Measurement of fluid flow in closed conduits - Guidance for the use of electromagnetic flowmeters for conductive liquids (ISO 20456:2017)

ISO 20456:2017 applies to industrial electromagnetic flowmeters used for the measurement of flowrate of a conductive liquid in a closed conduit running full. It covers flowmeter types utilizing both alternating current (AC) and pulsed direct current (DC) circuits to drive the field coils and meters running from a mains power supply and those operating from batteries or other sources of power.
ISO 20456:2017 is not applicable to insertion-type flowmeters or electromagnetic flowmeters designed to work in open channels or pipes running partially full, nor does it apply to the measurement of magnetically permeable slurries or liquid metal applications.
ISO 20456:2017 does not specify safety requirements in relation to hazardous environmental usage of the flowmeter.

Messung des Durchflusses in geschlossenen Leitungen - Richtlinie für den Einsatz von elektromagnetischen Durchflussmessgeräten für konduktive Fluide (ISO 20456:2017)

Dieses Dokument gilt für industrielle elektromagnetische Durchflussmessgeräte, die zur Messung des Durch¬flusses einer leitfähigen Flüssigkeit in einer geschlossenen, volldurchströmten Leitung eingesetzt werden. Es erfasst Durchflussmessgerätearten, die sowohl Wechselstrom  (AC) als auch gepulste Gleichstromkreise (DC) verwenden, um die Feldspulen anzusteuern, und Messgeräte, die über ein Netz betrieben werden, und solche, die mit Batterien oder anderen Energiequellen betrieben werden.
Dieses Dokument gilt nicht für Einsteck Durchflussmessgeräte oder elektromagnetische Durchflussmess¬geräte, die für das Arbeiten in offenen Gerinnen oder Rohren ausgelegt sind, die teilweise durchströmt sind, und auch nicht für die Messung von magnetisch permeablen Schlämmen oder Flüssigmetallanwendungen.
Dieses Dokument legt keine Sicherheitsanforderungen in Bezug auf den Einsatz des Durchflussmessgerätes in gefährlichen Umgebungen fest.

Mesurage du débit des fluides dans les conduites fermées - Lignes directrices pour l'utilisation des débitmètres électromagnétiques dans les liquides conducteurs (ISO 20456:2017)

Le présent document s'applique aux débitmètres électromagnétiques industriels utilisés pour mesurer le débit d'un liquide conducteur dans une conduite fermée remplie. Il traite des types de débitmètres utilisant à la fois des circuits à courant alternatif (CA) et à courant continu (CC) pulsé pour entraîner les bobines de champs et les débitmètres branchés sur secteur ainsi que ceux fonctionnant sur batteries ou d'autres sources d'énergie.
Le présent document n'est pas applicable aux débitmètres à insertion ou aux débitmètres électromagnétiques conçus pour fonctionner dans des canalisations ou des conduites ouvertes partiellement remplies, ni au mesurage de pâtes magnétiquement perméables ou aux applications de métal liquide.
Le présent document ne spécifie aucune exigence de sécurité applicable à l'utilisation environnementale dangereuse du débitmètre.

Merjenje pretoka fluida v zaprtih vodih - Navodilo za uporabo elektromagnetnih pretočnih meril za prevodne tekočine (ISO 20456:2017)

Standard ISO 20456:2017 se uporablja za industrijska elektromagnetna pretočna merila, ki se uporabljajo za merjenje pretoka prevodne tekočine v polno zapolnjenem zaprtem cevovodu. Obravnava vrste pretočnih meril, ki uporabljajo izmenični (AC) in pulzirajoči enosmerni (DC) tokokrog za poganjanje vzbujalne tuljave in merilnikov, ki se napajajo iz omrežnega napajanja, in tistih, ki delujejo na baterije ali druge vire napajanja. Standard ISO 20456:2017 se ne uporablja za vstavljiva pretočna merila ali elektromagnetna pretočna merila, zasnovana za delovanje v odprtih delno zapolnjenih kanalih ali ceveh, prav tako se ne uporablja za merjenje magnetno prepustnih brozg ali tekočih kovin. Standard ISO 20456:2017 ne določa varnostnih zahtev v zvezi z okolju nevarno uporabo pretočnega merila.

