rates of

VOCs from the product under test can be determined at a given time, t (see Clause 10).

The results can be used to assess product performance with respect to emission levels — either by comparison

with control levels or by comparing the data with results from other products or batches of product.

5 Apparatus

5.1 General. General specifications and requirements, which apply to all types of micro-scale chambers, are

given in 5.1 to 5.5. General micro-scale chamber principles are also summarized in Annex A and specific micro-

scale chamber examples are given in Annexes B to D.
The following key micro-scale chamber components are required:
— micro-scale chamber apparatus;
— heating mechanism;
— clean gas supply and optional humidification system,

NOTE Most samples contain sufficient inherent humidity to facilitate formaldehyde screening, according to

ISO 16000-3, over the short duration of a micro-scale chamber test. Therefore humidification is normally not required for

this screening method.

— appropriate monitoring and control systems (to ensure that the test is carried out according to specified

conditions);
— appropriate vapour sampling tubes.

5.2 Micro-scale chamber apparatus construction materials. Micro-scale test chambers range in size from

30 cm to 1 l (e.g. 44,5 ml, see Annex B). They are designed to operate at ambient or elevated temperatures and

to permit the testing of vapour-phase organic emissions from various types of vehicle interior trim components,

construction products, and consumer goods.

The micro-scale chamber apparatus can comprise one or multiple sealable, micro-scale chambers constructed

of inert, non-emitting and non-absorbing materials, such as surface-treated (polished) or inert coated stainless

steel or deactivated glass or quartz. In all cases, the requirements specified in 5.4 and 5.5 shall be fulfilled.

Any sealing materials e.g. gaskets or O-rings used for sealing the doors or lids of micro-scale chambers, shall

be low emitting and low absorbing and shall not contribute significantly to the background vapour concentration.

The O-rings or gaskets shall be easily removed to facilitate cleaning or replacement. The micro-scale chambers

shall be easily dismantled and removed from any housings to facilitate cleaning as specified in Clause 8.

2 © ISO 2012 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
ISO 12219-3:2012(E)

5.3 Heating. The micro-scale chambers shall be capable of heating the test specimen to a uniform prescribed

temperature for the duration of the test. The temperature shall be maintained within ±2 °C throughout the entire

procedure (see also 6.1).

To facilitate cleaning (see Clause 8) the micro-scale test chamber should be capable of being heated to

100 °C or more.

5.4 Air or gas supply and mixing facilities. The apparatus shall include a means of supplying pure

(low hydrocarbon content), optionally humidified, air or gas to the micro-scale chamber(s) at a controlled

flow rate (±3 %). The supply air or gas shall not contain any VOCs at levels greater than the micro-scale

chamber background requirements (6.3). Similarly, if the air or gas supply is humidified then the water used for

humidification shall not contain interfering VOCs.

The positioning of the air or gas inlet and outlet, the volume of the micro-scale chamber, and the gas flow rate

should ensure thorough mixing with no volumes of still air or gas within the micro-scale chamber. The air or

gas inlet and outlet are usually positioned at right angles to the sample surface to optimize turbulence. Air or

gas flow rates between 20 ml/min and 500 ml/min are typical for the types of micro-scale chamber described

in Annexes B and C.

NOTE 1 Air is most commonly used, but pure inert gases such as nitrogen or helium are preferred for some applications.

NOTE 2 Turbulence and mixing within the micro-scale chamber examples given in Annexes B and C have been

optimized by minimizing the air volume above the sample surface to 3,2 ml and 7,4 ml, respectively, and by orienting

the inlet and outlet such that air enters and leaves the micro-scale chamber at right angles to the sample surface. In this

configuration, air flow rates in excess of 10 ml/min and 20 ml/min, respectively, are sufficient to ensure turbulence and

mixing as well as eliminating the risk of still air volumes. Note that inadequate turbulence and mixing, if it does occur, is

identified by inadequate analyte recovery (see Annex E.)

5.5 Air or gas leaks. The micro-scale chamber is considered sufficiently leak-free if the inlet carrier air or

gas flow differs from the total outlet air or gas flow by less than 5 %. This should be checked at the start of every

recovery test (Annex E), background test (9.2), and emissions test (9.3).

