Information and documentation -- Management of the environmental conditions for archive and library collections

This document provides information on recent discussions and changes in recommendations and
guidance on environmental management within the cultural heritage field. Conservation research
on preventive methodologies and passive control provided by specific construction methods and
renovations, developments in technology for controlling the environment, and energy and climate
change issues are included.
This document is intended for archives and libraries and other institutions with large volumes of
collections that are based on paper. Archives and libraries also have collections that include film,
magnetic media, leather, and other organic, inorganic or composite materials. These institutions have
a unique challenge of extending the lifespan of these materials for access and use in the present and for
future generations. The environment plays a key role in extending the lifespan of all of these materials.
This document is intended for use in preservation planning and ongoing environmental management
of permanent storage conditions for archives and library collections and applies to all collections being
permanently stored for an institution.

Information et documentation -- Gestion des conditions environnementales pour les documents d'archive et de bibliothèque

Informatika in dokumentacija - Upravljanje okoljskih pogojev za zbirke arhivov in knjižnic

Ta dokument podaja informacije o nedavnih razpravah in spremembah glede priporočil ter smernic, povezanih z upravljanjem okolja na področju kulturne dediščine. Vključene so raziskave o preventivnih metodologijah in pasivnem nadzoru, povezanim s shranjevanjem, ki jih zagotavljajo določene metode izdelave in prenove, razvoj tehnologije za nadzor okolja ter težave, povezane z energijo in podnebnimi spremembami.
Ta dokument je namenjen arhivom in knjižnicam ter drugim ustanovam, ki imajo obsežne zbirke na osnovi papirja. Arhivi in knjižnice imajo tudi zbirke, ki vključujejo filme, magnetne medije, usnje ter druge organske, anorganske ali kompozitne materiale. Edinstven izziv teh ustanov je podaljšanje življenjske dobe teh materialov za namen dostopa in uporabe sedanjih in/ali prihodnjih generacij. Na podaljšanje življenjske dobe vseh teh materialov pomembno vpliva okolje.
Ta dokument je namenjen za načrtovanje shranjevanja ter neprekinjeno upravljanje okoljskih pogojev stalnega shranjevanja za zbirke arhivov in knjižnic ter se uporablja za vse zbirke, ki jih trajno shranjuje določena ustanova.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
04-Sep-2018
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
30-Jul-2018
Due Date
04-Oct-2018
Completion Date
05-Sep-2018

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TECHNICAL ISO/TR
REPORT 19815
First edition
2018-07
Information and documentation —
Management of the environmental
conditions for archive and library
collections
Information et documentation — Gestion des conditions
environnementales pour les documents d'archive et de bibliothèque
Reference number
ISO/TR 19815:2018(E)
ISO 2018
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/TR 19815:2018(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2018

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Fax: +41 22 749 09 47
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/TR 19815:2018(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 General ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 6

5 Management of environment for optimization of preservation and sustainability ......................8

6 Temperature ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................10

7 Relative humidity ..............................................................................................................................................................................................11

8 Climate and its consequences for collections ......................................................................................................................13

8.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................13

8.2 Seasonal climates ...............................................................................................................................................................................15

9 Insects and other pests ...............................................................................................................................................................................15

10 Pollution .....................................................................................................................................................................................................................15

11 Light ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................16

12 Setting a temperature and relative humidity specification ..................................................................................18

13 Psychrometrics ....................................................................................................................................................................................................22

14 Good practices for sustainability......................................................................................................................................................27

14.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................27

14.2 Arnamagnaean Institute archive, Copenhagen, Denmark ..............................................................................28

14.3 Territorial archives, St Martin, West Indies .................................................................................................................28

14.4 Japanese Imperial Archives, Tokyo .....................................................................................................................................28

14.5 Jersey Archive, Jersey, Channel Islands ...........................................................................................................................28

14.6 Norwegian National Library, Mo i Rana .........................................................................................................................29

14.7 Central State Archive of Saxony, Dresden, Germany ............................................................................................29

14.8 National Library of Singapore .................................................................................................................................................29

14.9 Archives départmentales du Nord, Lille, France .....................................................................................................29

14.10 School library, Gando, Burkina Faso ..................................................................................................................................29

15 Educational and assessment tools ..................................................................................................................................................29

15.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................29

15.1.1 Overview ..............................................................................................................................................................................29

15.1.2 Isoperm .................................................................................................................................................................................30

15.1.3 Preservation index (PI) and time weighted preservation index (TWPI) .....................30

15.2 Environmental management tools and assessments..........................................................................................31

