Geometrical product specifications (GPS) - Inspection by measurement of workpieces and measuring equipment - Part 5: Uncertainty in testing indicating measuring instruments (ISO 14253-5:2015)

This part of  ISO 14253 specifies how to evaluate the measurement uncertainty of the test values obtained when testing GPS indicating measuring instruments, to be used in a decision rule for proving conformance or non-conformance with specifications of that indicating measuring instruments.

Geometrische Produktspezifikation (GPS) - Prüfung von Werkstücken und Messgeräten durch Messen - Teil 5: Unsicherheit bei der Verifizierungsprüfung von anzeigenden Messgeräten (ISO 14253-5:2015)

Dieser Teil von ISO 14253 legt fest, wie die Unsicherheit der nach einer von den beteiligten Parteien vereinbarten Prüfanweisung abgeleiteten Testwerte, die in einer Verifizierungsprüfung von anzeigenden GPS-Messgeräten erhalten wurden, in Bezug auf die Anzeige(n) der betreffenden Messgeräte zu bewerten ist.
ANMERKUNG 1   Die als Testunsicherheit bezeichnete Unsicherheit der Testwerte darf nicht mit der Messunsicherheit verwechselt werden, die mit der Verwendung des betreffenden anzeigenden Messgerätes zur Messung von Werkstücken verbunden ist. In der vorliegenden Norm wird nur die erstere dieser beiden Unsicherheiten behandelt, für Hinweise zur zweiten siehe den ISO/IEC Guide 98 3 (GUM) und ISO 14253 2.
Für den Fall, dass die Prüfung eines anzeigenden Messgerätes mehrere Testwerte umfasst, von denen sich einige auf die Anzeige des Messgerätes und einige auf andere messtechnische Eigenschaften beziehen, gilt der vorliegende Teil von ISO 14253 nur für die Unsicherheit der ersteren.
ANMERKUNG 2   Die zu prüfenden messtechnischen Eigenschaften, deren Unsicherheiten nicht unter diese Internationale Norm fallen, sind in der Messung passiv (siehe Abschnitt 4); für die Anwendung des ISO/IEC Guide 98 3 (GUM) und von ISO 14253 2 auf diese Merkmale sind die speziellen Vorgaben der vorliegenden Internationalen Norm nicht erforderlich.

Spécification géométrique des produits (GPS) - Vérification par la mesure des pièces et des équipements de mesure - Partie 5: Incertitude dans les essais des instruments de mesure d'indication (ISO 14253-5:2015)

ISO 14253-5:2015 spécifie les concepts et les termes pour l'évaluation des incertitudes des valeurs d'essai dérivées selon un protocole d'essai convenu entre les parties et portant sur la (les) indication(s) des instruments, obtenue lors des essais de vérification des appareils de mesure indicateurs GPS.
NOTE Il ne faut pas confondre l'incertitude des valeurs d'essai, appelée incertitude de valeur d'essai, avec l'incertitude de mesure associée à l'utilisation de cet appareil de mesure indicateur pour mesurer des pièces. Seule la première est couverte par la présente partie de l'ISO 14253; pour toute indication concernant la seconde, voir le Guide ISO/IEC 98‑3 (GUM) et l'ISO 14253‑2.
Lorsqu'un essai sur un appareil de mesure indicateur comprend plusieurs valeurs d'essai, certaines se rapportant à l'indication de l'instrument et d'autres à d'autres caractéristiques métrologiques, la présente partie de l'ISO 14253 ne concerne que l'incertitude de la première.
La présente partie de l'ISO 14253 ne fournit pas les lignes directrices pour assurer l'adéquation d'un protocole d'essai; mais plutôt, une fois qu'un protocole d'essai est donné, il décrit comment évaluer l'incertitude de la valeur d'essai conséquente.

Specifikacija geometrijskih veličin izdelka (GPS) - Preverjanje z merjenjem obdelovancev in merilne opreme - 5. del: Negotovost pri preskušanju merilnih instrumentov (ISO 14253-5:2015)

Ta del standarda ISO 14253 določa način vrednotenja merilne negotovosti pri preskusnih vrednostih, pridobljenih v okviru preskušanja prikazovalnih merilnih instrumentov GPS, ki se uporabi pri pravilih odločanja za dokazovanje (ne)skladnosti s specifikacijami teh prikazovalnih merilnih instrumentov.

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
30-Jun-2015
Publication Date
22-Oct-2015
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
12-Oct-2015
Due Date
17-Dec-2015
Completion Date
23-Oct-2015

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Standards Content (sample)

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 14253-5:2015
01-december-2015
6SHFLILNDFLMDJHRPHWULMVNLKYHOLþLQL]GHOND *36 3UHYHUMDQMH]PHUMHQMHP
REGHORYDQFHYLQPHULOQHRSUHPHGHO1HJRWRYRVWSULSUHVNXãDQMXPHULOQLK
LQVWUXPHQWRY ,62

Geometrical product specifications (GPS) - Inspection by measurement of workpieces

and measuring equipment - Part 5: Uncertainty in testing indicating measuring
instruments (ISO 14253-5:2015)

Geometrische Produktspezifikation (GPS) - Prüfung von Werkstücken und Messgeräten

durch Messen - Teil 5: Unsicherheit bei der Verifizierungsprüfung von anzeigenden

Messgeräten (ISO 14253-5:2015)