5.6 Air sampling. Vapours shall be sampled from the micro-scale chamber exhaust by connecting a sample

tube [conditioned sorbent tube for volatile or semi-volatile organics (see ISO 16000-6) or DNPH cartridge or

equivalent for formaldehyde and other volatile carbonyl compounds] to the outlet coupling of the micro-scale

chamber. Micro-scale chambers are typically closed systems in which all of the air or gas entering passes out

into the vapour sampling tube.
®1)

Tenax TA is the most commonly used sorbent for VOCs ranging in volatility from n-hexane to n-hexadecane.

Other sorbents or sorbent combinations are available to extend this volatility range if required: see

[11]
ISO 16000-6:2011, Annex D, ISO 16017-1 and Annex F for more information.
[11]

NOTE 1 Refer to ISO 16000-6:2011, Annex D or ISO 16017-1 for guidance on sorbent selection if VOCs eluting

before n-C need to be analysed.

NOTE 2 Micro-scale chambers typically operate slightly (<20 %) above atmospheric pressure and incorporate

mechanisms for controlling and maintaining gas flow at a constant rate, whether or not a sample tube is attached. Another

benefit of this approach is that, provided all of the exhaust air flow is sampled, it means that a constant air flow can be

maintained through the vapour sampling tubes without using pumps (see Annexes B to D.) This simplifies operation for

routine industrial quality control checks.
6 Test conditions
In general, the following test conditions shall be achieved.

1) Tenax TA® is the trade name of a product supplied by Buchem. This information is given for the convenience of

users of this document and does not constitute an endorsement by ISO of the product named. Equivalent products may be

used if they can be shown to lead to the same results.
© ISO 2012 – All rights reserved 3
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
ISO 12219-3:2012(E)
6.1 Temperature

Emission rates are specific to a particular temperature, therefore it is essential to maintain a constant

temperature of 65 °C ± 2 °C within the micro-scale chamber throughout the emission test.

Other temperatures may be used depending upon the objectives of the test and the agreement of all parties.

6.2 Air or gas flow rate through the micro-scale chamber

Maintain a constant air or gas flow rate through each individual micro-scale chamber throughout the emission

test. Typical flow rates are of the order of 50 ml/min for screening surface emissions of VOCs. Higher gas flow

rates (e.g. 100 ml/min to 200 ml/min) are normally recommended for testing VOC emissions from bulk materials

where the sample is at the bottom of the micro-scale chamber and a larger micro-scale chamber volume is

exposed. Higher flow rates are also recommended to minimize risk of sink effects when testing higher boiling

semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs).

A flow rate of 250 ml/min is recommended for screening surface emissions of formaldehyde according to

ISO16000-3.

NOTE Lower flow rates or shorter sampling times can be used for screening formaldehyde using micro-scale

chambers; however, ISO 16000-3 detection limits can be compromised as a result.

Analyte recovery tests, such as that described in Annex E, shall be carried out regularly (e.g. once per month)

and used as a check that air turbulence and mixing is adequate, and that there are no significant volumes of

still air. Satisfactory recovery is demonstrated by >80 % recovery on the first sample tube and <20 % recovery

on the second sample tube.

Record the air or gas flow rate and the results of the most recent analyte recovery test.

6.3 Quality of supplied air or gas and background concentration of organic vapours

Background levels of target compounds (including micro-scale chamber artefacts and contaminants in the

supplied air or gas) shall be shown to be below 10 % of measured micro-scale chamber concentrations or

3 3

below 5 µg/m for individual VOC and below 50 µg/m for total volatile organic compound (TVOC), whichever

is higher. Similarly, if humidification is required, any water used shall not contain levels of organic compounds

which could interfere with the results.
6.4 Control measures

Systems for measuring temperature and flow shall be independent of the means of controlling said conditions.

7 Test specimens
7.1 General

This part of ISO 12219 can be applied horizontally, i.e. to a wide range of car trim component materials. Studies

of the emission of vapour-phase organic compounds from vehicle components in micro-scale chambers require

proper handling of the test specimen prior to and during the testing period.

