Aerospace series - Wire and cable marking process, UV Laser
This standard is applicable to the marking of aerospace vehicle electrical wires and cables using ultraviolet (UV) lasers. This standard specifies the process requirements for the implementation of UV laser marking of aerospace electrical wire and cable and fibre optic cable to achieve an acceptable quality mark using equipment designed for UV laser wire marking of identification codes on aircraft wire and cable subject to EN 3475-100, Aerospace series - Cables, electrical, aircraft use - Test methods - Part 100: General. Wiring specified as UV laser markable and which has been marked in accordance with this standard will conform to the requirements of EN 3838.
Luft- und Raumfahrt - Leitungs- und Kabelkennzeichnungsverfahren durch UV Laser
Diese Norm ist anwendbar auf das Kennzeichnen von elektrischen Leitungen und Kabeln von Luft- und
Raumfahrtzeugen unter Anwendung von Ultraviolett- (UV-)Lasern. Diese Norm legt die Anforderungen an das
Verfahren zur Einführung des Kennzeichnens von elektrischen Leitungen, Kabeln und Lichtwellenleiterkabeln
mit UV-Laser fest, um mit für die Kennzeichnung von Leitungen mit UV-Laser konstruierten Geräten eine
Kennzeichnung von annehmbarer Qualität auf für die Luft- und Raumfahrt vorgesehenen Leitungen und
Kabeln zu erzeugen, die den Anforderungen der EN 3475-100, Luft- und Raumfahrt — Elektrische Leitungen
für Luftfahrt, Verwendung — Prüfverfahren — Teil 100: Allgemeines unterliegen. Leitungen, die entsprechend
den Festlegungen mit UV-Laser gekennzeichnet werden können und die entsprechend dieser Norm
gekennzeichnet wurden, erfüllen die Anforderungen von EN 3838.
Série aérospatiale - Procédé de marquage des fils et câbles par laser UV
Aeronavtika - Postopek označevanja žic in kablov z UV-laserjem
Ta standard se uporablja za označevanje električnih žic in kablov pri aeronavtičnih vozilih z uporabo UV laserja. Ta standard opredeljuje zahteve glede postopka za izvedbo označevanja žic in kablov, ter optičnih kablov v aeronavtiki z UV laserjem, z namenom doseganja sprejemljive kakovosti označb z uporabo opreme, ki je zasnovana za označevanje žic z idenfitikacijskimi kodami z UV laserjem na žicah in kablih v aeronavtiki v skladu z EN 3475-100, Aeironavtika – Kabli, električni, uporaba za letala – Preskusne metode – Del 100: Splošno. Ožičenje, opredeljeno kot primerno za označevanje z UV laserjem, ki je bilo označeno v skladu s tem standardom, ustreza zahtevam EN 3838.
Standards Content (Sample)
2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.Luft- und Raumfahrt - Leitungs- und Kabelkennzeichnungsverfahren durch UV LaserSérie aérospatiale - Procédé de marquage des fils et câbles par laser UVAerospace series - Wire and cable marking process, UV Laser49.060Aerospace electric equipment and systemsICS:Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z:EN 4650:2010SIST EN 4650:2010en01-junij-2010SIST EN 4650:2010SLOVENSKI
SIST EN 4650:2010
EUROPEAN STANDARD NORME EUROPÉENNE EUROPÄISCHE NORM
April 2010 ICS 49.060 English Version
Aerospace series - Wire and cable marking process, UV Laser Série aérospatiale - Procédé de marquage des fils et câbles par laser UV
Luft- und Raumfahrt - Leitungs- und Kabelkennzeichnungsverfahren durch UV Laser This European Standard was approved by CEN on 6 February 2010.
CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN Management Centre or to any CEN member.
This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN Management Centre has the same status as the official versions.
CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
Avenue Marnix 17,
B-1000 Brussels © 2010 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CEN national Members. Ref. No. EN 4650:2010: ESIST EN 4650:2010
EN 4650:2010 (E) 2 Contents Page Foreword .3Introduction .41Scope .52Normative references .53Applicability, terms, definitions, symbols and abbreviations .63.1Applicability .63.2Terms and definitions .63.3Symbols and abbreviations .94Requirements . 104.1UV laser wire marking requirements . 104.2Design construction file . 104.3Process requirements . 104.4System requirements . 114.5Quality requirements . 125Quality assurance provisions . 125.1Responsibility for inspection . 125.2Quality conformance inspection . 125.3Verification inspection . 135.4Quality conformance inspection . 136Test methods . 136.1Design construction file . 136.2Laser wavelength (see Clause 8) . 136.3Laser pulse length (see Clause 8) . 146.4Applied laser fluence . 146.5Other laser parameters . 146.6IR radiation . 156.7Laser type . 156.8Laser output control . 156.9Legibility and permanence . 156.10Mark contrast measurement . 157Packaging . 158Notes . 158.1Principle of the marking process . 158.2Markability of wire constructions . 168.3Properties of UV laser marked insulation materials . 168.4Laser wavelength . 178.5Pulse length . 188.6Pulse repetition rate . 188.7Laser type . 18 SIST EN 4650:2010
EN 4650:2010 (E) 3 Foreword This document (EN 4650:2010) has been prepared by the Aerospace and Defence Industries Association of Europe - Standardization (ASD-STAN). After enquiries and votes carried out in accordance with the rules of this Association, this Standard has received the approval of the National Associations and the Official Services of the member countries of ASD, prior to its presentation to CEN. This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by October 2010, and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn at the latest by October 2010. Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent rights. CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. SIST EN 4650:2010
EN 4650:2010 (E) 4 Introduction Ultraviolet (UV) laser wire marking was developed in 1987 to provide a safe, permanent means of marking thin wall insulations; it is now the aerospace industry standard method for marking wire identification codes on to the surface of electrical wires and cables. It provides a simple, convenient, environmentally friendly, cost effective means of marking and identifying wires and jacketed cables. While a few larger airframe manufacturers have developed process standards and specifications for their own use during the introduction of this technology, there has been variability in the issues covered within these specifications and there has been no comprehensive standard process document developed for general use. The intended use of this document is to serve directly as a process standard for use by laser wire marking concerns. It can also serve as a model set of comprehensive requirements for use by organizations who intend to develop in-house laser marking process specifications or serve as a means for evaluating the adequacy and completeness of such specifications by procuring activities. SIST EN 4650:2010
EN 4650:2010 (E) 5 1 Scope This standard is applicable to the marking of aerospace vehicle electrical wires and cables using ultraviolet (UV) lasers. This standard specifies the process requirements for the implementation of UV laser marking of aerospace electrical wire and cable and fibre optic cable to achieve an acceptable quality mark using equipment designed for UV laser wire marking of identification codes on aircraft wire and cable subject to EN 3475-100, Aerospace series
Cables, electrical, aircraft use
Part 100: General. Wiring specified as UV laser markable and which has been marked in accordance with this standard will conform to the requirements of EN 3838. 2 Normative references The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies. EN 3475-100, Aerospace series — Cables, electrical, aircraft use — Test methods — Part 100: General EN 3475-705, Aerospace series — Cables, electrical, aircraft use — Test methods — Part 705: Contrast measurement EN 3475-706, Aerospace series — Cables, electrical, aircraft use — Test methods — Part 706: Laser markability EN 3838, Aerospace series — Requirements and tests on user-applied markings on aircraft electrical cables 1) EN ISO 10012, Measurement management systems — Requirements for measurement processes and measuring equipment (ISO 10012:2003)
1) Published as ASD Prestandard at the date of publication of this standard. SIST EN 4650:2010
EN 4650:2010 (E) 6 3 Applicability, terms, definitions, symbols and abbreviations For the purposes of this document, the following applicability and definitions apply. 3.1 Applicability This standard is applicable to the marking of airframe electrical wires and cables using ultraviolet (UV) lasers. The laser process practices defined in this standard are mandatory. 3.2 Terms and definitions 3.2.1 cable electrical cable, unless noted as a fibre optic cable (two or more insulated conductors, solid or stranded, contained in a common covering, or two or more insulated conductors twisted or moulded together without common covering, or one insulated conductor with a metallic covering shield or outer conductor) 3.2.2 component electrical wire or multi-conductor cable or fibre optic cable 3.2.3 contrast measurement relating to the difference in luminance of the mark and its associated background according to a precise formula 3.2.4 damage unacceptable reduction in the mechanical or electrical properties of the insulation, i.e. specifically a measurable reduction in the performance of the wire or cable that is outside of its defined specification or is otherwise unacceptable 3.2.5 excimer gas laser deriving its name from the term "excited dimer"