Spécification géométrique des produits (GPS) - Vérification par la mesure des pièces et

des équipements de mesure - Partie 5: Incertitude dans les essais des instruments de

mesure d'indication (ISO 14253-5:2015)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 14253-5:2015
ICS:
17.040.30 Merila Measuring instruments
17.040.40 6SHFLILNDFLMDJHRPHWULMVNLK Geometrical Product
YHOLþLQL]GHOND *36 Specification (GPS)
SIST EN ISO 14253-5:2015 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN ISO 14253-5:2015
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SIST EN ISO 14253-5:2015
EN ISO 14253-5
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
September 2015
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 17.040.01
English Version
Geometrical product specifications (GPS) - Inspection by
measurement of workpieces and measuring equipment -
Part 5: Uncertainty in verification testing of indicating
measuring instruments (ISO 14253-5:2015)
Spécification géométrique des produits (GPS) -
Vérification par la mesure des pièces et des
équipements de mesure - Partie 5: Incertitude liée aux
essais de vérification des appareils de mesure
indicateurs (ISO 14253-5:2015)
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 10 July 2015.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,

Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Brussels

© 2015 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 14253-5:2015 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN ISO 14253-5:2015
EN ISO 14253-5:2015 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

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SIST EN ISO 14253-5:2015
EN ISO 14253-5:2015 (E)
European foreword
This document (EN ISO 14253-5:2015) has been prepared by Technical Committee

ISO/TC 213 “Dimensional and geometrical product specifications and verification” in collaboration with

Technical Committee CEN/TC 290 “Dimensional and geometrical product specification and verification”

the secretariat of which is held by AFNOR.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by March 2016, and conflicting national standards shall

be withdrawn at the latest by March 2016.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent

rights.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia,

France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta,

Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and the United Kingdom.
Endorsement notice

The text of ISO 14253-5:2015 has been approved by CEN as EN ISO 14253-5:2015 without any

modification.
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SIST EN ISO 14253-5:2015
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SIST EN ISO 14253-5:2015
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 14253-5
First edition
2015-09-01
Geometrical product specifications
(GPS) — Inspection by measurement
of workpieces and measuring
equipment —
Part 5:
Uncertainty in verification testing of
indicating measuring instruments
Spécification géométrique des produits (GPS) — Vérification par la
mesure des pièces et des équipements de mesure —
Partie 5: Incertitude liée aux essais de vérification des appareils de
mesure indicateurs
Reference number
ISO 14253-5:2015(E)
ISO 2015
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SIST EN ISO 14253-5:2015
ISO 14253-5:2015(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2015, Published in Switzerland

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

the requester.
ISO copyright office
Ch. de Blandonnet 8 • CP 401
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva, Switzerland
Tel. +41 22 749 01 11
Fax +41 22 749 09 47
copyright@iso.org
www.iso.org
ii © ISO 2015 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 14253-5:2015
ISO 14253-5:2015(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4 General ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 6

5 Test measurand...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

5.2 Input quantities and test measurand definition ........................................................................................................ 8

6 Tester responsibility criterion ............................................................................................................................................................... 9

7 Specific issues in testing indicating measuring instruments ..............................................................................11

7.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................11

7.2 Errors of the indicating measuring instrument.......................................................................................................11

7.3 Errors in user-provided quantity values .......................................................................................................................12

7.4 Using alternative test equipment .........................................................................................................................................12

Annex A (informative) Guidance on using alternative test equipment .........................................................................14

Annex B (informative) Relation to the GPS matrix model ...........................................................................................................16

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................17

© ISO 2015 – All rights reserved iii
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SIST EN ISO 14253-5:2015
ISO 14253-5:2015(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to conformity

assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the WTO principles in the Technical

Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following URL: Foreword - Supplementary information

The committee responsible for this document is ISO/TC 213, Dimensional and geometrical product

specifications and verifications.

ISO 14253 consists of the following parts, under the general title Geometrical product specifications

(GPS) — Inspection by measurement of workpieces and measuring equipment:

— Part 1: Decision rules for proving conformity or nonconformity with specifications

— Part 2: Guide to the estimation of uncertainty in GPS measurement, in calibration of measuring

equipment and in product verification

— Part 3: Guidelines for achieving agreements on measurement uncertainty statements

— Part 4: Background on functional limits and specification limits in decision rules

— Part 5: Uncertainty in verification testing of indicating measuring instruments

— Part 6: Generalized decision rules for the acceptance and rejection of instruments and workpieces

[Technical Report]
iv © ISO 2015 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 14253-5:2015
ISO 14253-5:2015(E)
Introduction

This part of ISO 14253 belongs to the general geometrical product specification (GPS) series of

documents (see ISO 14638). It influences chain link F of all chains of standards in the general GPS matrix.

The ISO/GPS matrix model given in ISO 14638 gives an overview of the ISO/GPS system of which this

international standard is a part. The fundamental rules of ISO/GPS given in ISO 8015 apply to this

part of ISO 14253 and the default decision rules given in ISO 14253-1 apply to specifications made in

accordance with this part of ISO 14253, unless otherwise indicated.

For more detailed information about the relationship of this part of ISO 14253 to other standards and to

the GPS matrix model, see Annex B.

Decision rules for deciding conformity or non-conformity to specifications are based on the

measurement uncertainty incurred while testing.

Usual practice in measurement familiarizes metrologists and practitioners with measurement

uncertainty. Any possible effect that may affect the measurement result is considered and quantified

as an uncertainty component and is eventually included in the combined uncertainty. The purpose

of the measurement is to gather quantitative information on a given measurand, and the uncertainty

statement expresses how reliable that information is.