Samples that are taken straight from production to be analysed rapidly in an on-site laboratory should be

placed in suitable clean, airtight, and non-outgassing (non-emitting) containers or packaging. Every sample

shall be treated the same way in terms of type of storage container or packaging, method of test specimen

preparation, and period between sample collection and analysis
4 © ISO 2012 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
ISO 12219-3:2012(E)

If samples are to be stored for longer than 2 h before analysis or if they need to be transported to an off-site

laboratory, more precautions are required with respect to sampling procedures, transport conditions, sample

[8]

storage, test specimen preparation, etc. In this case, advice given in ISO 16000-11 should be followed.

NOTE For heterogeneous materials, it can be necessary to make measurements on multiple test specimens from the

same sample to determine the mean specific emission rate.
7.2 Preparation of the test specimen

Test specimens often need to be cut (sectioned) to fit snugly within the micro-scale emissions chamber, thus

minimizing or eliminating edge effects — see Annexes A to C. This is best performed using a punch to minimize

heat generation. Identify and weigh each test specimen.
NOTE Sawing can heat the sample, which can compromise emissions testing.

For analysis of bulk emissions, sample mass shall be sufficient to determine the mass specific emission rate

with enough sensitivity to meet test objectives.

The period of time between unpacking the sample and preparation of the test specimen shall be as short as

possible, and shall be the same in each case. After preparation of the test specimen, it shall immediately be

placed into the micro-scale chamber. This time shall be regarded as the start time of the emission test, i.e. t = t .

If it is appropriate to measure emissions from the bulk material (e.g. polymer resin pellets, adhesives or

insulation fibres) representative samples can be placed directly into the micro-scale chamber with no additional

preparation steps. If, in real use, only one surface of a material or product is exposed, care should be taken to

prevent emissions from other surfaces and cut edges interfering with the test. The design of the micro-scale

chamber can facilitate this by accommodating snug-fitting samples or by use of a collar or baffle that presses

down on the surface of rigid planar materials, near the edge. This prevents ingress of emissions from cut edges

and the rear surface of the sample for the short duration of the test (see Annexes B and C). Alternatively, the

edges and rear surfaces of a test specimen shall be sealed with low-emitting aluminium adhesive tape or by

using a suitable sample holder before the sample is placed in the micro-scale chamber.

8 Cleaning micro-scale chamber components

The blank air sample collected from an empty micro-scale chamber shall meet the requirements of 6.3.

When the blank value cannot be achieved, the micro-scale chamber shall be cleaned. Examples of cleaning

procedures are described in the following.

Micro-scale chambers can be cleaned by removing any O-rings or gaskets and by washing the micro-scale

chamber components using alkaline detergent followed by two separate rinsings with clean water or by using

an appropriate solvent. Dry thoroughly.

Alternatively, if the micro-scale chamber assembly can be heated, raise the temperature of the empty, sealed

micro-scale chambers to 100 °C or more in a fast flow of pure gas until background artefacts are reduced to

acceptable levels (see 6.3).

If the micro-scale chamber has an inert coating, care shall be taken not to damage the coating during cleaning

(e.g. by using abrasive cleaners or cleaners with a high or low pH).
9 Test method
9.1 Sampling media

Select the correct sampling media — see 5.6. Sorbent tubes should be stringently conditioned before use (see

ISO 16000-6).
© ISO 2012 – All rights reserved 5
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
ISO 12219-3:2012(E)
9.2 Measuring background concentrations

Micro-scale chamber background levels shall be checked regularly, e.g. before the start of each batch of

emission tests, to quantify any background contribution of vapour-phase organic compounds from the air or

gas supply or from the micro-scale chamber apparatus itself.