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
02-Jun-2019
Publication Date
05-Nov-2019
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
04-Nov-2019
Due Date
09-Jan-2020
Completion Date
06-Nov-2019

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 20456:2019
01-december-2019
Nadomešča:
SIST EN 29104:2001
SIST EN ISO 6817:1997
Merjenje pretoka fluida v zaprtih vodih - Navodilo za uporabo elektromagnetnih
pretočnih meril za prevodne tekočine (ISO 20456:2017)

Measurement of fluid flow in closed conduits - Guidance for the use of electromagnetic

flowmeters for conductive liquids (ISO 20456:2017)

Messung des Durchflusses in geschlossenen Leitungen - Richtlinie für den Einsatz von

elektromagnetischen Durchflussmessgeräten für konduktive Fluide (ISO 20456:2017)

Mesurage du débit des fluides dans les conduites fermées - Lignes directrices pour

l'utilisation des débitmètres électromagnétiques dans les liquides conducteurs (ISO

20456:2017)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 20456:2019
ICS:
17.120.10 Pretok v zaprtih vodih Flow in closed conduits
SIST EN ISO 20456:2019 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN ISO 20456:2019
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SIST EN ISO 20456:2019
EN ISO 20456
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
October 2019
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 17.120.10 Supersedes EN 29104:1993, EN ISO 6817:1995
English Version
Measurement of fluid flow in closed conduits - Guidance
for the use of electromagnetic flowmeters for conductive
liquids (ISO 20456:2017)

Mesurage du débit des fluides dans les conduites Messung des Durchflusses in geschlossenen Leitungen

fermées - Lignes directrices pour l'utilisation des - Richtlinie für den Einsatz von elektromagnetischen

débitmètres électromagnétiques dans les liquides Durchflussmessgeräten für konduktive Fluide (ISO

conducteurs (ISO 20456:2017) 20456:2017)
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 26 August 2019.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2019 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 20456:2019 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN ISO 20456:2019
EN ISO 20456:2019 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

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SIST EN ISO 20456:2019
EN ISO 20456:2019 (E)
European foreword

The text of ISO 20456:2017 has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 30 "Measurement of

fluid flow in closed conduits” of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and has been

taken over as EN ISO 20456:2019 by CCMC.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by April 2020, and conflicting national standards shall be

withdrawn at the latest by April 2020.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document supersedes EN 29104:1993 and EN ISO 6817:1995.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland,

Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of

North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the

United Kingdom.
Endorsement notice

The text of ISO 20456:2017 has been approved by CEN as EN ISO 20456:2019 without any modification.

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SIST EN ISO 20456:2019
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SIST EN ISO 20456:2019
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 20456
First edition
2017-09
Measurement of fluid flow in closed
conduits — Guidance for the use
of electromagnetic flowmeters for
conductive liquids
Mesurage du débit des fluides dans les conduites fermées — Lignes
directrices pour l'utilisation des débitmètres électromagnétiques dans
les liquides conducteurs
Reference number
ISO 20456:2017(E)
ISO 2017
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SIST EN ISO 20456:2019
ISO 20456:2017(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2017, Published in Switzerland

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

the requester.
ISO copyright office
Ch. de Blandonnet 8 • CP 401
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva, Switzerland
Tel. +41 22 749 01 11
Fax +41 22 749 09 47
copyright@iso.org
www.iso.org
ii © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 20456:2019
ISO 20456:2017(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Symbols .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5 Theory and basic formulae ........................................................................................................................................................................ 4

6 Construction and principle of operation ..................................................................................................................................... 4

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

6.2 Sensor ............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 5

6.3 Transmitter ................................................................................................................................................................................................ 7

6.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

6.3.2 Alternating magnetic field in the measuring system ........................................................................ 7

6.3.3 Measuring system with applied pulsed DC excitation (simplified model) .................... 7

6.3.4 Measuring system with applied AC excitation (simplified model) ....................................... 8

6.4 Flowmeter/Transmitter output ............................................................................................................................................... 9

