Characterisation of waste - Leaching behaviour test for basic characterisation - Dynamic monolithic leaching test with periodic leachant renewal, under fixed conditions

This European Standard is applicable for determining the leaching behaviour of monolithic wastes under dynamic conditions. The test is performed under fixed experimental conditions in this document. This test is aimed at determining the release as a function of time of inorganic constituents from a monolithic waste, when it is put into contact with an aqueous solution (leachant).
This dynamic monolithic leaching test (DMLT) is a parameter specific test as specified in EN 12920 and is therefore not aimed at simulating real situations. The application of this test method alone is not sufficient for the determination of the detailed leaching behaviour of a monolithic waste under specified conditions.
In the framework of EN 12920 and in combination with additional chemical information, the test results are used to identify the leaching mechanisms and their relative importance. The intrinsic properties can be used to predict the release of constituents at a given time frame, in order to assess the leaching behaviour of monolithic waste materials, placed in different situations or scenarios (including disposal and recycling scenarios).
The test method applies to regularly shaped test portions of monolithic wastes with minimum dimensions of 40 mm in all directions, that are assumed to maintain their integrity over a time frame relevant for the considered scenario. The test method applies to test portions for which the geometric surface area can be determined with the help of simple geometric equations. The test method applies to low permeable monolithic materials.
NOTE 1   If, in order to comply with the requirements of regular shape, the test portion is prepared by cutting or coring, then new surfaces are exposed which can lead to change(s) in leaching properties. On the other hand if the test portion is prepared by moulding, the surface will be dependent to the type of mould and the conditions of storage. If the intention is to evaluate the behaviour of the material core, the specimen needs to be stored without any contact with air to avoid carbonation.
NOTE 2   For monolithic waste materials with a saturated hydraulic conductivity higher than 10-8 m/s water is likely to percolate through the monolith rather than flow around. In such cases relating the release to the geometric surface can lead to misinterpretation. A percolation test is then more appropriate (e.g. EN 14405).
This procedure may not be applicable to materials reacting with the leachant, leading for example to excessive gas emission or an excessive heat release.
This document has been developed to determine the release of mainly inorganic constituents from wastes. It does not take into account the particular characteristics of organic constituents, nor the consequences of microbiological processes in organic degradable wastes.

Charakterisierung von Abfällen - Untersuchung des Auslaugungsverhaltens für die grundlegende Charakterisierung - Dynamisches Auslaugungsverfahren für monolithische Abfälle mit periodischer Erneuerung des Auslaugungsmittels unter festgelegten Prüfbedingungen

