Cleanrooms and associated controlled environments - Part 9: Classification of surface cleanliness by particle concentration (ISO 14644-9:2012)

This part of ISO 14644 establishes the classification of cleanliness levels on solid surfaces by particle concentration in cleanrooms and associated controlled environment applications. Recommendations on testing and measuring methods, as well as information about surface characteristics, are given in Annexes A to D. This part of ISO 14644 applies to all solid surfaces in cleanrooms and associated controlled environments, such as walls, ceilings, floors, working environments, tools, equipment and products. The classification of surface cleanliness by particle concentration (SCP) is limited to particles between 0,05 μm and 500 μm. The following issues are not considered in this part of ISO 14644: - requirements for the cleanliness and suitability of surfaces for specific processes; - procedures for the cleaning of surfaces; - material characteristics; - references to interactive bonding forces or generation processes that are usually time-dependent and process-dependent; - selection and use of statistical methods for classification and testing; - other characteristics of particles, such as electrostatic charge, ionic charges, microbiological state, etc.

Reinräume und zugehörige Reinraumbereiche - Teil 9: Klassifzierung der partikulären Oberflächenreinheit (ISO 14644-9:2012)

Der vorliegende Teil der ISO 14644 beschreibt die Klassifizierung der partikulären Reinheitsgrade auf festen Oberflächen für Anwendungen in Reinräumen und zugehörigen Reinraumbereichen. Empfehlungen zu Prüf  und Messverfahren sowie Angaben zu Oberflächenkenngrößen sind in den Anhängen A bis D enthalten.
Dieser Teil der ISO 14644 gilt für alle festen Oberflächen in Reinräumen und zugehörigen Reinraum¬bereichen, wie z. B. Wände, Decken, Fußböden, Arbeitsbereiche, Werkzeuge, Ausrüstungsgegenstände und Produkte. Die SCP Klassifizierung (Klassifizierung der partikulären Oberflächenreinheit, en: classification of surface cleanliness by particle concentration, SCP) ist auf Partikel mit einer Größe zwischen 0,05 µm und 500 µm begrenzt.
Folgende Aspekte werden in diesem Teil der Reihe ISO 14644 nicht betrachtet:
-   Anforderungen an die Reinheit und Eignung von Oberflächen für bestimmte Prozesse;
-   Verfahrensweisen für die Reinigung von Oberflächen;
-   Materialkenngrößen;
-   Bezüge auf die wechselseitigen Bindungskräfte oder Entstehungsprozesse, die üblicherweise zeitabhängig und prozessabhängig sind;
-   Auswahl und Anwendung statistischer Klassifizierungs  und Prüfverfahren;
-   weitere Kenngrößen von Partikeln, wie z. B. elektrostatische Ladung, Ionenladungen, mikrobiologischer Zustand usw.

Salles propres et environnements maîtrisés apparentés - Partie 9: Classification de la propreté des surfaces par la concentration de particules (ISO 14644-9:2012)

L'ISO 14644-9:2012 établit la classification des niveaux de propreté des surfaces solides par la concentration de particules, applicables aux salles propres et aux environnements maîtrisés apparentés. Des recommandations relatives aux essais et aux méthodes de mesurage, ainsi que des informations sur les caractéristiques des surfaces, sont également fournies.
L'ISO 14644-9:2012 s'applique à toutes les surfaces solides dans les salles propres et environnements maîtrisés apparentés tels que les murs, les plafonds, les sols, les environnements de travail, les outils, les équipements et les produits. La classification de la propreté des surfaces par concentration de particules (SCP) se limite à des tailles de particules comprises entre 0,05 µm et 500 µm.
L'ISO 14644-9:2012 n'aborde pas les points suivants:
les exigences pour la propreté et l'adéquation des surfaces à des processus spécifiques;
les modes opératoires de nettoyage des surfaces;
les caractéristiques des matériaux;
les références aux forces de liaison ou aux processus génération qui sont généralement fonction du temps et qui dépendent du procédé;
le choix et l'utilisation de méthodes statistiques pour la classification et les essais;
d'autres caractéristiques des particules, telles que la charge électrostatique, les charges ioniques, l'état microbiologique, etc.