7 Equipment marking .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

7.1 Recommended data ............................................................................................................................................................................ 9

7.1.1 Sensor ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 9

7.1.2 Transmitter ........................................................................................................................................................................10

8 Installation design and practice ........................................................................................................................................................10

8.1 Sensor ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................10

8.1.1 Sizing .......................................................................................................................................................................................10

8.1.2 Mounting conditions .................................................................................................................................................11

8.1.3 Potential equalization — General requirements...............................................................................12

8.1.4 Electrical connections ..............................................................................................................................................13

8.1.5 Sensor mounting ...........................................................................................................................................................13

8.1.6 Installation dimensions for flanged connections ..............................................................................14

8.2 Transmitter location .......................................................................................................................................................................15

8.3 Operational considerations .......................................................................................................................................................16

8.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................16

8.3.2 Effect of the liquid conductivity .......................................................................................................................16

8.3.3 Reynolds number effect ..........................................................................................................................................16

8.3.4 Velocity profile effect.................................................................................................................................................16

9 Flowmeter calibration, validation, and verification .....................................................................................................16

9.1 Flowmeter calibration ...................................................................................................................................................................16

9.2 Flowmeter verification (in-situ electronic verification) .................................................................................. 16

10 Evaluation of flowmeter performance ........................................................................................................................................17

10.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................17

10.2 Applications within the scope of other standards.................................................................................................17

11 Uncertainty analysis ......................................................................................................................................................................................17

Annex A (informative) Materials for construction of sensors .................................................................................................19

Annex B (informative) Practical considerations for measuring system with AC and DC excitation 22

Annex C (informative) Cathodic protection ................................................................................................................................................23

Annex D (informative) Conversion of nominal diameters from metric to US units ..........................................24

Annex E (informative) Manufacturers' accuracy specifications............................................................................................25

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................29

© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved iii
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SIST EN ISO 20456:2019
ISO 20456:2017(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following

URL: www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 30, Measurement of fluid flow in closed

conduits, Subcommittee SC 5, Velocity and mass methods.

This first edition of ISO 20456 cancels and replaces ISO 6817:1992, ISO 9104:1991 and ISO 13359:1998,

which has been technically revised.
iv © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 20456:2019
ISO 20456:2017(E)
Introduction

Clauses 3 to 7 cover the definitions, symbols and basic theory of electromagnetic flowmeters. This

document does not cover insertion type meters, partially filled meters or meters for non-conductive

and highly conductive fluids.

Clause 8 covers installation types and practice, the different types of meter construction, transmitters, lay

lengths and sizing, in order to achieve the best performance of the electromagnetic flowmeter in the field.

Clauses 9 to 11 cover some methods of calibration, verification, evaluation, and uncertainty analysis,

which can be useful for users or independent testing establishments to verify manufacturer’s relative

performance and to demonstrate suitability of application

The tests specified in this document are not necessarily sufficient for instruments specifically designed

for unusually difficult duties. Conversely, a restricted series of tests may be suitable for instruments

designed to perform within a limited range of conditions.
This document is for users and manufacturers.
© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved v
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SIST EN ISO 20456:2019
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SIST EN ISO 20456:2019
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 20456:2017(E)
Measurement of fluid flow in closed conduits —
Guidance for the use of electromagnetic flowmeters for
conductive liquids
1 Scope

This document applies to industrial electromagnetic flowmeters used for the measurement of flowrate

of a conductive liquid in a closed conduit running full. It covers flowmeter types utilizing both

alternating current (AC) and pulsed direct current (DC) circuits to drive the field coils and meters

running from a mains power supply and those operating from batteries or other sources of power.

This document is not applicable to insertion-type flowmeters or electromagnetic flowmeters designed

to work in open channels or pipes running partially full, nor does it apply to the measurement of

magnetically permeable slurries or liquid metal applications.