The background check shall be carried out using representative conditioned sample tubes and by following the

procedure specified in 9.3, but without a sample present.
Background concentrations shall meet the requirements of 6.3.
9.3 Vapour sampling

The test specimen shall be placed in the pre-heated micro-scale chamber (65 °C) and left to equilibrate for

20 min. Recommended flow rates for surface emissions testing using the types of micro-scale chamber

illustrated in Annexes B to D are 50 ml/min (VOCs) or 250 m
...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST ISO 12219-3:2013
01-april-2013

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Interior air of road vehicles - Part 3: Screening method for the determination of the

emissions of volatile organic compounds from vehicle interior parts and materials - Micro-

scale chamber method

Air intérieur des véhicules routiers - Partie 3: Méthode de criblage pour la détermination

des émissions de composés organiques volatils des parties et matériaux intérieurs des

véhicules - Méthode de la micro-chambre
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: ISO 12219-3:2012
ICS:
13.040.20 Kakovost okoljskega zraka Ambient atmospheres
43.020 Cestna vozila na splošno Road vehicles in general
SIST ISO 12219-3:2013 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST ISO 12219-3:2013
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SIST ISO 12219-3:2013
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 12219-3
First edition
2012-06-15
Interior air of road vehicles —
Part 3:
Screening method for the determination
of the emissions of volatile organic
compounds from vehicle interior parts and
materials — Micro-scale chamber method
Air intérieur des véhicules routiers —
Partie 3: Méthode de criblage pour la détermination des émissions de
composés organiques volatils des parties et matériaux intérieurs des
véhicules — Méthode de la micro-chambre
Reference number
ISO 12219-3:2012(E)
ISO 2012
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SIST ISO 12219-3:2013
ISO 12219-3:2012(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2012

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means,

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member body in the country of the requester.
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Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2012 – All rights reserved
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SIST ISO 12219-3:2013
ISO 12219-3:2012(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ............................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ........................................................................................................................................................................ v

1 Scope ...................................................................................................................................................................... 1

2 Normative references ......................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ......................................................................................................................................... 2

4 Principle ................................................................................................................................................................. 2

5 Apparatus .............................................................................................................................................................. 2

6 Test conditions ..................................................................................................................................................... 3

6.1 Temperature .......................................................................................................................................................... 4

6.2 Air or gas flow rate through the micro-scale chamber ............................................................................. 4

6.3 Quality of supplied air or gas and background concentration of organic vapours .......................... 4

6.4 Control measures ................................................................................................................................................ 4

7 Test specimens .................................................................................................................................................... 4

7.1 General ................................................................................................................................................................... 4

7.2 Preparation of the test specimen .................................................................................................................... 5

8 Cleaning micro-scale chamber components ............................................................................................... 5

9 Test method .......................................................................................................................................................... 5

9.1 Sampling media ................................................................................................................................................... 5

9.2 Measuring background concentrations ........................................................................................................ 6

9.3 Vapour sampling .................................................................................................................................................. 6

9.4 Sealing the vapour sampling devices after gas sample collection ....................................................... 6

9.5 Analysis of vapour sampling devices ............................................................................................................ 6

9.6 Storage of the test specimen between emissions tests (if required) .................................................... 6

9.7 Cleaning the micro-scale chamber after use ............................................................................................... 6

10 Calculation of vapour concentrations and specific emission rates ...................................................... 7

11 Test report ............................................................................................................................................................. 8

12 Quality assurance/quality control ................................................................................................................... 9

Annex A (informative) Micro-scale chamber principles .........................................................................................10

Annex B (informative) Micro-scale chamber — Example 1 ...................................................................................12

Annex C (informative) Micro-scale chamber — Example 2 ...................................................................................14

Annex D (informative) Micro-scale chamber — Example 3 ...................................................................................16

Annex E (informative) Assessment of VOC recoveries ..........................................................................................18

Annex F (informative) Calculation of specific emission rates from micro-scale chamber

air concentration ...............................................................................................................................................19

Bibliography .....................................................................................................................................................................21

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Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies

(ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO

technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been

established has the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and

non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the International

Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International Standards

adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publication as an

International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting a vote.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

ISO 12219-3 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 146, Air quality, Subcommittee SC 6, Indoor air, in

collaboration with Technical Committee ISO/TC 22, Road vehicles.