Čiste sobe in podobna nadzorovana okolja - 9. del: Klasifikacija čistosti površine na osnovi koncentracije delcev (ISO 14644-9:2012)

Ta del standarda ISO 14644 določa klasifikacijo ravni čistosti na trdnih površinah s prisotnostjo delcev v čistih sobah in podobnih nadzorovanih okoljih. V dodatkih od A do D so navedena priporočila za preskušanje, merilne metode ter informacije o značilnostih površine. Ta del standarda ISO 14644 se uporablja za vse trdne površine v čistih sobah in podobnih nadzorovanih okoljih, kot so zidovi, stropi, tla, delovna okolja, orodja, oprema in izdelki. Klasifikacija čistosti površine s prisotnostjo delcev (SCP) je omejena na delce od 0,05 μm do 500 μm. Naslednja vprašanja niso obravnavana v tem delu standarda ISO 14644: – zahteve glede čistosti in primernosti površin za specifične postopke; – postopki čiščenja površin; – lastnosti materialov; – sklicevanja na interaktivne sile spajanja ali postopke tvorjenja, ki so običajno odvisni od časa in postopka; – izbira in uporaba statističnih metod za klasifikacijo in preskušanje; – druge značilnosti delcev, na primer elektrostatični naboj, naboji ionov, mikrobiološko stanje itd.

General Information

Status
Withdrawn
Public Enquiry End Date
30-Nov-2008
Publication Date
13-Sep-2012
Withdrawal Date
06-Jun-2022
Technical Committee
Current Stage
9900 - Withdrawal (Adopted Project)
Start Date
02-Jun-2022
Due Date
25-Jun-2022
Completion Date
07-Jun-2022

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2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.Reinräume und zugehörige Reinraumbereiche - Teil 9: Klassifzierung der partikulären Oberflächenreinheit (ISO 14644-9:2012)Salles propres et environnements maîtrisés apparentés - Partie 9: Classification de la propreté des surfaces par la concentration de particules (ISO 14644-9:2012)Cleanrooms and associated controlled environments - Part 9: Classification of surface cleanliness by particle concentration (ISO 14644-9:2012)13.040.35Brezprašni prostori in povezana nadzorovana okoljaCleanrooms and associated controlled environmentsICS:Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z:EN ISO 14644-9:2012SIST EN ISO 14644-9:2012en,fr01-oktober-2012SIST EN ISO 14644-9:2012SLOVENSKI

STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 14644-9:2012
EUROPEAN STANDARD NORME EUROPÉENNE EUROPÄISCHE NORM
EN ISO 14644-9
August 2012 ICS 13.040.35 English Version

Cleanrooms and associated controlled environments - Part 9: Classification of surface cleanliness by particle concentration (ISO 14644-9:2012)

Salles propres et environnements maîtrisés apparentés - Partie 9: Classification de la propreté des surfaces par la concentration de particules (ISO 14644-9:2012)

Reinräume und zugehörige Reinraumbereiche - Teil 9: Klassifzierung der partikulären Oberflächenreinheit (ISO 14644-9:2012) This European Standard was approved by CEN on 14 August 2012.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and United Kingdom.

EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
Management Centre:
Avenue Marnix 17,

B-1000 Brussels © 2012 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CEN national Members. Ref. No. EN ISO 14644-9:2012: ESIST EN ISO 14644-9:2012

EN ISO 14644-9:2012 (E) 2 Contents Page Foreword ..............................................................................................................................................................3 SIST EN ISO 14644-9:2012

EN ISO 14644-9:2012 (E) 3 Foreword This document (EN ISO 14644-9:2012) has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 209 "Cleanrooms and associated controlled environments" in collaboration with Technical Committee CEN/TC 243 “Cleanroom technology” the secretariat of which is held by BSI. This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by February 2013, and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn at the latest by February 2013. Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent rights. CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organisations of the following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the United Kingdom. Endorsement notice The text of ISO 14644-9:2012 has been approved by CEN as a EN ISO 14644-9:2012 without any modification.