Diese Europäische Norm ist für die Bestimmung des Elutionsverhaltens von monolithischen Abfällen unter dynamischen Bedingungen anwendbar. Die Untersuchung wird unter den in diesem Dokument festgelegten experimentellen Bedingungen durchgeführt. Diese Untersuchung zielt auf die Bestimmung der Freisetzung von anorganischen Bestandteilen aus monolithischem Abfall in Abhängigkeit von der Zeit ab, zu der der Stoff in Kontakt mit einer wässrigen Lösung (Elutionsmittel) gebracht wurde.
Dieses dynamische Elutionsverfahren für monolithische Abfälle (DMLT, en: Dynamic Monolithic Leaching Test) ist eine parameterspezifische Prüfung, wie in EN 12920 festgelegt, und dient deshalb nicht der Simulation tatsächlicher Situationen. Die Anwendung dieses Untersuchungsverfahrens ist allein nicht aus¬reichend für die Bestimmung des ausführlichen Elutionsverhaltens von monolithischen Abfällen unter festgelegten Bedingungen.
Im Rahmen der EN 12920 und in Kombination mit zusätzlichen chemischen Angaben werden die Unter-suchungsergebnisse zur Identifizierung der Elutionsmechanismen und ihres Stellenwertes angewendet. Die intrinsischen Eigenschaften können zur Vorhersage der Freisetzung von Bestandteilen in einem festgelegten Zeitrahmen angewendet werden, um das Elutionsverhalten von monolithischen Abfallmaterialien zu bewerten, die unterschiedlichen Situationen oder Szenarien (einschließlich Szenarien der Deponierung und der Wiederverwertung) ausgesetzt wurden.
Das Untersuchungsverfahren ist bei regelmäßig geformten Prüfmengen von monolithischen Abfällen mit Mindestmaßen von 40 mm in alle Richtungen anwendbar, bei denen vorausgesetzt wird, dass sie ihre Unver-sehrtheit über einen für die Beobachtung des Szenariums relevanten Zeitraum behalten. Das Unter-suchungsverfahren ist für Prüfmengen geeignet, bei denen die geometrische Oberfläche mit einfachen geometrischen Gleichungen bestimmt werden kann. Das Untersuchungsverfahren ist für weniger durchlässige monolithische Stoffe geeignet.
Innerhalb der Bereiche der Vergleichpräzision werden die nach EN 15863 ermittelten Ergebnisse der Elutionsprüfungen voraussichtlich denen entsprechen, die nach CEN/TS 16637-2 (DMLT für Bauprodukte) bestimmt wurden, da die wesentlichen Prüfbedingungen in beiden Normen aneinander angeglichen sind. Wie die nach EN 15863 ermittelten Ergebnisse zeigen (siehe Anhang E), sind sie nachweislich auch vergleichbar mit dem Verfahren US EPA 1315 (SW846). Diese Beobachtungen implizieren, dass ein nach der vorliegenden Euro-päischen Norm geprüfter monolithischer Abfall nicht ein zweites Mal geprüft werden muss, wenn das Material sich für die günstige Verwendung in der Bauausführung als geeignet erweist, vorausgesetzt, dass dieser Abfall keiner Behandlung oder anderen Veränderungen unterzogen wurde, die dessen Elutionsverhalten modifizieren.
ANMERKUNG 1   Wenn die Prüfmenge durch Schneiden oder Kernbohren hergestellt wurde, um die Anforderung einer regelmäßigen Form zu erfüllen, dann werden neue Oberflächen freigelegt, was zu einer Änderung/zu Änderungen der Elutionseigenschaften führen kann. Wenn die Prüfmenge durch Formpressen hergestellt wird, wird die Oberfläche von der Art des Pressens und den Lagerungsbedingungen abhängen. Bei beabsichtigter Bewertung des Verhaltens des Stoffkerns muss der Prüfkörper ohne jeden Kontakt mit Luft aufbewahrt werden, um eine Carbonatisierung zu vermeiden.
ANMERKUNG 2   Bei monolithischen Abfallmaterialien mit einer gesättigten hydraulischen Leitfähigkeit von mehr als 108 m/s wird Wasser wahrscheinlich durch den Monolithen durchsickern anstatt um ihn herumzufließen. Wird in solchen Fällen die Freisetzung der geometrischen Oberfläche in Bezug gesetzt, kann dies zu Fehlinterpretationen führen. Eine Perkolationsprüfung ist dann besser geeignet (z. B. CEN/TS 14405).

Caractérisation des déchets - Essais de comportement à la lixiviation pour la caractérisation de base - Essai de lixiviation dynamique des monolithes avec renouvellement périodique du lixiviant, dans des conditions d'essai fixes