15.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................31

15.2.2 Fundamental microclimate concepts ..........................................................................................................31

15.2.3 Air exchange between an enclosure and its surroundings .......................................................31

15.2.4 Calculator for atmospheric moisture ..........................................................................................................32

15.2.5 Calculator for energy use in museums .......................................................................................................32

15.2.6 Calculator for conservation heating .............................................................................................................32

15.2.7 Calculator for dehumidification energy load ........................................................................................32

Annex A (informative) Energy economy ........................................................................................................................................................33

Annex B (informative) Impact of temperature ........................................................................................................................................38

Annex C (informative) Impact of relative humidity ...........................................................................................................................40

Annex D (informative) Material damage associated with temperature and relative humidity ...........43

© ISO 2018 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO/TR 19815:2018(E)

Annex E (informative) Sources of pollutants and their impact on materials significant to

archive or library collections ...............................................................................................................................................................46

Annex F (informative) Interactions between temperature, RH, light and pollution ........................................50

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................51

iv © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO/TR 19815:2018(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following

URL: www .iso .org/iso/foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 46, Information and documentation,

Subcommittee SC 10, Requirements for document storage and conditions for preservation.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/members .html.
© ISO 2018 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
ISO/TR 19815:2018(E)
Introduction
[46]

This document covers much of the same ground as BSI/PAS 198 . The main difference is that BSI/

PAS 198 was designed to be applied in British conditions with a temperate climate. Challenges vary in

different climatic zones. Nevertheless, there are principles that are generally applicable.

No one set of conditions is appropriate for all collections in all circumstances because environmental

specifications are tailored to the needs of a specific collection, the resources of the institution and

the context within which it operates, and the local climate. This document sets out a framework for

decision making relating to appropriate environmental conditions for cultural collections in the

specific climatic zones.

Since archives, libraries and cultural institutions are guardians of the collective memory, their aim is

to preserve material in the long term. They also have a duty to do so in a manner that minimizes the

impact on the world's resources and climate. Climate change will affect cultural institutions as much

as any other institution, if not more, and the use of energy, particularly from non-renewable sources,

should be minimized. Wherever possible, passive (non-energy consuming) solutions are preferred, and

buildings should be designed with this aim in mind.

First, the extent and composition of the collections, their significance, their current condition, the ways

in which they are used, and the desired lifetime should be taken into account. For example, archive and

library collections are likely to contain (in addition to bound and unbound paper and parchment and

other organic materials, such as Xuan paper and silk, black and white and colour photographic prints

and negatives) gramophone records, tapes and films, and, increasingly, diverse electronic media. In

addition, the collections can contain all manner of artefacts in various materials. While many of these

materials have similar environmental sensitivities, some have specific requirements that need to be

taken into account.

The environment in which the collections are stored, used or displayed, and the resulting risks to them

should also be understood. On the basis of the information gathered about the collections, regarding

the nature and condition of the collections, it is possible to assess the vulnerability to factors such as

temperature, relative humidity, light and pollutants, and thus what steps need to be taken to mitigate

those risks. These might include the design of, or modifications to buildings, passive measures to

control the environment, or improvements to storage and display techniques.

Every collecting institution can and should be able to carry out these steps, no matter how limited

their resources, and irrespective of their climate. Knowledge of the collections, and of the risks, is

indispensable to proper management and long term survival of the collections.

The consensus amongst conservation professionals regarding environmental parameters for

exhibitions and loans is evolving rapidly. References [29], [206] and [236] give additional information

on this. Although there is no doubt that a controlled environment is significant in the preservation of

collections, provided that the parameters are appropriate to the materials, it is now generally accepted

that daily and seasonal variations in temperature and relative humidity will not cause harm to the

majority of collections.

This document also provides access to research that led to some of the changes in ISO 11799.

vi © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
TECHNICAL REPORT ISO/TR 19815:2018(E)
Information and documentation — Management of
the environmental conditions for archive and library
collections
1 Scope

This document provides information on recent discussions and changes in recommendations and

guidance on environmental management within the cultural heritage field. Conservation research

on preventive methodologies and passive control provided by specific construction methods and

renovations, developments in technology for controlling the environment, and energy and climate

change issues are included.

This document is intended for archives and libraries and other institutions with large volumes of

collections that are based on paper. Archives and libraries also have collections that include film,

magnetic media, leather, and other organic, inorganic or composite materials. These institutions have

a unique challenge of extending the lifespan of these materials for access and use in the present and for

future generations. The environment plays a key role in extending the lifespan of all of these materials.