NOTE The laser is energized by means of an electrical discharge in a specialized mixture of rare gases and halogens. Excimer lasers are available operating at a number of discrete wavelengths throughout the UV, the most common of which are 193 nm, 248 nm, 308 nm and 351 nm. The wavelength is dependant only on the gas mix used; 308 nm is commonly used for UV laser wire marking. 3.2.6 fibre optic cable cable that is designed to transmit light waves between a light transmission source and a receiver
NOTE In signal applications, the transmitter and receiver include devices that are used to convert between optical and electronic pulses. Typical cables include a glass or plastic core, a layer of cladding having a lower refractive index to refract or totally reflect light inward at the core/cladding boundary, a buffer, strength members and jacketing to protect the inner cable from environmental damage. 3.2.7 fluence energy density, measured in joules per square centimetre (J/cm2), of a single pulse of the laser beam, which is at the surface of the wire insulation or cable jacket SIST EN 4650:2010
EN 4650:2010 (E) 7 3.2.8 font defining shape and style of a character set for printing or marking 3.2.9 gauge wire size specified for a wire in a wire harness assembly by the wire harness assembly drawing 3.2.10 harmonic generation use of non-linear optical processes to change the wavelength of a laser, enabling the output of an infrared laser to be converted to shorter wavelengths
NOTE In the case of Nd lasers this results in a frequency doubled output at 532 nm in the green and a frequency tripled output at 355 nm in the UV, which is used for wire marking. 3.2.11 harness assembly of any number of wires, electrical/optical cables and/or groups and their terminations which is designed and fabricated so as to allow for installation and removal as a unit
NOTE A harness may be an open harness or a protected harness. 3.2.12 infrared
IR electromagnetic radiation in the wavelength range from approximately 700 nm to in excess of 10 000 nm 3.2.13 insulation outer polymer covering of an electrical wire or multi-conductor cable or fibre optic cable 3.2.14 IR laser laser that produces a beam of radiation in the IR range 3.2.15 jacket outer protective covering for a cable 3.2.16 laser laser is an acronym for Light Amplification by the Stimulated Emission of Radiation. Lasers are a source of intense monochromatic light in the ultraviolet, visible or infrared region of the spectrum. The "active" or lasing medium may be a solid, liquid or gas. The laser beam is generated by energizing the active medium using an external power source, which is most commonly electrical or optical 3.2.17 legibility properties of a mark that enable it to be easily and correctly read SIST EN 4650:2010
EN 4650:2010 (E) 8 3.2.18 luminance quantitative measurement of the visible light reflected from a surface, in this case the wire or cable insulation 3.2.19 mark meaningful alphanumeric or machine readable mark applied to the surface of a wire or cable jacket 3.2.20 markability ability of a wire construction to be marked to provide legible identification marks of a specified contrast when marked in accordance with this standard 3.2.21 neodymium
Nd elemental metal that forms the active laser material in the most common type of solid state laser
NOTE The neodymium is held in an optically transparent solid "host" material, and is energized by optical input, either from a flash lamp or from the optical output from a diode laser. The host material does not play a direct role, but can slightly influence the laser wavelength. Typical host materials are specialized crystal materials, such as Yttrium Aluminium Garnet (YAG), Yttrium Lithium Fluoride (YLF) and Yttrium Vanadate (YVO4). These lasers are commonly referred to as Nd:YAG, Nd:YLF and Nd:YVO4 respectively. The primary wavelength of Nd solid state lasers is in the infrared (IR) at a wavelength of approximately 1 064 nm. The IR output of such lasers can be conveniently reduced to lower wavelengths suitable for wire marking by use of harmonic generation. 3.2.22 pulse length time interval between the laser energy crossing half the maximum energy on the rising and the falling edges of the pulse; referred to as FWHM – full width half maximum
NOTE Pulse lengths are measured in nanoseconds (ns). 1 ns = 10-9 s. 3.2.23 purchaser activity that can issue a purchase order or contract 3.2.24 quality conformance tests performed on production samples at a specified frequency to ensure that the requirements of this standard are met 3.2.25 quality conformance inspection process that includes measurements, non-destructive tests, analysis, and associated data that will provide verification that a particular individual component continually conforms to the requirements defined in the standard 3.2.26 supplier original equipment manufacturer (OEM) or a value added manufacturer which has design and production control of the processes used to produce the final product in accordance with the standard 3.2.27 ultraviolet
UV electromagnetic radiation in the wavelength range from approximately 200 nm to 400 nm SIST EN 4650:2010