In the case of tests of indicating measuring instruments, the purpose of the measurement is to investigate

one or more metrological characteristics of the indicating measuring instrument rather than to measure

characteristics of features of a workpiece. The uncertainty being evaluated in this case, the test value

uncertainty, quantifies the accuracy of the test value. The test detects the quality of the indicating

measuring instrument, reported through the test values and not through the test value uncertainty.

The test value uncertainty for indicating measuring instruments is not conceptually trivial to evaluate,

and careful consideration is necessary to determine which uncertainty components should and which

should not be accounted for.

Some tests of indicating measuring instruments may be relative to quantities other than instrument

indications, or a single test may investigate both the instrument indication(s) and other metrological

characteristics. An example is a test of a micrometer investigating the indication error (subject to an

MPE) as well as the measuring force (subject to an MPL). For tests, or portions of them, relative to

metrological characteristics other than instrument indications, this part of ISO 14253 is not applicable:

they are about quantities for which the application of the ISO/IEC Guide 98-3 (GUM) and of the

ISO 14253-2 is conceptually straightforward, with no need of further guidance in this part of ISO 14253.

A rigorous definition of the test value uncertainty when testing indicating measuring instruments is

given. Application of conventional uncertainty evaluation based on this definition and according to the

ISO/IEC Guide 98-3 (GUM) and the ISO 14253-2 determines which uncertainty components to account for.

© ISO 2015 – All rights reserved v
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SIST EN ISO 14253-5:2015
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SIST EN ISO 14253-5:2015
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 14253-5:2015(E)
Geometrical product specifications (GPS) — Inspection by
measurement of workpieces and measuring equipment —
Part 5:
Uncertainty in verification testing of indicating
measuring instruments
1 Scope

This part of ISO 14253 specifies concepts and terms for evaluating the uncertainties of the test values

derived according to a test protocol agreed upon by the parties and relative to instrument indication(s),

obtained in verification testing of GPS indicating measuring instruments.

NOTE The uncertainty of the test values, referred to as test value uncertainty, is not to be confused with the

measurement uncertainty associated with using that indicating measuring instrument to measure workpieces.

The former only is covered in this part of ISO 14253; for guidance on the latter see the ISO/IEC Guide 98-3 (GUM)

and ISO 14253-2.

When a test of an indicating measuring instrument comprises several test values, some relative to

the instrument indication and some to other metrological characteristics, this part of ISO 14253 is

concerned with the uncertainty of the former only.

This part of ISO 14253 does not provide guidelines to ensure the adequacy of a test protocol; rather,

once a test protocol is given, it describes how to evaluate the consequent test value uncertainty.

2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 10360-1:2000, Geometrical Product Specifications (GPS) — Acceptance and reverification tests for

coordinate measuring machines (CMM) — Part 1: Vocabulary

ISO 14253-1:2013, Geometrical product specifications (GPS) — Inspection by measurement of workpieces

and measuring equipment — Part 1: Decision rules for proving conformity or nonconformity with

specifications

ISO/TR 14253-6:2012, Geometrical product specifications (GPS) — Inspection by measurement of

workpieces and measuring equipment — Part 6: Generalized decision rules for the acceptance and rejection

of instruments and workpieces

ISO 14978:2006, Geometrical product specifications (GPS) — General concepts and requirements for GPS

measuring equipment

ISO 17450-2:2012, Geometrical product specifications (GPS) — General concepts — Part 2: Basic tenets,

specifications, operators, uncertainties and ambiguities

ISO/IEC Guide 98-3:2008, Uncertainty of measurement — Part 3: Guide to the expression of uncertainty in

measurement (GUM:1995)

ISO/IEC Guide 99:2007, International vocabulary of metrology — Basic and general concepts and

associated terms (VIM)
© ISO 2015 – All rights reserved 1
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SIST EN ISO 14253-5:2015
ISO 14253-5:2015(E)
3 Terms and definitions

For the purpose of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 10360-1, ISO 14253-1,

ISO/TR 14253-6, ISO 14978, ISO 17450-2, ISO/IEC Guide 98-3 (GUM), ISO/IEC Guide 99 (VIM), and the

following apply.
3.1
test

sequence of preparatory, measurement, mathematical and

decisional actions according to a test protocol

Note 1 to entry: Not all steps in the sequence are necessarily present in a test protocol.

Note 2 to entry: Tests are often used to verify the specifications of a GPS indicating measuring instrument.

Note 3 to entry: The specification of an indicating measuring instrument may be expressed by one or more MPEs

(Maximum Permissible Errors).

Note 4 to entry: Prominent cases of tests are the acceptance test and the reverification test.

Note 5 to entry: This term is sometimes used in a wider sense, encompassing cases when a test produces a binary

or categorical result. An example of a binary assessment is determining whether or not a software algorithm

converged. For the purpose of this part of ISO 14253, tests are restricted to those based on test values.

Note 6 to entry: See Figure 1.
3.2
test instance

combination of test equipment, set up, measurement sequence, environmental and instrumental

conditions of a test, which yields a test value(s)
3.3
permissible test instance

test instance in compliance with the test protocol, and with the alternatives and stipulations therein

Note 1 to entry: An alternative occurs when the test protocol allows options, either discrete among enumerated

cases, or continuous in a range of permissible values. An example of the former is the choice of the test equipment,

e.g. a gauge block or a step gauge for testing a CMM; an example of the latter is the ambient temperature within

the required test conditions.