This document is intended for use in preservation planning and ongoing environmental management

of permanent storage conditions for archives and library collections and applies to all collections being

permanently stored for an institution.
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— IEC Electropedia: available at http: //www .electropedia .org/
— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https: //www .iso .org/obp
3.1
air change rate

air flow rate to a space, expressed as volume per unit time, divided by the volume of the space in

consistent units
Note 1 to entry: Air change rate is often expressed as air changes per hour.

Note 2 to entry: This term is used where there is active ventilation [see also ventilation rate (3.40)].

[SOURCE: ISO 16814:2008, 3.5]
3.2
thermal stratification

tendency of heated air to rise and to arrange itself in layers with the warmest air at the top

© ISO 2018 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
ISO/TR 19815:2018(E)
3.3
collection
holding

type of documents kept in archives and libraries regardless of their physical format

Note 1 to entry: These are mainly books, manuscripts, files, maps, graphic collections and other documents

consisting of paper, but also parchment, papyrus, films, photographic materials, audio-visual recordings,

magnetic and optical media, as well as bindings and protective material.
Note 2 to entry: Holdings is a term used more often in archival institutions.
3.4
dew point
measure of atmospheric moisture

Note 1 to entry: It is the temperature at which the water vapour in the air becomes saturated and

condensation begins.
3.5
document

recorded information or material object which can be treated as a unit in a documentation process

3.6
effectiveness
extent to which planned activities are realized and planned results are achieved
3.7
energy
electricity, fuels, steam, heat, compressed air, and other like media

Note 1 to entry: For the purposes of this document, energy refers to the various forms of energy, including

renewable, which can be purchased, stored, treated, used in equipment or in a process, or recovered.

Note 2 to entry: Energy can be defined as the capacity of a system to produce external activity or perform work.

[SOURCE: ISO 50001:2011, 3.5]
3.8
energy economy
careful management of energy resources

Note 1 to entry: This focuses on appropriate minimal consumption of energy within an institution, and

incorporates both knowledge of energy performance and specific energy efficiency (3.9) of a building and/or

mechanical systems.
3.9
energy efficiency

measures that ensure the building and system function in accordance with the design parameters by

the efficient use of energy
[SOURCE: ISO 16813:2006, 3.17]
3.10
energy performance

measurable results related to energy efficiency (3.9), energy use and energy consumption

Note 1 to entry: In the context of energy management systems (3.12), results can be measured against the

organization's energy policy, objectives, targets and other energy performance requirements.

[SOURCE: ISO 50001:2011, 3.12]
2 © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
ISO/TR 19815:2018(E)
3.11
environment

surroundings in which an organization operates, including air, water, land, natural resources, flora,

fauna, humans and their interrelationships

Note 1 to entry: Surroundings can extend from within an organization to the local, regional and global system.

Note 2 to entry: Surroundings can be described in terms of biodiversity, ecosystems, climate or other

characteristics.
[SOURCE: ISO 14001:2015, 3.2.1]
3.12
environmental management system

part of the management system used to manage environmental aspects, fulfil compliance obligations,

and address risks and opportunities
[SOURCE: ISO 14001:2015, 3.1.2]
3.13
environmental performance
performance related to the management of environmental aspects

Note 1 to entry: For an environmental management system (3.12), results can be measured against the

organization’s environmental policy (3.14), environmental objectives or other criteria, using indicators.

[SOURCE: ISO 14001:2015, 3.4.11]
3.14
environmental policy

intentions and direction of an organization related to environmental performance formally expressed

by its top management
[SOURCE: ISO 14001:2015, 3.1.3]
3.15
glass transition

reversible change in an amorphous polymer or in amorphous regions of a partially crystalline polymer

from (or to) a viscous or rubbery condition to (or from) a hard and relatively brittle one

[SOURCE: ISO 11357-2:2013, 3.1]
3.16
glass transition temperature

characteristic value of the temperature range over which the glass transition takes place

Note 1 to entry: The assigned glass transition temperature ( ) may vary, depending on the specific property and

on the method and conditions selected to measure it.
[SOURCE: ISO 11357-2:2013, 3.2]
3.17
HVAC system
system that provides heating, ventilation or air conditioning for buildings
[SOURCE: ISO 16814:2008, 3.18]
3.18
hydrolyse

chemical decomposition in which a compound is split into other compounds by reacting with water