EN 4650:2010 (E) 9 3.2.28 UV laser laser that produces a beam of radiation in the UV range 3.2.29 verification inspection process that demonstrates that a product is capable of fully conforming to all the requirements defined in a standard
NOTE Verification Inspection includes definition of the measurements, tests, analysis, and associated data that provides consistent rationale for acceptance of a particular supplier's design as meeting the standard requirements typically prior to acquisition by the Purchaser. 3.2.30 wavelength
distance between repeating units of a wave pattern, e.g. the distance between the crest of one wave and the crest of an adjacent wave
NOTE 1 Laser wavelength is typically measured in nanometres (nm). NOTE 2
= c/f where
is the velocity of light;
is the frequency. 3.2.31 wire single metallic conductor of solid, stranded or tinsel construction, designed to carry current in an electric circuit, but not having a metallic covering, sheath or shield
NOTE For the purpose of this specification, "wire" refers to "insulated electric wire". 3.2.32 wire code wire circuit identification number or code assigned to a specific wire in a wire harness assembly and marked on the insulation surface 3.3 Symbols and abbreviations nm : nanometre, 10-9 m; ns : nanosecond 10-9 s; ETFE : ethylenetetrafluoroethylene; PFA : perfluoroalkoxy fluoropolymer; PTFE : polytetrafluoroethylene; PVDF : polyvinylidene difluoride / polyvinylidene fluoride. SIST EN 4650:2010
EN 4650:2010 (E) 10 4 Requirements 4.1 UV laser wire marking requirements The laser requirements for marking aerospace wire and cable are grouped under: a) Process Requirements, i.e. those characteristics that affect the marking process in terms of the mark characteristics and quality; and b) System Requirements, i.e. those characteristics that affect the performance of equipment in terms of its operational use. 4.2 Design construction file The equipment supplier must create a Design Construction File that records the relevant design details of the equipment and demonstrates clearly how all the requirements of section 3 are met. A copy of this Design Construction File must be maintained and made available to Purchasers as required. 4.3 Process requirements 4.3.1 Laser wavelength Short wavelength UV laser light, in the range 240 nm to 380 nm only shall be used for marking (see Clause 8). Long wavelength infrared (IR) laser radiation shall not be used for the direct marking of aerospace electrical or fibre optic wire and cable. 4.3.2 Mask based laser marking systems (see Clause 8) 18.104.22.168 General Laser marks generated by mask based processes should not overlap. WARNING — Multiple overlapping marks may cause wire insulation damage, particularly on extruded ETFE and PVDF materials. 22.214.171.124 Laser pulse length (see Clause 8) Lasers with pulse lengths between 3 ns and 35 ns shall be used for marking. 126.96.36.199 Applied laser fluence (see Clause 8) The equipment supplier shall be responsible for designing the system to ensure that the equipment delivers the required fluence to achieve the optimum mark contrast and quality without impairing the wire characteristics. The user shall be responsible for ensuring that the equipment is maintained and calibrated to continue to deliver the required fluence. The equipment shall be set to mark at a fluence in the range 0,8 J/cm2 to 1,3 J/cm2. The specified fluence shall be the fluence measured at the top centre of the wire surface, as marked. These marking fluences shall be used unless the wire type under test is specified for marking at a different fluence. SIST EN 4650:2010
EN 4650:2010 (E) 11 The laser fluence delivered to the wire shall remain within the specified range under all standard operating conditions at all times during the entirety of the marking process and for all different font sizes; this shall be inclusive of any pulse to pulse variations in laser energy. In ensuring that the equipment delivers and operates within the required fluence at all times the supplier shall design the equipment taking into account: a) the laser shot to shot pulse energy variation; b) short to long term drift in laser power output; c) the laser beam intensity profile, ensuring that that part of the beam used for marking the wires shall be of sufficiently uniform intensity and without any hot spots that would result in the maximum fluence being exceeded within the beam profile when projected on to a flat surface at the focal point of the beam delivery system. 4.3.3 Scanner laser marking equipment design parameters The pulse lengths of scanning laser marking systems shall be between 5 ns and 150 ns. The equipment supplier shall design the laser wire marker to ensure consistent marking at all times during operation, maintaining mark quality and contrast. The system shall deliver the same mark contrast on any given wire as mask based systems meeting the requirements of this standard, unless otherwise specified by the purchaser. The equipment shall be designed to ensure that the following parameters either individually or in concert shall not result in excessive energy being delivered to the wire surface that would result in the surface of the wire being impaired: a) laser peak power; b) beam intensity profile; c) laser beam spot size at the wire surface; d) overlap of the dots making up the mark. The equipment supplier shall provide clear, concise instructions on how to maintain, operate and calibrate the laser marker within the design parameters. The user shall be responsible for ensuring that the equipment is maintained and calibrated in accordance with the supplier's instructions. 4.3.4 IR radiation In the case of laser wire markers using IR solid state lasers and harmonic generation to create a UV laser beam for marking, the Design Construction File shall include the theory of operation of the laser optical system and calculate the residual IR that would reach the wire under normal circumstances and under worst case conditions. Solid state IR lasers with UV harmonic generation shall be designed to ensure that no IR energy > 10-3 J/cm2 is able to reach the wire for any single pulse, even in the event of misalignment or damage to optical components. 4.4 System requirements 4.4.1 Laser type The type of laser used shall meet the requirements of this standard. SIST EN 4650:2010