Note 2 to entry: A stipulation occurs when the test protocol specifies the amount of measurement in a test, e.g. a

specific number of repeated measurements.

Note 3 to entry: A test may be subject to alternatives and stipulations at the same time. For instance, test

equipment is applied to an indicating measuring instrument in a limited number of configurations (stipulation)

chosen at the tester counterpart’s discretion (alternative).

Note 4 to entry: Alternatives serve two purposes. (1) To accommodate to actual conditions. For instance,

alternative test equipment to accommodate actual availability, or any environmental condition within the required

test conditions to accommodate the actual testing environment. (2) To leave details of the test unspecified up

to the time of testing, to encourage the indicating measuring instrument manufacturer – in order to avoid non-

acceptance of the instrument – to deliver overall compliant indicating measuring instruments. For instance,

some procedural details may be left to the tester counterpart (3.14) to decide at the time of testing, to force the

manufacturer to deliver a compliant indicating measuring instrument for any possible procedural option.

3.4
test measurand

metrological characteristic of an indicating measuring instrument intended to be verified in a test,

based on a single permissible test instance, defined by a test protocol

Note 1 to entry: A test protocol may allow for multiple permissible test instances, to adapt to actual circumstances

and to limit the experimental effort. The test measurand is defined for each single test instance, and different

permissible test instances may give raise to different test measurands.
2 © ISO 2015 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 14253-5:2015
ISO 14253-5:2015(E)
3.5
test protocol

predefined detailed specification of a test which defines the test measurand, the required test

conditions and a decision rule

Note 1 to entry: The test protocol is defined either by relevant standards or – when none is available – by the

tester or the tester counterpart (3.14).

Note 2 to entry: The tester and the tester counterpart are to agree upon the test protocol prior to the test.

Note 3 to entry: A default decision rule is given in ISO 14253-1. See ISO/TR 14253-6 for guidance in defining

alternative decision rules.

Note 4 to entry: An unambiguous test protocol is crucial for the effectiveness of a test. In particular, the

definition of the set of permissible test instances constitutes a trade-off between thoroughness and practical and

economical viability of the test.

Note 5 to entry: As the default rule in ISO 14253-1 is stringent and conservative, in this case the verification

approaches a proof in an absolute sense.
3.6
measured test indication

result of a measurement performed in a test, which contributes to the test value according to a test

operator

Note 1 to entry: A test value may be based either on a single or on multiple measured test indications, as stipulated

in the test protocol.
3.7
test operator

predefined sequence of mathematical and/or statistical operations applied to the measured test

indication(s) collected in the test to deliver a test value

Note 1 to entry: Each test value is delivered according to a test operator. In the case of a test yielding multiple test

values (see 3.8 Note 4 to entry), as many test operators are needed.

Note 2 to entry: The operations in the sequence can be divided in four broad categories: outlier rejection, noise

reduction, statistics, and other mathematical operations.

— Examples of outlier rejection: (1) discarding measured test indications above the 99th percentile of the

measured test indications collected in the test; (2) when no more than 2 % of the measured test indications

causes failure to meet the specification, repeating those measurement three times.

— Examples of noise reduction: (1) taking the median of repeated measurement values; (2) performing a

(spatial) frequency analysis and discarding all wavelengths above a predefined threshold.

— Examples of statistics: taking (1) the mean or (2) the maximum of the absolute values of the measured test

indications collected in the test.

— Examples of other mathematical operations: (1) computing a Gaussian (best-fit) sphere associated to the

coordinates obtained as measured test indications, and the individual distances of each measured test indication

to the sphere centre; (2) computing the mean of the measured test indications taken in a scan over a line.

3.8
test value
quantity value measured in a test estimating the magnitude of a test measurand

Note 1 to entry: A test value is based on the measured test indication(s) and is derived according to the test operator.

Note 2 to entry: A test value cannot usually capture the performance of an indicating measuring instrument in

full, because is limited as regulated by the test protocol.

Note 3 to entry: A test value may be derived from several measured test indications, according to the test operator.

© ISO 2015 – All rights reserved 3
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SIST EN ISO 14253-5:2015
ISO 14253-5:2015(E)

Note 4 to entry: A test may yield more than a test value. For example, a test may address several metrological

characteristics of an indicating measuring instrument for which MPE’s are set, resulting in as many test values.

Note 5 to entry: Figure 1 depicts the case of a test with a single MPE. When more are present in a test, items 3 to

7 are repeated for each MPE.

Note 6 to entry: There may be cases when no MPE is set to compare with. Possible examples are when a dismissed

indicating measuring instrument is being reintegrated, or when an MPE originally stated in the data sheet is

being adapted to the actual requirements of a company prior to reverification testing. In these cases, items 5 to 7

are missing, and the test terminates with the determination of the test value(s).

Figure 1 — Schematic of a test
3.9
test value uncertainty
test uncertainty
measurement uncertainty associated to a test value

Note 1 to entry: The test value uncertainty is not a measure of the performance of the indicating measuring

instrument under test; the performance is captured by the test values.

Note 2 to entry: The test value uncertainty is commonly used in the application of decision rules.

Note 3 to entry: The test value uncertainty is usually controlled by and is the responsibility of the tester, who

usually provides and uses the test equipment. See 7.4 when alternative test equipment is provided by the tester

counterpart (3.14).