© ISO 2018 – All rights reserved 3
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
ISO/TR 19815:2018(E)
3.19
indicator

measurable representation of the condition or status of operations, management or conditions

[SOURCE: ISO 14031:2013, 3.15]
3.20
infiltration air

uncontrolled passage of air into a space through leakage paths in the building envelope

[SOURCE: ISO 16814:2008, 3.20]
3.21
insulation

materials that conduct heat poorly and thereby slow down heat loss from an object or space

3.22
long term storage

storage, for a period of undefined length, of material kept for permanent retention

3.23
maintenance

actions of prevention or correction to support long term functionality of repositories and the systems

that support them

Note 1 to entry: Corrective action is taken to prevent recurrence whereas preventive action is taken to prevent

occurrence.
3.24
management system

set of interrelated or interacting elements of an organization to establish policies and objectives and

processes to achieve those objectives

Note 1 to entry: A management system can address a single discipline or several disciplines (e.g. quality,

environment, occupational health and safety, energy, financial management).

Note 2 to entry: The system elements include the organization’s structure, roles and responsibilities, planning

and operation, performance evaluation and improvement.

Note 3 to entry: The scope of a management system can include the whole of the organization, specific and

identified functions of the organization, specific and identified sections of the organization, or one or more

functions across a group of organizations.
[SOURCE: ISO 14001:2015, 3.1.1]
3.25
mechanical ventilation
ventilation provided by mechanically powered equipment
[SOURCE: ISO 16814:2008, 3.22]
3.26
monitoring
determining the status of a system, a process or an activity

Note 1 to entry: To determine the status, there might be a need to check, supervise or critically observe.

[SOURCE: ISO 14001:2015, 3.4.8]
4 © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
ISO/TR 19815:2018(E)
3.27
natural ventilation

ventilation through leakage paths (infiltration) and intentional openings (ventilation) in the building

envelope or room enclosure, which relies on pressure differences without the aid of powered air-

moving components
[SOURCE: ISO 16814:2008, 3.24]
3.28
occupied zone

area designed for occupancy that is dependent on the geometry and the use of the room and specified

case by case

Note 1 to entry: Usually used only for areas designed for human occupancy and defined as a volume of air that

is confined by horizontal and vertical planes. The vertical planes are usually parallel with the walls of the room.

[SOURCE: ISO 16814:2008, 3.28]
3.29
outdoor air
air entering the system, or opening from outdoors before any air treatment
[SOURCE: ISO 16814:2008, 3.31]
3.30
outdoor air intake
opening through which outdoor air is admitted
[SOURCE: ISO 16814:2008, 3.30]
3.31
performance
measurable result

Note 1 to entry: Performance can relate either to quantitative or qualitative findings.

Note 2 to entry: Performance can relate to the management of activities, processes, products (including services),

systems or organizations.
[SOURCE: ISO 14001:2015, 3.4.10]
3.32
process

set of interrelated or interacting activities which transforms inputs into outputs

Note 1 to entry: A process can be documented or not.
[SOURCE: ISO 14001:2015, 3.3.5]
3.33
relative humidity

mass of water vapour in the air by volume divided by mass of water vapour by volume at saturation at

the same temperature
[SOURCE: ISO 16814:2008, 3.34]
3.34
repository

building or room designed or arranged and used specifically and exclusively for long term storage of

archive or library material
© ISO 2018 – All rights reserved 5
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
ISO/TR 19815:2018(E)
3.35
requirement
need or expectation that is stated, generally implied or obligatory

Note 1 to entry: “Generally implied” means that it is custom or common practice for the organization and

interested parties that the need or expectation under consideration is implied.

Note 2 to entry: A specified requirement is one that is stated, for example in documented information.

Note 3 to entry: Requirements other than legal requirements become obligatory when the organization decides

to comply with them.
[SOURCE: ISO 14001:2015, 3.2.8]
3.36
sub-cool

process of cooling air below its initial dew point temperature to dehumidify via condensation

Note 1 to entry: The condensation dehumidification is followed by a reheat stage to manage temperature and

relative humidity.
3.37
sustainability

maintenance of ecosystem components and functions for future generations, to address economic

efficiency, social issues and environmental preservation
[SOURCE: ISO 16813:2006, 3.27]
3.38
systems
processes undergoing assessment

Note 1 to entry: Examples include heating, cooling, domestic hot water, lighting, ventilation and relevant

automation or control.
[SOURCE: ISO 23045:2008, 3.3]
3.39
ventilation

process of supplying or removing air by natural means or mechanical means to or from a space for the

purpose of controlling air contaminant levels, humidity, odours or temperature within the space