La présente Norme européenne s'applique à la détermination du comportement à la lixiviation des déchets monolithiques dans des conditions dynamiques. L'essai est réalisé dans des conditions expérimentales fixées dans le présent document. L’essai a pour objectif de déterminer le relargage en fonction du temps des constituants inorganiques de déchets monolithiques lorsqu'ils entrent en contact avec une solution aqueuse (lixiviant).
Le présent essai de lixiviation dynamique des monolithes (DMLT) est un essai paramétrique tel que spécifié dans l'EN 12920 ; il n'a donc pas pour objectif de simuler des situations réelles. L'application de la présente méthode d'essai seule ne suffit pas à déterminer le comportement détaillé à la lixiviation d'un déchet monolithique dans des conditions spécifiées.
Dans le cadre de l'EN 12920 et en association avec des informations chimiques supplémentaires, les résultats d'essai sont utilisés pour identifier les mécanismes de lixiviation et leur importance relative. Ces propriétés intrinsèques peuvent être utilisées pour prévoir le relargage des constituants sur une période donnée, afin d'évaluer le comportement à la lixiviation des déchets monolithiques dans différentes situations ou scénarios (y compris les scénarios d'élimination et de recyclage).
La méthode d'essai s'applique à des prises d'essai de déchets monolithiques aux formes régulières, ayant des dimensions minimales de 40 mm dans toutes les directions, supposées conserver leur intégrité pendant la période appropriée pour le scénario considéré. La méthode d'essai s'applique aux prises d'essai pour lesquelles la surface géométrique peut être déterminée à l'aide de formules géométriques simples. La méthode d'essai s'applique aux matériaux monolithiques à faible perméabilité.
Dans les plages de reproductibilité, les résultats relatifs à la lixiviation obtenus avec l'EN 15863 sont censés être équivalents à ceux obtenus avec la CEN/TS 16637-2 (essai de lixiviation dynamique des monolithes (DMLT) pour les produits de construction), car les principales conditions d'essai sont équilibrées dans les deux normes. Comme le montrent les résultats obtenus avec l'EN 15863 (voir Annexe E), il a également été démontré qu'ils sont comparables à la méthode US EPA 1315 (SW846). Ces observations impliquent qu’il n’est pas nécessaire que les déchets monolithiques soumis à essai conformément à la présente Norme européenne soient soumis à un deuxième essai lorsque le matériau peut être valorisé dans la construction et à condition qu'il n'ait pas subi un traitement ou d'autres opérations susceptibles de modifier son comportement à la lixiviation.
NOTE 1   Si, pour se conformer aux exigences de régularité de forme, la prise d'essai est préparée par coupe ou carottage, alors de nouvelles surfaces sont exposées, ce qui peut entraîner une ou plusieurs modifications des propriétés de lixiviation. D’autre part, si la prise d'essai est préparée par moulage, la surface dépend du type de moule et des conditions de stockage. Si l'objectif est d'évaluer le comportement au cœur du matériau, l'éprouvette doit être stockée à l’abri total de l'air afin d’éviter sa carbonatation.
NOTE 2   Pour les déchets monolithiques ayant une conductivité hydraulique à saturation supérieure à 10-8 m/s, l'eau est susceptible de percoler à travers le monolithe plutôt que de circuler autour. Dans une telle situation, établir une relation entre le relargage et la surface géométrique peut être source de mauvaise interprétation. Un essai de percolation est alors plus approprié (par exemple, CEN/TS 14405).
Il est possible que ce mode opératoire ne soit pas applicable aux matériaux réagissant avec le lixiviant, entraînant par exemple une émission de gaz excessive ou un dégagement calorifique excessif.

Karakterizacija odpadkov - Izluževalni preskus za osnovno karakterizacijo - Dinamični izluževalni preskus pri določenih pogojih za izluževanje monolitnih odpadkov z občasnim obnavljanjem izluževalnega medija

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
19-Nov-2013
Publication Date
06-May-2015
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
16-Apr-2015
Due Date
21-Jun-2015
Completion Date
07-May-2015

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2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.Charakterisierung von Abfällen - Untersuchung des Auslaugungsverhaltens für die grundlegende Charakterisierung - Dynamisches Auslaugungsverfahren für monolithische Abfälle mit periodischer Erneuerung des Auslaugungsmittels unter festgelegten PrüfbedingungenCaractérisation des déchets - Essais de comportement à la lixiviation pour la caractérisation de base - Essai de lixiviation dynamique des monolithes avec renouvellement périodique du lixiviant, dans des conditions d'essai fixesCharacterisation of waste - Leaching behaviour test for basic characterisation - Dynamic monolithic leaching test with periodic leachant renewal, under fixed conditions13.030.10Trdni odpadkiSolid wastesICS:Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z:EN 15863:2015SIST EN 15863:2015en,fr,de01-junij-2015SIST EN 15863:2015SLOVENSKI