Note 4 to entry: The test value uncertainty does not include any definitional uncertainty due to possible non

uniqueness of test values in a permissible test instance. By agreement on the test protocol, the test is valid for

any permissible test instance, for each of which a unique test measurand applies (see 3.4 Note 1 to entry).

Note 5 to entry: The test value uncertainty reveals neither the effectiveness of a test protocol in assessing a

metrological characteristic, nor the reproducibility of a test value over different permissible test instances.

4 © ISO 2015 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 14253-5:2015
ISO 14253-5:2015(E)
3.10
test equipment

measuring system and its accessories used in a test, other than the indicating measuring instruments

under test and its recognized accessories

EXAMPLE 1 In the test of a micrometer, the test equipment may be a set of gauge blocks.

EXAMPLE 2 In the test of a CMM, the test equipment may be calibrated test lengths and a calibrated sphere

with their supports.
3.11
instrument-related input quantity

input quantity affecting a test value, associated with the indicating measuring instrument

EXAMPLE 1 The distributed temperature – and its spatial and temporal gradients – of the indicating

measuring instrument.

EXAMPLE 2 The distributed strain due to deformation of the indicating measuring instrument induced by the

load of the test equipment weight.
3.12
test equipment-related input quantity
input quantity affecting a test value, associated with the test equipment

EXAMPLE 1 The distributed temperature – and its spatial and temporal gradients – of the test equipment.

EXAMPLE 2 Displacement of the test equipment relative to the indicating measuring inst

...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
kSIST FprEN ISO 14253-5:2015
01-junij-2015
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Geometrical product specifications (GPS) - Inspection by measurement of workpieces

and measuring equipment - Part 5: Uncertainty in testing indicating measuring
instruments (ISO/FDIS 14253-5:2015)

Geometrische Produktspezifikation (GPS) - Prüfung von Werkstücken und Messgeräten

durch Messen - Teil 5: Unsicherheit bei der Verifizierungsprüfung von anzeigenden

Messgeräten (ISO/FDIS 14253-5:2015)

Spécification géométrique des produits (GPS) - Vérification par la mesure des pièces et

des équipements de mesure - Partie 5: Incertitude dans les essais des instruments de

mesure d'indication (ISO/FDIS 14253-5:2015)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: FprEN ISO 14253-5
ICS:
17.040.30 Merila Measuring instruments
kSIST FprEN ISO 14253-5:2015 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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kSIST FprEN ISO 14253-5:2015
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kSIST FprEN ISO 14253-5:2015
FINAL
INTERNATIONAL ISO/FDIS
DRAFT
STANDARD 14253-5
ISO/TC 213
Geometrical product specifications
Secretariat: DS
(GPS) — Inspection by measurement
Voting begins
on: 201 5-04-09 of workpieces and measuring
equipment —
Voting terminates
on: 201 5-06-09
Part 5:
Uncertainty in testing indicating
measuring instruments
Spécification géométrique des produits (GPS) — Vérification par la
mesure des pièces et des équipements de mesure —
Partie 5: Incertitude liée aux essais de vérification des instruments de
mesure indicateurs
Please see the administrative notes on page iii
RECIPIENTS OF THIS DRAFT ARE INVITED TO
SUBMIT, WITH THEIR COMMENTS, NOTIFICATION
OF ANY RELEVANT PATENT RIGHTS OF WHICH
THEY ARE AWARE AND TO PROVIDE SUPPORTING
DOCUMENTATION.
IN ADDITION TO THEIR EVALUATION AS
Reference number
BEING ACCEPTABLE FOR INDUSTRIAL, TECHNO-
ISO/FDIS 14253-5:2015(E)
LOGICAL, COMMERCIAL AND USER PURPOSES,
DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS MAY ON
OCCASION HAVE TO BE CONSIDERED IN THE
LIGHT OF THEIR POTENTIAL TO BECOME STAN-
DARDS TO WHICH REFERENCE MAY BE MADE IN
NATIONAL REGULATIONS. ISO 2015
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kSIST FprEN ISO 14253-5:2015
ISO/FDIS 14253-5:2015(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2015

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

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Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2015 – All rights reserved
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kSIST FprEN ISO 14253-5:2015
ISO/FDIS 14253-5:2015(E)
ISO/CEN PARALLEL PROCESSING

This final draft has been developed within the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), and pro-

cessed under the ISO-lead mode of collaboration as defined in the Vienna Agreement. The final draft was

established on the basis of comments received during a parallel enquiry on the draft.

This final draft is hereby submitted to the ISO member bodies and to the CEN member bodies for a parallel

two-month approval vote in ISO and formal vote in CEN.
Positive votes shall not be accompanied by comments.
Negative votes shall be accompanied by the relevant technical reasons.
© ISO 2015 – All rights reserved iii
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kSIST FprEN ISO 14253-5:2015
ISO/FDIS 14253-5:2015(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4 General ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 6

5 Test measurand...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

5.2 Input quantities and test measurand definition ........................................................................................................ 7

6 Tester responsibility criterion ............................................................................................................................................................... 9

7 Specific issues in testing indicating measuring instruments ..............................................................................11

7.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................11

7.2 Errors of the indicating measuring instrument.......................................................................................................11

7.3 Errors in user-provided quantity values .......................................................................................................................11

7.4 Using alternative test equipment .........................................................................................................................................12

Annex A (informative) Guidance on using alternative test equipment .........................................................................14

Annex B (informative) Relation to the GPS matrix model ...........................................................................................................16

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................18

iv © ISO 2015 – All rights reserved
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kSIST FprEN ISO 14253-5:2015
ISO/FDIS 14253-5:2015(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of any

patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or on

the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to conformity

assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the WTO principles in the Technical Barriers

to Trade (TBT) see the following URL: Foreword - Supplementary information

The committee responsible for this document is ISO/TC 213, Dimensional and geometrical product

specifications and verifications.