[SOURCE: ISO 16814:2008, 3.44]
3.40
ventilation rate
airflow rate at which outdoor air enters a building or enclosed space
[SOURCE: ISO 16814:2008, 3.45]
4 General

To manage the environment in an archive or library, objectives for planning and decisions should be

determined. It should be determined what purpose environmental management will serve in meeting

the preservation needs of the collections. Environmental management is often the major form of

preservation action that can be carried out for all collections to prevent or slow down the deterioration

of the most common materials found in archive and library collections. Determining the expected

lifespan for the collections will help to determine limits to exposure to high temperature and high

relative humidity and the priority within the collections for maintaining the best environment possible.

To do this appropriately, the knowledge of the collections and the specific vulnerabilities of materials

and formats is vital.
6 © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
ISO/TR 19815:2018(E)
It is advisable to collect data relating to the collections, including:
— the materials present in the collections, and the quantities of each;

— the significance of the items, and the aspects of the items that form the basis of their significance;

— the desired lifetime of the items;
— the present condition of the collections;

— the ways in which the collections are used, including storage, handling, display or loan;

— the history of any conservation or other interventions that might affect the stability or vulnerability.

The quantities need only be approximate, but it is important that all materials present are identified.

The significance of an item is the key to why it is in the collections: it is important to understand what

aspect of it gi
...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST-TP ISO/TR 19815:2018
01-oktober-2018

Informatika in dokumentacija - Upravljanje okoljskih pogojev za zbirke arhivov in

knjižnic
Information and documentation -- Management of the environmental conditions for
archive and library collections

Information et documentation -- Gestion des conditions environnementales pour les

documents d'archive et de bibliothèque
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: ISO/TR 19815:2018
ICS:
01.140.20 Informacijske vede Information sciences
SIST-TP ISO/TR 19815:2018 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST-TP ISO/TR 19815:2018
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST-TP ISO/TR 19815:2018
TECHNICAL ISO/TR
REPORT 19815
First edition
2018-07
Information and documentation —
Management of the environmental
conditions for archive and library
collections
Information et documentation — Gestion des conditions
environnementales pour les documents d'archive et de bibliothèque
Reference number
ISO/TR 19815:2018(E)
ISO 2018
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST-TP ISO/TR 19815:2018
ISO/TR 19815:2018(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2018

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Fax: +41 22 749 09 47
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
SIST-TP ISO/TR 19815:2018
ISO/TR 19815:2018(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 General ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 6

5 Management of environment for optimization of preservation and sustainability ......................8

6 Temperature ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................10

7 Relative humidity ..............................................................................................................................................................................................11

8 Climate and its consequences for collections ......................................................................................................................13

8.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................13

8.2 Seasonal climates ...............................................................................................................................................................................15

9 Insects and other pests ...............................................................................................................................................................................15

10 Pollution .....................................................................................................................................................................................................................15

11 Light ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................16

12 Setting a temperature and relative humidity specification ..................................................................................18

13 Psychrometrics ....................................................................................................................................................................................................22

14 Good practices for sustainability......................................................................................................................................................27

14.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................27

14.2 Arnamagnaean Institute archive, Copenhagen, Denmark ..............................................................................28

14.3 Territorial archives, St Martin, West Indies .................................................................................................................28

14.4 Japanese Imperial Archives, Tokyo .....................................................................................................................................28

14.5 Jersey Archive, Jersey, Channel Islands ...........................................................................................................................28

14.6 Norwegian National Library, Mo i Rana .........................................................................................................................29

14.7 Central State Archive of Saxony, Dresden, Germany ............................................................................................29

14.8 National Library of Singapore .................................................................................................................................................29

14.9 Archives départmentales du Nord, Lille, France .....................................................................................................29

14.10 School library, Gando, Burkina Faso ..................................................................................................................................29

15 Educational and assessment tools ..................................................................................................................................................29

15.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................29

15.1.1 Overview ..............................................................................................................................................................................29

15.1.2 Isoperm .................................................................................................................................................................................30

15.1.3 Preservation index (PI) and time weighted preservation index (TWPI) .....................30

15.2 Environmental management tools and assessments..........................................................................................31

15.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................31

15.2.2 Fundamental microclimate concepts ..........................................................................................................31