SIST EN ISO 14644-9:2012
SIST EN ISO 14644-9:2012
Reference numberISO 14644-9:2012(E)© ISO 2012

INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO14644-9First edition2012-08-15Cleanrooms and associated controlled environments — Part 9: Classification of surface cleanliness by particle concentration Salles propres et environnements maîtrisés apparentés — Partie 9: Classification de la propreté des surfaces par la concentration de particules

SIST EN ISO 14644-9:2012
ISO 14644-9:2012(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT

ISO 2012 All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and microfilm, without permission in writing from either ISO at the address below or ISO's member body in the country of the requester. ISO copyright office Case postale 56  CH-1211 Geneva 20 Tel.

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ii © ISO 2012 – All rights reserved
SIST EN ISO 14644-9:2012

ISO 14644-9:2012(E) © ISO 2012 – All rights reserved iii Contents Page Foreword ............................................................................................................................................................ iv Introduction ......................................................................................................................................................... v 1 Scope ...................................................................................................................................................... 1 2 Normative references ............................................................................................................................ 1 3 Terms and definitions ........................................................................................................................... 1 4 Abbreviated terms ................................................................................................................................. 2 5 Classification system ............................................................................................................................ 3 5.1 ISO-SCP classification format .............................................................................................................. 3 5.2 Designation ............................................................................................................................................ 6 5.3 General information on surface cleanliness by particle concentration .......................................... 6 6 Demonstration of compliance .............................................................................................................. 6 6.1 Principle ................................................................................................................................................. 6 6.2 Testing .................................................................................................................................................... 6 6.3 Test report .............................................................................................................................................. 7 Annex A (informative)

Surface characteristics ................................................................................................ 9 Annex B (informative)

Descriptor for specific particle size ranges ............................................................. 12 Annex C (informative)

Parameters influencing the SCP classification ....................................................... 15 Annex D (informative)

Measurement methods for determining surface cleanliness by particle concentration ....................................................................................................................................... 17 Bibliography ...................................................................................................................................................... 25

SIST EN ISO 14644-9:2012

ISO 14644-9:2012(E) iv © ISO 2012 – All rights reserved Foreword ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization. International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2. The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International Standards adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publication as an International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting a vote. Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. ISO 14644-9 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 209, Cleanrooms and associated controlled environments. ISO 14644 consists of the following parts, under the general title Cleanrooms and associated controlled environments:  Part 1: Classification of air cleanliness  Part 2: Specifications for monitoring to prove continued compliance with ISO 14644-1  Part 3: Test methods  Part 4: Design, construction and start-up  Part 5: Operations  Part 6: Vocabulary  Part 7: Separative devices (clean air hoods, gloveboxes, isolators, and mini-environments)  Part 8: Classification of air cleanliness by chemical concentration  Part 9: Classification of surface cleanliness by particle concentration  Part 10: Classification of surface cleanliness by chemical concentration Attention is also drawn to ISO 14698, Cleanrooms and associated controlled environments — Biocontamination control:  Part 1: General principles and methods  Part 2: Evaluation and interpretation of biocontamination data SIST EN ISO 14644-9:2012