ISO 14253 consists of the following parts, under the general title Geometrical product specifications

(GPS) — Inspection by measurement of workpieces and measuring equipment:

— Part 1: Decision rules for proving conformity or nonconformity with specifications

— Part 2: Guide to the estimation of uncertainty in GPS measurement, in calibration of measuring

equipment and in product verification

— Part 3: Guidelines for achieving agreements on measurement uncertainty statements

— Part 4: Background on functional limits and specification limits in decision rules

— Part 5: Uncertainty in verification testing of indicating measuring instruments

— Part 6: Generalized decision rules for the acceptance and rejection of instruments and workpieces

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kSIST FprEN ISO 14253-5:2015
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Introduction

This part of ISO 14253 belongs to the general geometrical product specification (GPS) series of documents

(see ISO 14638). It influences chain link F of the chains of standards on size, distance, form, orientation

and run-out in the general GPS matrix.

The ISO/GPS matrix model given in ISO 14638 gives an overview of the ISO/GPS system of which this

international standard is a part. The fundamental rules of ISO/GPS given in ISO 8015 apply to this part of

ISO 14253 and the default decision rules given in ISO 14253-1 apply to specifications made in accordance

with this part of ISO 14253, unless otherwise indicated.

For more detailed information about the relationship of this part of ISO 14253 to other standards and to

the GPS matrix model, see Annex B.

Decision rules for deciding conformity or non-conformity to specifications are based on the measurement

uncertainty incurred while testing.

Usual practice in measurement familiarizes metrologists and practitioners with measurement

uncertainty. Any possible effect that may affect the measurement result is considered and quantified

as an uncertainty component and is eventually included in the combined uncertainty. The purpose

of the measurement is to gather quantitative information on a given measurand, and the uncertainty

statement expresses how reliable that information is.

In the case of tests of indicating measuring instruments, the purpose of the measurement is to investigate

one or more metrological characteristics of the indicating measuring instrument rather than to measure

characteristics of features of a workpiece. The uncertainty being evaluated in this case, the test value

uncertainty, quantifies the accuracy of the test value. The test detects the quality of the indicating

measuring instrument, reported through the test values and not through the test value uncertainty.

The test value uncertainty for indicating measuring instruments is not conceptually trivial to evaluate,

and careful consideration is necessary to determine which uncertainty components should and which

should not be accounted for.

Some tests of indicating measuring instruments may be relative to quantities other than instrument

indications, or a single test may investigate both the instrument indication(s) and other metrological

characteristics. An example is a test of a micrometer investigating the indication error (subject to an MPE)

as well as the measuring force (subject to an MPL). For tests, or portions of them, relative to metrological

characteristics other than instrument indications, this part of ISO 14253 is not applicable: they are

about quantities for which the application of the ISO/IEC Guide 98-3 (GUM) and of the ISO 14253-2 is

conceptually straightforward, with no need of further guidance in this part of ISO 14253.

A rigorous definition of the test value uncertainty when testing indicating measuring instruments is

given. Application of conventional uncertainty evaluation based on this definition and according to the

ISO/IEC Guide 98-3 (GUM) and the ISO 14253-2 determines which uncertainty components to account for.

vi © ISO 2015 – All rights reserved
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kSIST FprEN ISO 14253-5:2015
FINAL DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/FDIS 14253-5:2015(E)
Geometrical product specifications (GPS) — Inspection by
measurement of workpieces and measuring equipment —
Part 5:
Uncertainty in testing indicating measuring instruments
1 Scope

This part of ISO 14253 specifies concepts and terms for evaluating the uncertainties of the test values

derived according to a test protocol agreed upon by the parties and relative to instrument indication(s),

obtained in verification testing of GPS indicating measuring instruments.

NOTE The uncertainty of the test values, referred to as test value uncertainty, is not to be confused with the

measurement uncertainty associated with using that indicating measuring instrument to measure workpieces.

The former only is covered in this part of ISO 14253; for guidance on the latter see the ISO/IEC Guide 98-3 (GUM)

and ISO 14253-2.

When a test of an indicating measuring instrument comprises several test values, some relative to the

instrument indication and some to other metrological characteristics, this part of ISO 14253 is concerned

with the uncertainty of the former only.

This part of ISO 14253 does not provide guidelines to ensure the adequacy of a test protocol; rather, once

a test protocol is given, it describes how to evaluate the consequent test value uncertainty.