15.2.3 Air exchange between an enclosure and its surroundings .......................................................31

15.2.4 Calculator for atmospheric moisture ..........................................................................................................32

15.2.5 Calculator for energy use in museums .......................................................................................................32

15.2.6 Calculator for conservation heating .............................................................................................................32

15.2.7 Calculator for dehumidification energy load ........................................................................................32

Annex A (informative) Energy economy ........................................................................................................................................................33

Annex B (informative) Impact of temperature ........................................................................................................................................38

Annex C (informative) Impact of relative humidity ...........................................................................................................................40

Annex D (informative) Material damage associated with temperature and relative humidity ...........43

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Annex E (informative) Sources of pollutants and their impact on materials significant to

archive or library collections ...............................................................................................................................................................46

Annex F (informative) Interactions between temperature, RH, light and pollution ........................................50

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................51

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Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following

URL: www .iso .org/iso/foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 46, Information and documentation,

Subcommittee SC 10, Requirements for document storage and conditions for preservation.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/members .html.
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Introduction
[46]

This document covers much of the same ground as BSI/PAS 198 . The main difference is that BSI/

PAS 198 was designed to be applied in British conditions with a temperate climate. Challenges vary in

different climatic zones. Nevertheless, there are principles that are generally applicable.

No one set of conditions is appropriate for all collections in all circumstances because environmental

specifications are tailored to the needs of a specific collection, the resources of the institution and

the context within which it operates, and the local climate. This document sets out a framework for

decision making relating to appropriate environmental conditions for cultural collections in the

specific climatic zones.

Since archives, libraries and cultural institutions are guardians of the collective memory, their aim is

to preserve material in the long term. They also have a duty to do so in a manner that minimizes the

impact on the world's resources and climate. Climate change will affect cultural institutions as much

as any other institution, if not more, and the use of energy, particularly from non-renewable sources,

should be minimized. Wherever possible, passive (non-energy consuming) solutions are preferred, and

buildings should be designed with this aim in mind.

First, the extent and composition of the collections, their significance, their current condition, the ways

in which they are used, and the desired lifetime should be taken into account. For example, archive and

library collections are likely to contain (in addition to bound and unbound paper and parchment and

other organic materials, such as Xuan paper and silk, black and white and colour photographic prints

and negatives) gramophone records, tapes and films, and, increasingly, diverse electronic media. In

addition, the collections can contain all manner of artefacts in various materials. While many of these

materials have similar environmental sensitivities, some have specific requirements that need to be

taken into account.

The environment in which the collections are stored, used or displayed, and the resulting risks to them

should also be understood. On the basis of the information gathered about the collections, regarding

the nature and condition of the collections, it is possible to assess the vulnerability to factors such as

temperature, relative humidity, light and pollutants, and thus what steps need to be taken to mitigate

those risks. These might include the design of, or modifications to buildings, passive measures to

control the environment, or improvements to storage and display techniques.

Every collecting institution can and should be able to carry out these steps, no matter how limited

their resources, and irrespective of their climate. Knowledge of the collections, and of the risks, is

indispensable to proper management and long term survival of the collections.

The consensus amongst conservation professionals regarding environmental parameters for

exhibitions and loans is evolving rapidly. References [29], [206] and [236] give additional information

on this. Although there is no doubt that a controlled environment is significant in the preservation of

collections, provided that the parameters are appropriate to the materials, it is now generally accepted

that daily and seasonal variations in temperature and relative humidity will not cause harm to the

majority of collections.

This document also provides access to research that led to some of the changes in ISO 11799.

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TECHNICAL REPORT ISO/TR 19815:2018(E)
Information and documentation — Management of
the environmental conditions for archive and library
collections
1 Scope

This document provides information on recent discussions and changes in recommendations and

guidance on environmental management within the cultural heritage field. Conservation research

on preventive methodologies and passive control provided by specific construction methods and

renovations, developments in technology for controlling the environment, and energy and climate

change issues are included.

This document is intended for archives and libraries and other institutions with large volumes of

collections that are based on paper. Archives and libraries also have collections that include film,

magnetic media, leather, and other organic, inorganic or composite materials. These institutions have

a unique challenge of extending the lifespan of these materials for access and use in the present and for

future generations. The environment plays a key role in extending the lifespan of all of these materials.

This document is intended for use in preservation planning and ongoing environmental management

of permanent storage conditions for archives and library collections and applies to all collections being

permanently stored for an institution.
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— IEC Electropedia: available at http: //www .electropedia .org/
— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https: //www .iso .org/obp
3.1
air change rate

air flow rate to a space, expressed as volume per unit time, divided by the volume of the space in

consistent units
Note 1 to entry: Air change rate is often expressed as air changes per hour.