This document does not specify safety requirements in relation to hazardous environmental usage of

the flowmeter.
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
— ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
3.1
electromagnetic flowmeter

flowmeter which creates a magnetic field perpendicular to the direction of flow, so enabling the

flowrate to be deduced from the induced voltage, U , produced by the motion of a conducting fluid

through the magnetic field

Note 1 to entry: The electromagnetic flowmeter consists of a sensor (3.2) and a transmitter (3.3).

3.2
sensor
device containing at least the following elements:

— an electrically insulating meter tube through which the conductive fluid to be measured flows;

— one pair of electrodes across which the signal generated in the fluid is measured;

— an electromagnet for producing a magnetic field in the meter tube (3.4)

Note 1 to entry: The sensor produces a signal proportional to the flowrate and, in some cases, a reference signal

(3.9). See 6.2.

Note 2 to entry: For a sensor, the wording primary device or flowtube has previously been used.

© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved 1
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SIST EN ISO 20456:2019
ISO 20456:2017(E)

Note 3 to entry: In some cases, further electrodes are used such as grounding electrodes, full pipe detection

electrodes (empty pipe detection) (see 3.5).
3.3
transmitter

equipment which contains the circuitry which drives the field coils and extracts the flow signal

Note 1 to entry: This equipment may be mounted directly onto the sensor (3.2) or remotely, connected to the

sensor by a cable.

Note 2 to entry: For a transmitter, the wording secondary device, converter or electronic unit has previously

been used.
3.4
meter tube

pipe section of the sensor (3.2) through which the liquid flows, at least part of whose inner surface is

electrically insulating
3.5
measuring electrodes

one or more pairs of electrical contacts or capacitor plates by means of which the induced voltage is

detected
3.6
lower range value
lowest value of the measured variable that a device is set to measure
3.7
upper range value
highest value of the measured variable that a device is set to measure
3.8
span
difference between the upper and lower range values (3.6)
3.9
reference signal

signal which is proportional to the magnetic flux created in the sensor (3.2) and which is compared in

the transmitter (3.3) with the flow signal
3.10
output signal
signal from the transmitter (3.3) which is a function of the flowrate
3.11
Reynolds number

dimensionless parameter expressing the ratio between the inertial and the viscous forces

Note 1 to entry: For closed pipe flow through an electromagnetic flowmeter (3.1), Reynolds number should be

based on the nominal diameter of the meter and corresponding mean velocity through a section of that size.

3.12
accuracy

closeness of the agreement between the result of a measurement and the (conventional) true value of

the measurement

Note 1 to entry: The quantitative expression of accuracy should be in terms of uncertainty (see Annex E).

Note 2 to entry: The use of the term precision for accuracy should be avoided.
2 © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 20456:2019
ISO 20456:2017(E)
3.13
uncertainty

range within which the true value of the measured quantity can be expected to lie

with a specified value and confidence level
Note 1 to entry: See Clause 11.
3.14
calibration factor

number, determined by liquid calibration, that enables the output signal (3.10) to be related to the

volumetric flowrate
3.15
calibration

operation that, under specified conditions, in a first step, establishes a relation between the quantity

values with measurement uncertainties provided by measurement standards and corresponding

indications with associated measurement uncertainties and, in a second step, uses this information to

establish a relation for obtaining a measurement result from an indication
3.16
verification

means of verifying that an electromagnetic flowmeter (3.1) is operating

correctly, normally with a poorer uncertainty than under controlled laboratory conditions

3.17
calibration validation

number of runs (one or more) at flowrates between zero and the upper range value (3.7) in order to

verify that the flowmeter does perform in the expected way and within the manufacturer's specification

3.18
measuring window

period of time during which the voltage representing the flow velocity is measured

3.19
ideal flow conditions

conditions that exist when a pipe is infinitely long and straight with no internal disturbances

Note 1 to entry: For electromagnetic flowmeters (3.1), it may, in addition, also be assumed that the metering liquid

has a viscosity and density similar to water. Under these conditions, the flow is axisymmetric and will be fully

developed and turbulent at flowrates and pipe sizes most often found in industry.