2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 10360-1:2000, Geometrical Product Specifications (GPS) — Acceptance and reverification tests for

coordinate measuring machines (CMM) — Part 1: Vocabulary

ISO 14253-1:2013, Geometrical product specifications (GPS) — Inspection by measurement of workpieces and

measuring equipment — Part 1: Decision rules for proving conformity or nonconformity with specifications

ISO/TR 14253-6:2012, Geometrical product specifications (GPS) — Inspection by measurement of

workpieces and measuring equipment — Part 6: Generalized decision rules for the acceptance and rejection

of instruments and workpieces

ISO 14978:2006, Geometrical product specifications (GPS) — General concepts and requirements for GPS

measuring equipment

ISO 17450-2:2012, Geometrical product specifications (GPS) — General concepts — Part 2: Basic tenets,

specifications, operators, uncertainties and ambiguities

ISO/IEC Guide 98-3:2008, Uncertainty of measurement — Part 3: Guide to the expression of uncertainty in

measurement (GUM:1995)

ISO/IEC Guide 99:2007, International vocabulary of metrology — Basic and general concepts and

associated terms (VIM)
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3 Terms and definitions

For the purpose of this document, the definitions given in ISO 10360-1, ISO 14253-1, ISO/TR 14253-6,

ISO 14978, ISO 17450-2, ISO/IEC Guide 98-3 (GUM), ISO/IEC Guide 99 (VIM), and the following apply.

3.1
test (of a GPS indicating measuring instrument)

sequence of preparatory, measurement, mathematical and decisional actions according to a test protocol

Note 1 to entry: Not all steps in the sequence are necessarily present in a test protocol.

Note 2 to entry: Tests are often used to verify the specifications of a GPS indicating measuring instrument.

Note 3 to entry: The specification of an indicating measuring instrument may be expressed by one or more MPEs

(Maximum Permissible Errors).

Note 4 to entry: Prominent cases of tests are the acceptance test and the reverification test.

Note 5 to entry: This term is sometimes used in a wider sense, encompassing cases when a test produces, e.g.

a binary or categorical result. An example of a binary assessment is determining whether or not a software

algorithm converged. For the purpose of this part of ISO 14253, tests are restricted to those based on test values.

Note 6 to entry: See Figure 1.
3.2
test instance

combination of test equipment, set up, measurement sequence, environmental and instrumental

conditions of a test, which yields a test value(s)
3.3
permissible test instance

test instance in compliance with the test protocol, and with the alternatives and stipulations therein

Note 1 to entry: An alternative occurs when the test protocol allows options, either discrete among enumerated

cases, or continuous in a range of permissible values. An example of the former is the choice of the test equipment,

e.g. a gauge block or a step gauge for testing a CMM; an example of the latter is the ambient temperature within

the required test conditions.

Note 2 to entry: A stipulation occurs when the test protocol specifies the amount of measurement in a test, e.g. a

specific number of repeated measurements.

Note 3 to entry: A test may be subject to alternatives and stipulations at the same time. For instance, test

equipment is applied to an indicating measuring instrument in a limited number of configurations (stipulation)

chosen at the tester counterpart’s discretion (alternative).

Note 4 to entry: Alternatives serve two purposes. (1) To accommodate to actual conditions. For instance,

alternative test equipment to accommodate actual availability, or any environmental condition within the required

test conditions to accommodate the actual testing environment. (2) To leave details of the test unspecified up to

the time of testing, to encourage the indicating measuring instrument manufacturer – in order to avoid non-

acceptance of the instrument – to deliver overall compliant indicating measuring instruments. For instance, some

procedural details may be left to the tester counterpart to decide at the time of testing, to force the manufacturer

to deliver a compliant indicating measuring instrument for any possible procedural option.

3.4
test measurand

metrological characteristic of an indicating measuring instrument intended to be verified in a test,

based on a single permissible test instance, defined by a test protocol

Note 1 to entry: A test protocol may allow for multiple permissible test instances, to adapt to actual circumstances

and to limit the experimental effort. The test measurand is defined for each single test instance, and different

permissible test instances may give raise to different test measurands.
2 © ISO 2015 – All rights reserved
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3.5
test protocol

predefined detailed specification of a test which defines the test measurand, the required test conditions

and a decision rule

Note 1 to entry: The test protocol is defined either by relevant standards or – when none is available – by the

tester or the tester counterpart.

Note 2 to entry: The tester and the tester counterpart are to agree upon the test protocol prior to the test.

Note 3 to entry: A default decision rule is given in ISO 14253-1. See ISO/TR 14253-6 for guidance in defining

alternative decision rules.

Note 4 to entry: An unambiguous test protocol is crucial for the effectiveness of a test. In particular, the definition

of the set of permissible test instances constitutes a trade-off between thoroughness and practical and economical

viability of the test.

Note 5 to entry: As the default rule in ISO 14253-1 is stringent and conservative, in this case the verification

approaches a proof in an absolute sense.
3.6
measured test indication

result of a measurement performed in a test, which contributes to the test value according to a test operator

Note 1 to entry: A test value may be based either on a single or on multiple measured test indications, as stipulated

in the test protocol.
3.7
test operator

predefined sequence of mathematical and/or statistical operations applied to the measured test

indication(s) collected in the test to deliver a test value

Note 1 to entry: Each test value is delivered according to a test operator. In the case of a test yielding multiple test

values (see 3.8 Note 4 to entry), as many test operators are needed.

Note 2 to entry: The operations in the sequence can be divided in four broad categories: outlier rejection, noise

reduction, statistics, and other mathematical operations.

— Examples of outlier rejection: (1) discarding measured test indications above the 99th percentile of the

measured test indications collected in the test; (2) when no more than 2 % of the measured test indications

causes failure to meet the specification, repeating those measurement three times.

— Examples of noise reduction: (1) taking the median of repeated measurement values; (2) performing a

(spatial) frequency analysis and discarding all wavelengths above a predefined threshold.

— Examples of statistics: taking (1) the mean or (2) the maximum of the absolute values of the measured test

indications collected in the test.