Note 2 to entry: This term is used where there is active ventilation [see also ventilation rate (3.40)].

[SOURCE: ISO 16814:2008, 3.5]
3.2
thermal stratification

tendency of heated air to rise and to arrange itself in layers with the warmest air at the top

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3.3
collection
holding

type of documents kept in archives and libraries regardless of their physical format

Note 1 to entry: These are mainly books, manuscripts, files, maps, graphic collections and other documents

consisting of paper, but also parchment, papyrus, films, photographic materials, audio-visual recordings,

magnetic and optical media, as well as bindings and protective material.
Note 2 to entry: Holdings is a term used more often in archival institutions.
3.4
dew point
measure of atmospheric moisture

Note 1 to entry: It is the temperature at which the water vapour in the air becomes saturated and

condensation begins.
3.5
document

recorded information or material object which can be treated as a unit in a documentation process

3.6
effectiveness
extent to which planned activities are realized and planned results are achieved
3.7
energy
electricity, fuels, steam, heat, compressed air, and other like media

Note 1 to entry: For the purposes of this document, energy refers to the various forms of energy, including

renewable, which can be purchased, stored, treated, used in equipment or in a process, or recovered.

Note 2 to entry: Energy can be defined as the capacity of a system to produce external activity or perform work.

[SOURCE: ISO 50001:2011, 3.5]
3.8
energy economy
careful management of energy resources

Note 1 to entry: This focuses on appropriate minimal consumption of energy within an institution, and

incorporates both knowledge of energy performance and specific energy efficiency (3.9) of a building and/or

mechanical systems.
3.9
energy efficiency

measures that ensure the building and system function in accordance with the design parameters by

the efficient use of energy
[SOURCE: ISO 16813:2006, 3.17]
3.10
energy performance

measurable results related to energy efficiency (3.9), energy use and energy consumption

Note 1 to entry: In the context of energy management systems (3.12), results can be measured against the

organization's energy policy, objectives, targets and other energy performance requirements.

[SOURCE: ISO 50001:2011, 3.12]
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3.11
environment

surroundings in which an organization operates, including air, water, land, natural resources, flora,

fauna, humans and their interrelationships

Note 1 to entry: Surroundings can extend from within an organization to the local, regional and global system.

Note 2 to entry: Surroundings can be described in terms of biodiversity, ecosystems, climate or other

characteristics.
[SOURCE: ISO 14001:2015, 3.2.1]
3.12
environmental management system

part of the management system used to manage environmental aspects, fulfil compliance obligations,

and address risks and opportunities
[SOURCE: ISO 14001:2015, 3.1.2]
3.13
environmental performance
performance related to the management of environmental aspects

Note 1 to entry: For an environmental management system (3.12), results can be measured against the

organization’s environmental policy (3.14), environmental objectives or other criteria, using indicators.

[SOURCE: ISO 14001:2015, 3.4.11]
3.14
environmental policy

intentions and direction of an organization related to environmental performance formally expressed

by its top management
[SOURCE: ISO 14001:2015, 3.1.3]
3.15
glass transition

reversible change in an amorphous polymer or in amorphous regions of a partially crystalline polymer

from (or to) a viscous or rubbery condition to (or from) a hard and relatively brittle one

[SOURCE: ISO 11357-2:2013, 3.1]
3.16
glass transition temperature

characteristic value of the temperature range over which the glass transition takes place

Note 1 to entry: The assigned glass transition temperature ( ) may vary, depending on the specific property and

on the method and conditions selected to measure it.
[SOURCE: ISO 11357-2:2013, 3.2]
3.17
HVAC system
system that provides heating, ventilation or air conditioning for buildings
[SOURCE: ISO 16814:2008, 3.18]
3.18
hydrolyse

chemical decomposition in which a compound is split into other compounds by reacting with water

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3.19
indicator

measurable representation of the condition or status of operations, management or conditions

[SOURCE: ISO 14031:2013, 3.15]
3.20
infiltration air

uncontrolled passage of air into a space through leakage paths in the building envelope

[SOURCE: ISO 16814:2008, 3.20]
3.21
insulation

materials that conduct heat poorly and thereby slow down heat loss from an object or space

3.22
long term storage

storage, for a period of undefined length, of material kept for permanent retention

3.23
maintenance

actions of prevention or correction to support long term functionality of repositories and the systems

that support them

Note 1 to entry: Corrective action is taken to prevent recurrence whereas preventive action is taken to prevent

occurrence.
3.24
management system

set of interrelated or interacting elements of an organization to establish policies and objectives and

processes to achieve those objectives

Note 1 to entry: A management system can address a single discipline or several disciplines (e.g. quality,

environment, occupational health and safety, energy, financial management).