ISO 12219 consists of the following parts, under the general title Interior air of road vehicles:

— Part 1: Whole vehicle test chamber — Specification and method for the determination of volatile organic

compounds in cabin interiors

— Part 2: Screening method for the determination of the emissions of volatile organic compounds from

vehicle interior parts and materials — Bag method

— Part 3: Screening method for the determination of the emissions of volatile organic compounds from

vehicle interior parts and materials — Micro-scale chamber method

— Part 4: Screening method for the determination of the emissions of volatile organic compounds from

vehicle interior parts and materials — Small chamber method
The following part is under preparation:

— Part 5: Screening method for the determination of the emissions of volatile organic compounds from

vehicle interior parts and materials — Static chamber method
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Introduction

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are widely used in industry and may be emitted by many everyday products

and materials. They have attracted attention in recent years because of their impact on indoor air quality. After

homes and workplaces, people spend a lot of time in their vehicles. It is important to determine the material

emissions of interior parts and to reduce them to an acceptable level, if required. Therefore it is necessary

to obtain comprehensive and reliable information about the types of organic compounds in the interior air of

vehicles and also their concentrations.

Monitoring emissions from vehicle trim components can be performed in several ways and the approach selected

depends upon the desired outcome and the material type. For example, to obtain emissions data from complete

assemblies (e.g. a dashboard or seat), it is necessary to employ emissions chambers or bags that have sufficient

volume to house the complete assembly (typically >1 m ). Such tests may take several hours or even days to

perform, depending on specified equilibration times and the requirements of the relevant test protocol.

This part of ISO 12219 outlines a method of measuring the types and levels of VOCs emitted using micro-scale

chambers (References [2]–[4]). These allow qualitative and semiquantitative screening of product emissions

after only minutes, rather than hours or days, of equilibration. Their capacity is limited so they are best suited to

small assemblies or representative samples of homogeneous vehicle interior parts and materials. Multiple test

specimens can also be readily evaluated from the same sample if required. Micro-scale chambers can provide

an ideal quick screening tool for quality control of production and other in-house tests by manufacturers. They

offer a complementary approach to large chamber or sampling bag approaches.
[5] [6] [7] [8] [9]

ISO 16000-3, ISO 16000-5, ISO 16000-6, ISO 16000-9, ISO 16000-10, ISO 16000-11, ISO 16000-24,

[10] [11] [12]

ISO 16000-25, as well as ISO 16017-1 and ISO 16017-2, also focus on VOC measurements.

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SIST ISO 12219-3:2013
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 12219-3:2012(E)
Interior air of road vehicles —
Part 3:
Screening method for the determination of the emissions of
volatile organic compounds from vehicle interior parts and
materials — Micro-scale chamber method

WARNING — It is the responsibility of the user of this part of ISO 12219 to establish appropriate safety

and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. National

regulations for precautions shall be followed.
1 Scope

This part of ISO 12219 specifies a fast, qualitative and semiquantitative screening method for vapour-phase

organic compounds (volatile and some semi-volatile) released from vehicle trim materials under simulated real-

use conditions using micro-scale test chambers. This method is intended for evaluating new car interior trim

components but can, in principle, also be applied to used car components.

Target analytes include VOCs (conventionally defined as organic compounds in the volatility range of n-hexane

to n-hexadecane) and volatile carbonyl compounds such as formaldehyde. The specified analytical procedure

for VOCs is ISO 16000-6 and for formaldehyde and some other light carbonyl compounds is ISO 16000-3.

NOTE 1 Some compounds more volatile than n-hexane and less volatile than n-hexadecane can also be analysed (for

[11]
more information, see: ISO 16000-6:2011, Annex D; ISO 16017-1; and Annex E).

NOTE 2 For dry, homogeneous materials, results from tests of volatile organic emissions carried out using micro-

scale chambers on newly manufactured products have been found to correlate well with data obtained using standard

[1] [6]

(reference) methods and conventional emission test chambers (ISO 12219-4, VDA 276 and ISO 16000-9 ) or test cells

[7]

(ISO 16000-10 ). Correlation with emission data obtained using bags (ISO 12219-2) has also been reported. The practice

specified in this part of ISO 12219 is therefore complementary to existing standards.