— Examples of other mathematical operations: (1) computing a Gaussian (best-fit) sphere associated to the

coordinates obtained as measured test indications, and the individual distances of each measured test indication

to the sphere centre; (2) computing the mean of the measured test indications taken in a scan over a line.

3.8
test value
quantity value measured in a test estimating the magnitude of a test measurand

Note 1 to entry: A test value is based on the measured test indication(s) and is derived according to the test operator.

Note 2 to entry: A test value cannot usually capture the performance of an indicating measuring instrument in

full, because is limited as regulated by the test protocol.

Note 3 to entry: A test value may be derived from several measured test indications, according to the test operator.

Note 4 to entry: A test may yield more than a test value. For example, a test may address several metrological

characteristics of an indicating measuring instrument for which MPE’s are set, resulting in as many test values.

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kSIST FprEN ISO 14253-5:2015
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Note 5 to entry: Figure 1 depicts the case of a test with a single MPE. When more are present in a test, items 3 to

7 are repeated for each MPE.

Note 6 to entry: There may be cases when no MPE is set to compare with. Possible examples are when a dismissed

indicating measuring instrument is being reintegrated, or when an MPE originally stated in the data sheet is

being adapted to the actual requirements of a company prior to reverification testing. In these cases, items 5 to 7

are missing, and the test terminates with the determination of the test value(s).

Figure 1 — Schematic of a test
3.9
test value uncertainty
test uncertainty measurement uncertainty associated to a test value

Note 1 to entry: The test value uncertainty is not a measure of the performance of the indicating measuring

instrument under test; the performance is captured by the test values.

Note 2 to entry: The test value uncertainty is commonly used in the application of decision rules.

Note 3 to entry: The test value uncertainty is usually controlled by and is the responsibility of the tester, who usually

provides and uses the test equipment. See 7.4 when alternative test equipment is provided by the tester counterpart.

Note 4 to entry: The test value uncertainty does not include any definitional uncertainty due to possible non

uniqueness of test values in a permissible test instance. By agreement on the test protocol, the test is valid for any

permissible test instance, for each of which a unique test measurand applies (see 3.4 Note 1 to entry).

Note 5 to entry: The test value uncertainty reveals neither the effectiveness of a test protocol in assessing a

metrological characteristic, nor the reproducibility of a test value over different permissible test instances.

3.10
test equipment

measuring system and its accessories used in a test, other than the indicating measuring instruments

under test and its recognized accessories

EXAMPLE 1 In the test of a micrometer, the test equipment may be a set of gauge blocks.

EXAMPLE 2 In the test of a CMM, the test equipment may be calibrated test lengths and a calibrated sphere

with their supports.
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ISO/FDIS 14253-5:2015(E)
3.11
instrument-related input quantity

input quantity affecting a test value, associated with the indicating measuring instrument

EXAMPLE 1 The distributed temperature – and its spatial and temporal gradients – of the indicating

measuring instrument.

EXAMPLE 2 The distributed strain due to deformation of the indicating measuring instrument induced by the

load of the test equipment weight.
3.12
test equipment-related input quantity
input quantity affecting a test value, associated with the test equipment

EXAMPLE 1 The distributed temperature – and its spatial and temporal gradients – of the test equipment.

EXAMPLE 2 Displacement of the test equipment relative to the indicating measuring instrument occurring

during the test (drift and rock), and strain of the test equipment due to fixturing.

Note 1 to entry: While testing indicating measuring instruments, the usual roles in measurement of the indicating

measuring instruments and of the workpieces are reversed (what measures what, see the Introduction).

Typically, for workpiece measurements, a known accuracy indicating measuring instrument measures an

unknown characteristic of the workpiece. But in this part of ISO 14253, known accuracy test equipment is used to

measure test values of unknown accuracy indicating measuring instrument. In light of this, the test equipment-

related input quantities are influence quantities (see VIM 2.52 , EXAMPLE 3), while the instrument-related input

quantities are not.
3.13
tester
party who performs a verification test
3.14
tester counterpart
party in a test other than the tester

Note 1 to entry: In an acceptance test, the tester counterpart may be either the customer or the supplier, possibly

represented by a third party.

Note 2 to entry: In a reverification test, the tester counterpart is the user, possibly represented by a third party.

3.15
tester responsibility criterion

criterion according to which an input quantity is accounted for as a test value uncertainty component if

and only if it is controlled by the tester, either directly or indirectly

Note 1 to entry: Examples of uncertainty components under the tester’s direct control are the thermal stabilization

and the set up of the test equipment.

Note 2 to entry: Examples of uncertainty components under the tester’s indirect control are the calibration

uncertainties of the test equipment: even if these values are determined by calibration laboratories and not by

the tester, the tester controls them indirectly by selecting which equipment, when alternatives are allowed, and

which calibration laboratory.
3.16
user-provided quantity value

quantity value provided by the user of an indicating measuring instrument in normal operation,

necessary for the indicating measuring instrument to perform as designed

Note 1 to entry: Indicating measuring instruments use user-provided quantity values to compensate for

predicted systematic effects, e.g. a user-provided CTE (Coefficient of Thermal Expansion) of the material of the

workpiece/artefact is used to compensate for its thermal expansion.

Note 2 to entry: Not all indicating measuring instruments require user-provided quantity values.

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kSIST FprEN ISO 14253-5:2015
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Note 3 to entry: A default value may be assigned to a user-provided quantity value, and a user may even not

−6 −1
realize the default occurring. For example,
...

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