4 Symbols
Symbol Quantity Units (SI)
magnetic field strength
Tesla (T)
mean magnetic field strength
Tesla (T)
d inside diameter of meter tube metres (m)
electric field strength volt per metre (V/m)
U electrochemical voltage volt (V)
U transformer voltage volt (V)
U velocity related voltage volt (V)
F Lorentz force newton (N)
Lorentz
k constant dimensionless (—)
k constant dimensionless (—)
© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved 3
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SIST EN ISO 20456:2019
ISO 20456:2017(E)
Symbol Quantity Units (SI)
L distance between measuring electrodes metres (m)
q volumetric flowrate of the liquid cubic meters per second (m /s)
mean axial liquid velocity
metres per second (m/s)
Nabla or Del operator
dimensionless (—)

See Annex D for a conversion table of nominal diameters from metric to US units.

5 Theory and basic formulae

When a conductive liquid moves through a magnetic field, voltage(s), U , are generated in accordance

with Faraday’s law (see Formula 2). The strength of the induced voltages is given by the simplified

expression shown in Formula (1):
 
Fq=+Ev×B =0 (1)
Lorentz
 
Ev=− ×=BU∇ ;
∇ Uv=− ×B
Spatial integration of Formula (1) results in Formula (2):
Uk= BL v (2)
v 1e
The volume flowrate in the case of a circular pipe is given in Formula (3):
q= v (3)
Which, combined with Formula (2), gives Formula (4):
πd  
q= (4)
 
4kL
 
1 e
Or Formula (5):
qk= U (5)
2 v

Formula (5) may be interpreted in various ways to produce a calibration factor which in practice is

usually determined by wet calibration, as described in 9.1.
6 Construction and principle of operation
6.1 General

As indicated schematically in Figure 1, the magnetic field is so placed with respect to a lined meter

tube that the path of the conductive liquid, flowing in the meter tube, is normal to the magnetic field.

In accordance with Faraday’s law, motion of the liquid through the magnetic field induces a voltage,

U , in the liquid in a path mutually normal both to the field and the direction of liquid motion. By

placing electrodes which contact the liquid in insulated mountings or by using insulated electrodes

with capacitance-type coupling in the meter tube in a diametrical plane normal to the magnetic field, a

4 © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 20456:2019
ISO 20456:2017(E)

voltage proportional to the flow velocity is produced which can be processed by a transmitter. Meters

based on this principle are capable of measuring flow in either direction through the meter tube.

Key
1 coil system
2 lined meter tube
3 measuring electrodes
B magnetic flux density
L distance between measuring electrodes
U flow signal (velocity related voltage)
mean axial liquid velocity
Figure 1 — Principle of Faraday's law

The electromagnetic flowmeter consists of a sensor through which the process liquid flows and

a transmitter which converts the flow signal generated by the sensor into a standardized signal for

suitable acceptance by industrial instrumentation (see, for example, IEC 60381-1 and IEC 60381-2).

The system produces an output signal proportional to volume flowrate (or average velocity). Its

application is generally limited only by the requirement that the metered liquid shall be electrically

conductive.

The sensor and transmitter can be separate, linked by one or more electrical cables, or integrated with

the transmitter directly joined to the sensor.
6.2 Sensor

Figure 2 shows an exploded drawing of an industrial version of a sensor with an integrated transmitter.

The principal components of the sensor are as follows.

a) The meter tube is the pipe section of the sensor through which the liquid flows. For a meter

with field coils mounted outside the meter tube, this would be constructed from a non-magnetic

material. On a design where the field coils are inside the meter tube, it may be made of a magnetic

material.

b) An insulating liner which electrically insulates the measuring electrodes from the meter tube

preventing the induced U from short circuiting through the meter tube. The liner may be concentric

with the pipe or be profiled to provide a specific cross-section at the plane of the measuring

electrodes; if the meter tube is non-conductive, then a liner is not mandatory.
© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved 5
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SIST EN ISO 20456:2019
ISO 20456:2017(E)

c) The field coils produce the magnetic field. The most common configuration is to have two field coils

mounted diametrically opposite to each other, though single field coil designs are available. Field

coils may be mounted on the outside of the meter tube or within the meter tube isolated from the

fluid. The field coils can be either:
— excited by sinusoidal alternating curren
...

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