This part of ISO 12219 provides third party test laboratories and manufacturing industry with a cost-effective

approach for:
a) monitoring and screening VOC emissions as part of routine quality control;

b) monitoring product uniformity or conformity between formal certification tests;

c) comparing emissions from products within a range (e.g. different colours or patterns);

d) evaluating prototype, “low-emission” materials or products during development.

NOTE 3 All volatile carbonyl compounds except formaldehyde can be analysed according to ISO 16000-6.

2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document

(including any amendments) applies.

ISO 12219-1, Interior air of road vehicles — Part 1: Whole vehicle test chamber — Specification and method

for the determination of volatile organic compounds in cabin interiors

ISO 16000-3:2011, Indoor air — Part 3: Determination of formaldehyde and other carbonyl compounds —

Active sampling method
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ISO 16000-6:2011, Indoor air — Part 6: Determination of volatile organic compounds in indoor and test chamber

air by active sampling on Tenax TA sorbent, thermal desorption and gas-chromatography using MS or MS–FID

3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 16000-6, ISO 12219-1 and the

following apply.
3.1
vehicle trim component
vehicle interior part or material
4 Principle

The principle of the test is to determine the area (or mass) specific emission rate of VOCs emitted from

automotive products. The test is performed in a micro-scale test chamber at a constant temperature and flow

rate. The surface area (or mass) of the sample in the micro-scale test chamber is constant and, by measuring

the mass or vapour-phase concentrations of emitted compounds, the area (or mass) specific emission rates of

VOCs from the product under test can be determined at a given time, t (see Clause 10).

The results can be used to assess product performance with respect to emission levels — either by comparison

with control levels or by comparing the data with results from other products or batches of product.

5 Apparatus

5.1 General. General specifications and requirements, which apply to all types of micro-scale chambers, are

given in 5.1 to 5.5. General micro-scale chamber principles are also summarized in Annex A and specific micro-

scale chamber examples are given in Annexes B to D.
The following key micro-scale chamber components are required:
— micro-scale chamber apparatus;
— heating mechanism;
— clean gas supply and optional humidification system,

NOTE Most samples contain sufficient inherent humidity to facilitate formaldehyde screening, according to

ISO 16000-3, over the short duration of a micro-scale chamber test. Therefore humidification is normally not required for

this screening method.

— appropriate monitoring and control systems (to ensure that the test is carried out according to specified

conditions);
— appropriate vapour sampling tubes.

5.2 Micro-scale chamber apparatus construction materials. Micro-scale test chambers range in size from

30 cm to 1 l (e.g. 44,5 ml, see Annex B). They are designed to operate at ambient or elevated temperatures and

to permit the testing of vapour-phase organic emissions from various types of vehicle interior trim components,

construction products, and consumer goods.

The micro-scale chamber apparatus can comprise one or multiple sealable, micro-scale chambers constructed

of inert, non-emitting and non-absorbing materials, such as surface-treated (polished) or inert coated stainless

steel or deactivated glass or quartz. In all cases, the requirements specified in 5.4 and 5.5 shall be fulfilled.

Any sealing materials e.g. gaskets or O-rings used for sealing the doors or lids of micro-scale chambers, shall

be low emitting and low absorbing and shall not contribute significantly to the background vapour concentration.

The O-rings or gaskets shall be easily removed to facilitate cleaning or replacement. The micro-scale chambers

shall be easily dismantled and removed from any housings to facilitate cleaning as specified in Clause 8.

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5.3 Heating. The micro-scale chambers shall be capable of heating the test specimen to a uniform prescribed

temperature for the duration of the test. The temperature shall be maintained within ±2 °C throughout the entire

procedure (see also 6.1).

To facilitate cleaning (see Clause 8) the micro-scale test chamber should be capable of being heated to

100 °C or more.

5.4 Air or gas supply and mixing facilities. The apparatus shall include a means of supplying pure

(low hydrocarbon content), optionally humidified, air or gas to the micro-scale chamber(s) at a controlled

flow rate (±3 %). The supply air or gas shall not contain any VOCs at levels greater than the micro-scale

chamber background requirements (6.3). Similarly, if the air or gas supply is humidified then the water used for

humidification shall not contain interfering VOCs.