ISO 14644-9:2012(E) © ISO 2012 – All rights reserved v Introduction Cleanrooms and associated controlled environments provide for the control of contamination to levels appropriate for accomplishing contamination-sensitive activities. Products and processes that benefit from the control of contamination include those in such industries as aerospace, microelectronics, optics, nuclear, and life sciences (pharmaceuticals, medical devices, food, healthcare). ISO 14644-1 to ISO 14644-8 and ISO 14698-1 and ISO 14698-2 (biological contamination) deal exclusively with airborne particle and chemical contamination. Many factors, besides the classification of surface cleanliness, should be considered in the design, specification, operation and control of cleanrooms and other controlled environments. These factors are covered in some detail in other parts of ISO 14644 and ISO 14698. This part of ISO 14644 provides a classification for the determination and designation of surface cleanliness levels based on particle concentrations. This part of ISO 14644 also lists some methods of testing, as well as procedure(s) for determining the concentration of particles on surfaces. Where regulatory agencies impose supplementary guidelines or restrictions, appropriate adaptations of the testing procedures might be required.

SIST EN ISO 14644-9:2012
SIST EN ISO 14644-9:2012

INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 14644-9:2012(E) © ISO 2012 – All rights reserved 1 Cleanrooms and associated controlled environments — Part 9: Classification of surface cleanliness by particle concentration 1 Scope This part of ISO 14644 establishes the classification of cleanliness levels on solid surfaces by particle concentration in cleanrooms and associated controlled environment applications. Recommendations on testing and measuring methods, as well as information about surface characteristics, are given in Annexes A to D. This part of ISO 14644 applies to all solid surfaces in cleanrooms and associated controlled environments, such as walls, ceilings, floors, working environments, tools, equipment and products. The classification of surface cleanliness by particle concentration (SCP) is limited to particles between 0,05 µm and 500 µm. The following issues are not considered in this part of ISO 14644:  requirements for the cleanliness and suitability of surfaces for specific processes;  procedures for the cleaning of surfaces;  material characteristics;  references to interactive bonding forces or generation processes that are usually time-dependent and process-dependent;  selection and use of statistical methods for classification and testing;  other characteristics of particles, such as electrostatic charge, ionic charges, microbiological state, etc. 2 Normative references The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies. ISO 14644-6:2007, Cleanrooms and associated controlled environments — Part 6: Vocabulary 3 Terms and definitions For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 14644-6:2007 and the following apply. 3.1 descriptor for specific particle size ranges differential descriptor that expresses SCP level within specific particle size ranges SIST EN ISO 14644-9:2012

ISO 14644-9:2012(E) 2 © ISO 2012 – All rights reserved NOTE The descriptor may be applied to particle size ranges of special interest or those particle size ranges that are outside the range of the classification system, and specified independently or as a supplement to the SCP classes. 3.2 direct measurement method assessment of the contamination without any intermediate steps 3.3 indirect measurement method assessment of the contamination with intermediate steps 3.4 solid surface boundary between the solid and a second phase 3.5 surface particle solid and/or liquid matter adhered and discretely distributed on a surface of interest, excluding film-like matter that covers the whole surface NOTE Surface particles are adhered via chemical and/or physical interactions. 3.6 surface cleanliness by particle concentration SCP condition of a surface with respect to its particle concentration NOTE The surface cleanliness depends upon material and design characteristics, stress loads (complexity of loads acting on a surface) and prevailing environmental conditions, along with other factors. 3.7 surface cleanliness by particle concentration class SCP class grading number stating the maximum allowable surface concentration, in particles per square metre, for a considered size of particles (SCP Classes 1 to 8) 3.8 surface cleanliness by particle concentration classification SCP classification level (or the process of specifying or determining the level) that represents maximum allowable surface concentrations, in particles per square metre, for considered sizes of particles, expressed in terms of an ISO SCP Class N 3.9 surface particle concentration number of individual particles per unit of surface area under consideration 4 Abbreviated terms For the purposes of this document, the following abbreviated terms apply. AFM atomic force microscopy CNC condensation nucleus counter EDX energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy ESCA electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis ESD electrostatic discharge SIST EN ISO 14644-9:2012