EN 4650:2010 (E) 12 4.4.2 Laser output control Where necessary to meet the requirements of this standard, laser wire marking equipment shall have built in laser energy meters or power meters as required and an active feedback system. This is to enable the continuous monitoring of the laser pulse energy in the case of mask based laser markers or average power in the case of scanning laser markers, which may vary over time. Such metering may be used to provide automatic adjustments to maintain the laser output at the required level to meet the requirements of 188.8.131.52 and 4.3.3 respectively. 4.5 Quality requirements 4.5.1 General The marking process shall not cause damage to the wire or cable and shall not alter the electrical or mechanical properties of the insulation outside of acceptable or specified limits. 4.5.2 Legibility and permanence The markings produced must be legible and permanent in accordance with the requirements EN 3838. 4.5.3 Mark contrast Mark contrast of wires may be specified in the relevant wire standard. Contrast shall be determined in accordance with the requirements of EN 3475-705. 5 Quality assurance provisions 5.1 Responsibility for inspection 5.1.1 General All items must meet all technical requirements of the process standard. The inspections set forth in this standard shall become a part of the supplier's overall inspection system or quality program. The absence of any inspection requirements in the standard shall not relieve the supplier of the responsibility of assuring that all products comply with all requirements of the contract. The users of this specification have the right to verify conformance to these requirements. 5.1.2 Test equipment and inspection facilities Test and measuring equipment and inspection facilities of sufficient accuracy, quality and quantity to permit performance of the required inspection shall be established and maintained by the supplier and where required by the end user. The establishment and maintenance of a calibration system to control the accuracy of the measuring and test equipment shall be in accordance with EN ISO 10012 or equivalent standards as specified by the end user. The laser equipment performance is recommended to be verified by the user at not more than 12 month intervals in accordance with the supplier's calibration procedures. 5.2 Quality conformance inspection 5.2.1 General The inspections specified herein are classified as follows: a) Verification inspection (see 5.3). b) Quality conformance inspection (see 5.4). SIST EN 4650:2010
EN 4650:2010 (E) 13 5.2.2 Inspection conditions For process qualification and laser markability qualification the following standard test conditions shall be used unless otherwise specified herein, or in the detail specification: All measurements and tests shall be made at temperatures of 15 °C to 35 °C at an air pressure of 0,85 bar to 1,05 bar, and a relative humidity of 45 % to 75 %. Whenever these conditions must be closely controlled in order to obtain more reproducible results for reference purposes, temperature, relative humidity, and atmospheric pressure conditions of (2520−+) °C, (50 ± 12) % Relative Humidity, and 0,85 bar to 1,05 bar shall be used.
5.3 Verification inspection The supplier shall develop initial verification inspection data, which shall consist of all of the applicable examinations and tests. These shall comprise at least the tests included in Table 1. Table 1 — Initial verification inspection data Inspection For mask based markers For scanning markers Requirements Test method Design construction file Applicable Applicable 4.2 6.1 Laser wavelength Applicable Applicable 4.3.1 6.2 Laser pulse length Applicable Not applicable 184.108.40.206 6.3 Not applicable Applicable 4.3.3 6.3 and 6.3.2 Applied laser fluence Applicable Not applicable 220.127.116.11 6.4 Other laser parameters Not applicable Applicable 4.3.3 6.5 Infrared radiation Applicable Applicable 4.3.4 6.6 Laser type Applicable Applicable 4.4.1 6.7 Laser output control Applicable Applicable 4.4.2 6.8 Legibility and permanence Applicable Applicable 4.5.2 6.9 Mark contrast Applicable Applicable 4.5.3 6.10
5.4 Quality conformance inspection The legibility, permanence and contrast of laser marked components shall be inspected in accordance with Table 1 to ensure compliance with this standard. 6 Test methods 6.1 Design construction file The equipment supplier shall create and maintain a Design Construction File and shall provide a certified copy of this as part of the equipment documentation to the purchaser. 6.2 Laser wavelength (see Clause 8) The equipment supplier shall certify the laser wavelength at the time of original manufacture. SIST EN 4650:2010
EN 4650:2010 (E) 14 6.3 Laser pulse length (see Clause 8) 6.3.1 General The equipment supplier shall certify the laser pulse length at the time of original manufacture. 6.3.2 Mask based marking systems The user shall verify this parameter during operation,