The positioning of the air or gas inlet and outlet, the volume of the micro-scale chamber, and the gas flow rate

should ensure thorough mixing with no volumes of still air or gas within the micro-scale chamber. The air or

gas inlet and outlet are usually positioned at right angles to the sample surface to optimize turbulence. Air or

gas flow rates between 20 ml/min and 500 ml/min are typical for the types of micro-scale chamber described

in Annexes B and C.

NOTE 1 Air is most commonly used, but pure inert gases such as nitrogen or helium are preferred for some applications.

NOTE 2 Turbulence and mixing within the micro-scale chamber examples given in Annexes B and C have been

optimized by minimizing the air volume above the sample surface to 3,2 ml and 7,4 ml, respectively, and by orienting

the inlet and outlet such that air enters and leaves the micro-scale chamber at right angles to the sample surface. In this

configuration, air flow rates in excess of 10 ml/min and 20 ml/min, respectively, are sufficient to ensure turbulence and

mixing as well as eliminating the risk of still air volumes. Note that inadequate turbulence and mixing, if it does occur, is

identified by inadequate analyte recovery (see Annex E.)

5.5 Air or gas leaks. The micro-scale chamber is considered sufficiently leak-free if the inlet carrier air or

gas flow differs from the total outlet air or gas flow by less than 5 %. This should be checked at the start of every

recovery test (Annex E), background test (9.2), and emissions test (9.3).

5.6 Air sampling. Vapours shall be sampled from the micro-scale chamber exhaust by connecting a sample

tube [conditioned sorbent tube for volatile or semi-volatile organics (see ISO 16000-6) or DNPH cartridge or

equivalent for formaldehyde and other volatile carbonyl compounds] to the outlet coupling of the micro-scale

chamber. Micro-scale chambers are typically closed systems in which all of the air or gas entering passes out

into the vapour sampling tube.
®1)

Tenax TA is the most commonly used sorbent for VOCs ranging in volatility from n-hexane to n-hexadecane.

Other sorbents or sorbent combinations are available to extend this volatility range if required: see

[11]
ISO 16000-6:2011, Annex D, ISO 16017-1 and Annex F for more information.
[11]

NOTE 1 Refer to ISO 16000-6:2011, Annex D or ISO 16017-1 for guidance on sorbent selection if VOCs eluting

before n-C need to be analysed.

NOTE 2 Micro-scale chambers typically operate slightly (<20 %) above atmospheric pressure and incorporate

mechanisms for controlling and maintaining gas flow at a constant rate, whether or not a sample tube is attached. Another

benefit of this approach is that, provided all of the exhaust air flow is sampled, it means that a constant air flow can be

maintained through the vapour sampling tubes without using pumps (see Annexes B to D.) This simplifies operation for

routine industrial quality control checks.
6 Test conditions
In general, the following test conditions shall be achieved.

1) Tenax TA® is the trade name of a product supplied by Buchem. This information is given for the convenience of

users of this document and does not constitute an endorsement by ISO of the product named. Equivalent products may be

used if they can be shown to lead to the same results.
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6.1 Temperature

Emission rates are specific to a particular temperature, therefore it is essential to maintain a constant

temperature of 65 °C ± 2 °C within the micro-scale chamber throughout the emission test.

Other temperatures may be used depending upon the objectives of the test and the agreement of all parties.

6.2 Air or gas flow rate through the micro-scale chamber

Maintain a constant air or gas flow rate through each individual micro-scale chamber throughout the emission

test. Typical flow rates are of the order of 50 ml/min for screening surface emissions of VOCs. Higher gas flow

rates (e.g. 100 ml/min to 200 ml/min) are normally recommended for testing VOC emissions from bulk materials

where the sample is at the bottom of the micro-scale chamber and a larger micro-scale chamber volume is

exposed. Higher flow rates are also recommended to minimize risk of sink effects when testing higher boiling

semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs).

A flow rate of 250 ml/min is recommended for screening surface emissions of formaldehyde according to

ISO16000-3.

NOTE Lower flow rates or shorter sampling times can be used for screening formaldehyde using micro-scale

chambers; however, ISO 16000-3 detection limits can be compromised as a result.