ISO 14644-9:2012(E) © ISO 2012 – All rights reserved 3 IR infrared (absorption spectroscopy) OPC optical particle counter PET polyethylene terephthalate SCP surface cleanliness by particle concentration SEM scanning electron microscopy UV ultraviolet (spectroscopy) WDX wavelength-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy 5 Classification system 5.1 ISO-SCP classification format The class of surface cleanliness by particle concentration (SCP) in a cleanroom or associated controlled environment shall be designated by a classification number, N, specifying the maximum total particle concentration on surfaces permitted for a considered particle size. N shall be determined from the following equation with the maximum permitted total particle concentration on the surface, CSCP;D, in particles per square metre of surface, for each considered particle size, D: SCP;D10NCkD (1) where CSCP;D is the maximum permitted total surface concentration, in particles per square metre of surface, of particles that are equal to or larger than the considered particle size; CSCP;D is rounded to the nearest whole number, using no more than three significant figures; N is the SCP classification number, which is limited to SCP Class 1 through SCP Class 8; SCP Class number N is represented by the measured particle diameter D, in micrometres; NOTE N refers to the exponent base 10 for the concentration of particles at the reference particle size of 1 µm. D is the considered particle size, in micrometres. k is a constant 1, in micrometres. NOTE 1 The SCP class based on the particle concentration can be a time- and process-dependent value due to the dynamic characteristics of particle generation and transportation. NOTE 2 Due to the complexity of statistical evaluations and readily available additional references, the selection and use of statistical methods for classification and testing are not described in this part of ISO 14644. The concentration CSCP;D, as derived from Equation (1), shall serve as the definitive value. Table 1 presents selected SCP classes and corresponding maximum cumulative permitted total surface concentrations for considered particle sizes. Figure 1 provides a representation of the selected classes in graphical form. SIST EN ISO 14644-9:2012

ISO 14644-9:2012(E) 4 © ISO 2012 – All rights reserved Table 1 — Selected SCP classes for cleanrooms and associated controlled environments Units in particles per square metre SCP Class Particle size R 0,05 µm R 0,1 µm R 0,5 µm R 1 µm R 5 µm R 10 µm R 50 µm R 100 µm R 500 µmSCP Class 1 (200) 100 20 (10)

SCP Class 2 (2 000) 1 000 200 100 (20) (10)
SCP Class 3 (20 000) 10 000 2 000 1 000 (200) (100)
SCP Class 4 (200 000) 100 000 20 000 10 000 2 000 1 000 (200) (100)
SCP Class 5
1 000 000200 000 100 000 20 000 10 000 2 000 1 000 (200) SCP Class 6
(10 000 000)2 000 000 1 000 000 200 000 100 000 20 000 10 000 2 000 SCP Class 7
10 000 0002 000 0001 000 000 200 000 100 000 20 000 SCP Class 8

10 000 0002 000 000 1 000 000 200 000 The values in Table 1 are concentrations of particles of the related particle size and SCP class per surface area of one square metre (1 m2) equal to or larger than the considered particle size (CSCP;D). For figures in parentheses, the corresponding particle sizes should not be used for classification purposes; select another particle size for classification. The minimum area for testing should be statistically representative of the surface under consideration. NOTE Classification of the lower SCP classes requires numerous measurements to establish a significant value.