STANDARDSIST-TS CEN/TS 15863:20131DGRPHãþD
SIST EN 15863:2015
EUROPEAN STANDARD NORME EUROPÉENNE EUROPÄISCHE NORM
EN 15863
April 2015 ICS 13.030.10 Supersedes CEN/TS 15863:2012English Version

Characterization of waste - Leaching behaviour test for basic characterization - Dynamic monolithic leaching test with periodic leachant renewal, under fixed conditions

Caractérisation des déchets - Essais de comportement à la lixiviation pour la caractérisation de base - Essai de lixiviation dynamique des monolithes avec renouvellement périodique du lixiviant, dans des conditions d'essai fixes

Charakterisierung von Abfällen - Untersuchung des Elutionsverhaltens für die grundlegende Charakterisierung -Dynamisches Elutionsverfahren für monolithische Abfälle mit periodischer Erneuerung des Elutionsmittels unter festgelegten Prüfbedingungen This European Standard was approved by CEN on 7 February 2015.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and United Kingdom.

EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre:
Avenue Marnix 17,

B-1000 Brussels © 2015 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CEN national Members. Ref. No. EN 15863:2015 ESIST EN 15863:2015

EN 15863:2015 (E) 2 Contents Page Foreword ..............................................................................................................................................................4 Introduction .........................................................................................................................................................5 1 Scope ......................................................................................................................................................7 2 Normative references ............................................................................................................................7 3 Terms and definitions ...........................................................................................................................8 4 Principle ............................................................................................................................................... 10 5 Reagents .............................................................................................................................................. 10 6 Equipment ........................................................................................................................................... 11 7 Sample preparation ............................................................................................................................ 12 7.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 12 7.2 Preparation of the test portion .......................................................................................................... 12 7.3 Determination of the geometric surface area .................................................................................. 12 8 Procedure ............................................................................................................................................ 13 8.1 Testing conditions .............................................................................................................................. 13 8.2 Step 1 of the leaching procedure ...................................................................................................... 13 8.3 Steps 2 – 8 of the leaching procedure .............................................................................................. 13 8.4 Weight loss of the monolithic waste during the test ...................................................................... 14 8.5 Further preparation of the eluates for analysis ............................................................................... 14 8.6 Blank test ............................................................................................................................................. 15 9 Calculations ......................................................................................................................................... 15 9.1 Expression of results ......................................................................................................................... 15 9.1.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 15 9.1.2 Expression of results in terms of area related release ................................................................... 16 9.1.3 Expression of results in concentrations .......................................................................................... 17 9.1.4 Calculation of release mechanism .................................................................................................... 17 10 Performance characteristics ............................................................................................................. 17 11 Documentation and test report ......................................................................................................... 18 11.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 18 11.2 General data ........................................................................................................................................ 18 11.3 Leaching test conditions ................................................................................................................... 18 11.4 Analytical report.................................................................................................................................. 18 11.5 Results of the leaching test ............................................................................................................... 19 Annex A (informative)

Identification of release mechanisms and use of test results ............................. 20 A.1 Introduction ......................................................................................................................................... 20 A.2 Examples of factors influencing the leaching of monolithic waste .............................................. 20 A.3 Long term release prediction ............................................................................................................ 22 Annex B (informative)

Assessment of release mechanisms (if required) ................................................ 23 B.1 Overview of release mechanisms ..................................................................................................... 23 B.2 Procedure of identification of release mechanisms ....................................................................... 24 B.3 Concentrations close to the limit of quantification ......................................................................... 25 B.3.1 Overall low concentrations ................................................................................................................ 25 B.3.2 Surface wash-off followed by low concentrations .......................................................................... 26 B.4 Diffusion controlled release of a substance .................................................................................... 26 SIST EN 15863:2015