Analyte recovery tests, such as that described in Annex E, shall be carried out regularly (e.g. once per month)

and used as a check that air turbulence and mixing is adequate, and that there are no significant volumes of

still air. Satisfactory recovery is demonstrated by >80 % recovery on the first sample tube and <20 % recovery

on the second sample tube.

Record the air or gas flow rate and the results of the most recent analyte recovery test.

6.3 Quality of supplied air or gas and background concentration of organic vapours

Background levels of target compounds (including micro-scale chamber artefacts and contaminants in the

supplied air or gas) shall be shown to be below 10 % of measured micro-scale chamber concentrations or

3 3

below 5 µg/m for individual VOC and below 50 µg/m for total volatile organic compound (TVOC), whichever

is higher. Similarly, if humidification is required, any water used shall not contain levels of organic compounds

which could interfere with the results.
6.4 Control measures

Systems for measuring temperature and flow shall be independent of the means of controlling said conditions.

7 Test specimens
7.1 General

This part of ISO 12219 can be applied horizontally, i.e. to a wide range of car trim component materials. Studies

of the emission of vapour-phase organic compounds from vehicle components in micro-scale chambers require

proper handling of the test specimen prior to and during the testing period.

Samples that are taken straight from production to be analysed rapidly in an on-site laboratory should be

placed in suitable clean, airtight, and non-outgassing (non-emitting) containers or packaging. Every sample

shall be treated the same way in terms of type of storage container or packaging, method of test specimen

preparation, and period between sample collection and analysis
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If samples are to be stored for longer than 2 h before analysis or if they need to be transported to an off-site

laboratory, more precautions are required with respect to sampling procedures, transport conditions, sample

[8]

storage, test specimen preparation, etc. In this case, advice given in ISO 16000-11 should be followed.

NOTE For heterogeneous materials, it can be necessary to make measurements on multiple test specimens from the

same sample to determine the mean specific emission rate.
7.2 Preparation of the test specimen

Test specimens often need to be cut (sectioned) to fit snugly within the micro-scale emissions chamber, thus

minimizing or eliminating edge effects — see Annexes A to C. This is best performed using a punch to minimize

heat generation. Identify and weigh each test specimen.
NOTE Sawing can heat the sample, which can compromise emissions testing.

For analysis of bulk emissions, sample mass shall be sufficient to determine the mass specific emission rate

with enough sensitivity to meet test objectives.

The period of time between unpacking the sample and preparation of the test specimen shall be as short as

possible, and shall be the same in each case. After preparation of the test specimen, it shall immediately be

placed into the micro-scale chamber. This time shall be regarded as the start time of the emission test, i.e. t = t .

If it is appropriate to measure emissions from the bulk material (e.g. polymer resin pellets, adhesives or

insulation fibres) representative samples can be placed directly into the micro-scale chamber with no additional

preparation steps. If, in real use, only one surface of a material or product is exposed, care should be taken to

prevent emissions from other surfaces and cut edges interfering with the test. The design of the micro-scale

chamber can facilitate this by accommodating snug-fitting samples or by use of a collar or baffle that presses

down on the surface of rigid planar materials, near the edge. This prevents ingress of emissions from cut edges

and the rear surface of the sample for the short duration of the test (see Annexes B and C). Alternatively, the

edges and rear surfaces of a test specimen shall be sealed with low-emitting aluminium adhesive tape or by

using a suitable sample holder before the sample is placed in the micro-scale chamber.

8 Cleaning micro-scale chamber components

The blank air sample collected from an empty micro-scale chamber shall meet the requirements of 6.3.

When the blank value cannot be achieved, the micro-scale chamber shall be cleaned. Examples of cleaning

procedures are described in the following.

Micro-scale chambers can be cleaned by removing any O-rings or gaskets and by washing the micro-scale

chamber components using alkaline detergent followed by two separate rinsings with clean water or by using

an appropriate solvent. Dry thoroughly.

Alternatively, if the micro-scale chamber assembly can be heated, raise the temperature of the empty, sealed

micro-scale cham
...

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