SIST EN ISO 14644-9:2012
ISO 14644-9:2012(E) © ISO 2012 – All rights reserved 5

Key X considered particle size, D (µm) Y particle concentration on a surface ≥ D, CSCP;D (particles/m2) 1 SCP Class 1 2 SCP Class 2 3 SCP Class 3 4 SCP Class 4 5 SCP Class 5 6 SCP Class 6 7 SCP Class 7 8 SCP Class 8 The solid classification lines shown on the graph shall be used for classification purposes. The dashed lines should not be used for classification purposes. NOTE Particle distribution on surfaces typically is not a normal distribution, but is affected by different factors, such as roughness, porosity, electrostatic charge, deposition mechanisms, etc. (see Annex A). EXAMPLE SCP Class 5 (1 µm) signifies that 1 m2 of surface may carry a maximum of 105 particles with a considered particle size R 1 µm (D = 1). SCP Class 5 (10 µm) signifies that 1 m2 of surface may carry a maximum of 104 particles per square metre with a considered particle size R 10 µm (D = 10). Any other measured particle size (D = x) which leads to a concentration that lies below the relevant SCP class line is within the specification of SCP Class 5 (x µm). Figure 1 — SCP classes For particle sizes out of the classification system and in cases where only a narrow particle range or individual particle sizes are of interest, a descriptor can be used (see Annex B). SIST EN ISO 14644-9:2012

ISO 14644-9:2012(E) 6 © ISO 2012 – All rights reserved 5.2 Designation The SCP class number shall be formatted as follows: SCP Class N (D µm). The designation of the SCP class for cleanrooms and associated controlled environments shall also include the following: a) the surface type measured; b) the surface area measured; c) the measurement method applied. Details of measurement methods applied, including sampling techniques and measurement devices, should be retrieved from test reports. The considered particle size should be determined by agreement between the customer and supplier. The SCP classification shall be stated in relation to the measured particle size diameter. EXAMPLE 1 SCP Class 2 (0,1 µm); wafer or glass substrate, surface area: 310 cm2; surface particle counter. EXAMPLE 2 SCP Class 5 (0,5 m); inner wall of a bottle, surface area: 200 cm2; liquid dispersion — liquid particle counter. 5.3 General information on surface cleanliness by particle concentration Airborne particle concentration and surface particle concentration are generally related. The relationship is dependent on many factors, such as airflow turbulence, rate of deposition, time of deposition, deposition velocity, concentration within the air, and surface characteristics such as electrostatic charge (see A.2.4). To determine surface cleanliness by particle concentration, various parameters (see Annex C) and surface characteristics (see Annex A) that influence testing should be taken into account. 6 Demonstration of compliance 6.1 Principle Compliance with SCP class requirements, as specified by the customer, is verified by performing tests and by providing documentation of the results and conditions of the testing. Details for demonstrating compliance (see 6.3) shall be agreed upon between the customer and supplier in advance of testing. 6.2 Testing Tests performed to demonstrate compliance shall be conducted in a controlled environment using suitable test methods and calibrated instruments, whenever possible. Direct and indirect test methods can be used for demonstrating compliance and are given in Annex D. The list of typical methods described is not exhaustive. Alternative methods of comparable accuracy may be specified by agreement. NOTE Measurement by different methods, even when correctly applied, can produce different results of equal validity. Repeated measurements are recommended. SIST EN ISO 14644-9:2012

ISO 14644-9:2012(E) © ISO 2012 – All rights reserved 7 The test method and environment shall be agreed upon between the customer and supplier. Precautions should be taken to reduce electrostatic charge around the test zone, since electrostatic charge enhances particle deposition onto surfaces. If the surface is neither conductive, nor grounded or charge-neutralized, electrostatic charges might occur (see Annex A). Therefore, test results may vary. 6.3 Test report The results from testing each surface shall be recorded and submitted as a comprehensive report, along with a statement of compliance or non-compliance with the specified SCP class(es). The test report shall include as a minimum the following: a) basic data:  date and time of testing;  name/address of the testing organization;  name of testing personnel; b) references consulted:  standards;  guidelines;  regulations;  number and year of publication of this part of ISO 14644, i.e. ISO 14644-9:2012; c) environmental data:  environmental conditions for sampling (i.e. temperature, humidity, cleanliness);  environmental conditions for measurement (i.e. temperature, humidity, cleanliness) (not essential for use with direct methods);  location (room, etc.) used for the measurements; d) specimen:  clear identification of the test object;  description of the test object;  graph and/or sketch of test specimen; e) test setup:  photo and/or sketch of the test setup;  description of operating parameters;  description of measurement points;  description of hardware used in the test setup; SIST EN ISO 14644-9:2012