Note 2 to entry: The system elements include the organization’s structure, roles and responsibilities, planning

and operation, performance evaluation and improvement.

Note 3 to entry: The scope of a management system can include the whole of the organization, specific and

identified functions of the organization, specific and identified sections of the organization, or one or more

functions across a group of organizations.
[SOURCE: ISO 14001:2015, 3.1.1]
3.25
mechanical ventilation
ventilation provided by mechanically powered equipment
[SOURCE: ISO 16814:2008, 3.22]
3.26
monitoring
determining the status of a system, a process or an activity

Note 1 to entry: To determine the status, there might be a need to check, supervise or critically observe.

[SOURCE: ISO 14001:2015, 3.4.8]
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3.27
natural ventilation

ventilation through leakage paths (infiltration) and intentional openings (ventilation) in the building

envelope or room enclosure, which relies on pressure differences without the aid of powered air-

moving components
[SOURCE: ISO 16814:2008, 3.24]
3.28
occupied zone

area designed for occupancy that is dependent on the geometry and the use of the room and specified

case by case

Note 1 to entry: Usually used only for areas designed for human occupancy and defined as a volume of air that

is confined by horizontal and vertical planes. The vertical planes are usually parallel with the walls of the room.

[SOURCE: ISO 16814:2008, 3.28]
3.29
outdoor air
air entering the system, or opening from outdoors before any air treatment
[SOURCE: ISO 16814:2008, 3.31]
3.30
outdoor air intake
opening through which outdoor air is admitted
[SOURCE: ISO 16814:2008, 3.30]
3.31
performance
measurable result

Note 1 to entry: Performance can relate either to quantitative or qualitative findings.

Note 2 to entry: Performance can relate to the management of activities, processes, products (including services),

systems or organizations.
[SOURCE: ISO 14001:2015, 3.4.10]
3.32
process

set of interrelated or interacting activities which transforms inputs into outputs

Note 1 to entry: A process can be documented or not.
[SOURCE: ISO 14001:2015, 3.3.5]
3.33
relative humidity

mass of water vapour in the air by volume divided by mass of water vapour by volume at saturation at

the same temperature
[SOURCE: ISO 16814:2008, 3.34]
3.34
repository

building or room designed or arranged and used specifically and exclusively for long term storage of

archive or library material
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3.35
requirement
need or expectation that is stated, generally implied or obligatory

Note 1 to entry: “Generally implied” means that it is custom or common practice for the organization and

interested parties that the need or expectation under consideration is implied.

Note 2 to entry: A specified requirement is one that is stated, for example in documented information.

Note 3 to entry: Requirements other than legal requirements become obligatory when the organization decides

to comply with them.
[SOURCE: ISO 14001:2015, 3.2.8]
3.36
sub-cool

process of cooling air below its initial dew point temperature to dehumidify via condensation

Note 1 to entry: The condensation dehumidification is followed by a reheat stage to manage temperature and

relative humidity.
3.37
sustainability

maintenance of ecosystem components and functions for future generations, to address economic

efficiency, social issues and environmental preservation
[SOURCE: ISO 16813:2006, 3.27]
3.38
systems
processes undergoing assessment

Note 1 to entry: Examples include heating, cooling, domestic hot water, lighting, ventilation and relevant

automation or control.
[SOURCE: ISO 23045:2008, 3.3]
3.39
ventilation

process of supplying or removing air by natural means or mechanical means to or from a space for the

purpose of controlling air contaminant levels, humidity, odours or temperature within the space

[SOURCE: ISO 16814:2008, 3.44]
3.40
ventilation rate
airflow rate at which outdoor air enters a building or enclosed space
[SOURCE: ISO 16814:2008, 3.45]
4 General

To manage the environment in an archive or library, objectives for planning and decisions should be

determined. It should be determined what purpose environmental management will serve in meeting

the preservation needs of the collections. Environmental management is often the major form of

preservation action that can be carried out for all collections to prevent or slow down the deterioration

of the most common materials found in archive and library collections. Determining the expected

lifespan for the collections will help to determine limits to exposure to high temper

...

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