EN 15863:2015 (E) 3 B.4.1 Identification of diffusion controlled release ................................................................................... 26 B.4.2 Surface wash-off preceding diffusion-controlled release ............................................................... 28 B.4.3 Diffusion-controlled release followed by depletion ......................................................................... 28 B.4.4 Surface wash-off preceding diffusion-controlled release followed by depletion ......................... 28 B.5 Dissolution controlled release of a substance ................................................................................. 28 B.6 Other release mechanism ................................................................................................................... 29 B.6.1 Unidentified release mechanism ....................................................................................................... 29 B.6.2 Surface wash-off of a substance ....................................................................................................... 29 B.6.3 Depletion of a substance .................................................................................................................... 30 B.6.4 Surface wash-off and depletion ......................................................................................................... 31 B.7 Calculation of release ......................................................................................................................... 31 B.7.1 Area release ......................................................................................................................................... 31 B.7.2 Surface wash-off .................................................................................................................................. 31 B.7.3 Release in the case of dissolution ..................................................................................................... 31 B.7.4 Extrapolation of the cumulative area release for larger time values ............................................. 31 B.8 Examples .............................................................................................................................................. 32 Annex C (informative)

Examples of data about the L/A ratio ...................................................................... 51 Annex D (informative)

Process map for EN 15863 ....................................................................................... 52 Annex E (informative)

Repeatability and reproducibility data .................................................................... 54 E.1 Material used in the interlaboratory comparison study .................................................................. 54 E.2 Interlaboratory comparison results ................................................................................................... 54 Bibliography ...................................................................................................................................................... 61

SIST EN 15863:2015

EN 15863:2015 (E) 4 Foreword This document (EN 15863:2015) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 292 “Characterization of waste”, the secretariat of which is held by NEN. This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by October 2015, and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn at the latest by October 2015. Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent rights. CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. This document supersedes CEN/TS 15863:2012. This document has been prepared under a mandate given to CEN by the European Commission and the European Free Trade Association. This document was elaborated on the basis of NEN 7345:1995. The following significant technical changes have been implemented in this new edition of the text:

— the status of the document has been changed from a CEN/TS into a European Standard;

— performance data has been added (see Annex E). According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the United Kingdom. SIST EN 15863:2015

EN 15863:2015 (E) 5 Introduction This document has been developed primarily to support the requirements for leaching behaviour testing within EU and EFTA countries. This document specifies a dynamic leaching test for monolithic waste materials, to determine key parameters to address the leaching behaviour of monolithic waste materials. For the complete characterization of the leaching behaviour of waste under specified conditions the application of other test methods is required (see EN 12920). Anyone dealing with waste and sludge analysis should be aware of the typical risks of that kind of material irrespective of the parameter to be determined. Waste and sludge samples can contain hazardous (e.g. toxic, reactive, flammable, infectious) substances, which can be liable to biological and/or chemical reaction. Consequently these samples should be handled with special care. Gases which can be produced by microbiological or chemical activity are potentially flammable and will pressurize sealed bottles. Bursting bottles are likely to result in hazardous shrapnel, dust and/or aerosol. National regulations should be followed with respect to all hazards associated with this method. In the different European countries, tests have been developed to characterize and assess the constituents which can be leached from waste materials. The release of soluble constituents upon contact with water is regarded as one of the main mechanism of release which results in a potential risk to the environment during life-cycle of waste materials (disposal or re-use scenario). The intent of these tests is to identify the leaching properties of waste materials. The complexity of the leaching process makes simplifications necessary. Not all of the relevant aspects of leaching behaviour can be addressed in one single standard. Procedures to characterize the behaviour of waste materials can generally be divided into three steps, using different tests in relation to the objective. The following test hierarchy is taken from the Landfill Directive 1) and the Decision on Annex II of this Directive 2) for disposal of waste. a) Basic characterization constitutes a full characterization of the waste by gathering all the necessary information for a safe management of the waste in the short and long term. Basic characterization may provide information on the waste (type and origin, composition, consistency, leachability, etc.), information for understanding the behaviour of waste in the considered management scenario, comparison of waste properties against limit values, and detection of key variables (critical parameters as liquid/solid (L/S) ratios, leachant composition, factors controlling leachability such as pH, redox potential, complexing capacity and physical parameters) for compliance testing and options for simplification of compliance testing. Characterization may deliver ratios between test results from basic characterization and results from simplified test procedures as well as information on a suitable frequency for compliance testing. In addition to the leaching behaviour, the composition of the waste should be known or determined by testing. The tests used for basic characterization should always include those to be used for compliance testing. b) Compliance testing is used to demonstrate that the sample of today fits the population of samples tested before by basic characterization and through that, is used to carry out compliance with regulatory limit values. The compliance test should therefore always be part of the basic characterization program. The compliance test focuses on key variables and leaching behaviour identified by basic characterization tests. Parts of basic characterization tests can also be used for compliance purposes.