ISO 14644-9:2012(E) 8 © ISO 2012 – All rights reserved f) measurement devices:  identification of the instrument(s) and measuring devices used and current calibration certificate(s);  measurement range of measuring devices used;  reference of calibration certificates; g) performing the test:  relevant details of the test procedure used, with any available data describing deviations from the test procedure (if agreed);  surface condition before sampling (e.g. after cleaning, after packaging, under atmospheric or vacuum conditions);  specified test and measurement procedure/method;  occupancy state(s) during sampling and measurement;  specified test method(s);  all agreed documentation (e.g. raw data, background particle concentrations, pictures, graphs, cleaning and packaging);  duration, location and position of sampling (not essential for use with direct methods);  duration, location and position of measurement (not essential for use with direct methods);  noticeable observations made during sampling/measurement, where applicable;  number of measurements performed;  clear identification of the position and the area of the surface measured and specific designations for coordinates of the surface, if applicable; h) results and analysis:  visual inspection of the test surface before and after measurement, where applicable;  measurement values and/or their analysis;  statement of data quality;  particle size ranges considered;  test results, including particle concentration data for given particle sizes, for all tests performed;  surface cleanliness by particle concentration class with designation expressed as SCP Class N;  acceptance criteria for the clean surface, if agreed between the customer and supplier.

SIST EN ISO 14644-9:2012
ISO 14644-9:2012(E) © ISO 2012 – All rights reserved 9 Annex A (informative)

Surface characteristics A.1 Surface description A surface is commonly characterized by its texture (such as roughness, porosity), its mechanical properties (such as hardness) and its physicochemical properties (such as electrostatic surface charge and surface tension). Each of these properties should be considered before selecting a test method for the surface cleanliness classification, or as an aid for the interpretation of the test results. A.2 Surface characteristics A.2.1 Roughness A.2.1.1 Description As the roughness of a surface affects many of its physical properties, surface roughness is not easily described by one single parameter, nor is it an intrinsic property of the surface. Roughness exists in two principal planes: at right angles to the surface, where it may be characterized by height, and in the plane of the surface, identified as “texture” and characterized by waviness. The roughness of a surface can be determined by mechanical or optical methods. A.2.1.2 Testing A frequently used mechanical method for the determination of roughness is the stylus instrument (for example, see ISO 4287 or ISO 4288). Frequently used optical methods for the determination of roughness and porous texture are microscopes (optical, confocal, interferometry, with/without tunnel effect, taper sectioning). A.2.2 Porosity A.2.2.1 Definition and description Porosity is a measure of the void spaces in a material, and is expressed as a decimal between 0 and 1, or as a percentage between 0 % and 100 %.  Effective porosity (also called open porosity) refers to the fraction of the total volume in which fluid flow is effectively taking place (this excludes dead-end pores or non-connected cavities).  Macroporosity refers to pores equal to or greater than 50 nm in diameter. Fluid flow through macropores is described by bulk diffusion.  Mesoporosity refers to pores equal to or greater than 2 nm but less than 50 nm in diameter.  Microporosity refers to pores smaller than 2 nm in diameter. Movement in micropores is by activated diffusion. SIST EN ISO 14644-9:2012

ISO 14644-9:2012(E) 10 © ISO 2012 – All rights reserved A.2.2.2 Testing There are several ways to estimate the porosity of a given material or mixture of materials, which is called material matrix. The volume/density method is fast and highly accurate (normally within 2 % of the actual porosity). The volume and the weight of the material are measured. The weight of the material divided by the density of the material gives the volume that the material takes up, minus the pore volume. Therefore, the pore volume is simply equal to the total volume minus the material volume, or more directly (pore volume) = (total volume)  (material volume). The water saturation method is slightly m

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