1) Council Directive 1999/31/EC of 26 April 1999 on the landfill of waste. 2) Council Decision 2003/33/EC of 19 December 2002. SIST EN 15863:2015

EN 15863:2015 (E) 6 c) On-site verification tests are used as a rapid check to confirm that the waste is the same as that which has been subjected to characterization or compliance tests. On-site verification tests are not necessarily leaching tests. The test procedure described in this document is a basic characterization test and falls in category a). According to EN 12920 the evaluation of the release of constituents from waste materials in a certain scenario involves the performance of various tests. This document describes one of the parametric test that can be used for such purposes, especially for monolithic waste. The test procedure allows the determination of the release under dynamic conditions of constituents from a monolithic waste material, as a function of time. This release is calculated from the concentrations of the constituents measured in the solution (eluate) that is collected in a fixed number of separate fractions. Besides, the following test conditions are fixed: the type of leachant, the temperature, the liquid to surface area ratio (L/S), and the duration of the test. Results of this test, combined with those from other tests (e.g. EN 14429) and the use of more or less sophisticated models, allow the identification of the main leaching mechanisms that can be distinguished, such as diffusion, dissolution of constituents, initial surface wash-off, dissolution of the matrix (see Annex A). These intrinsic properties can be used to predict the release of constituents at a given time frame, in order to assess the leaching behaviour of monolithic waste materials in practical situations or scenarios as defined in EN 12920. For assessment of the leaching under equilibrium conditions (low L/A condition, pore water and/or long contact times) there are other tools available, such as the pH dependence test EN 14429, the percolation test for granular material CEN/TS 14405 (with L/S 0,1 l/kg to 0,5 l/kg) and the batch test for granular waste EN 12457-1 to EN 12457-4. NOTE At low L/A conditions, pore water conditions in monolithic specimens can be approached. SIST EN 15863:2015

EN 15863:2015 (E) 7 1 Scope This European Standard is applicable for determining the leaching behaviour of monolithic wastes under dynamic conditions. The test is performed under fixed experimental conditions in this document. This test is aimed at determining the release as a function of time of inorganic constituents from a monolithic waste, when it is put into contact with an aqueous solution (leachant). This dynamic monolithic leaching test (DMLT) is a parameter specific test as specified in EN 12920 and is therefore not aimed at simulating real situations. The application of this test method alone is not sufficient for the determination of the detailed leaching behaviour of a monolithic waste under specified conditions. In the framework of EN 12920 and in combination with additional chemical information, the test results are used to identify the leaching mechanisms and their relative importance. The intrinsic properties can be used to predict the release of constituents at a given time frame, in order to assess the leaching behaviour of monolithic waste materials, placed in different situations or scenarios (including disposal and recycling scenarios). The test method applies to regularly shaped test portions of monolithic wastes with minimum dimensions of 40 mm in all directions that are assumed to maintain their integrity over a time frame relevant for the considered scenario. The test method applies to test portions for which the geometric surface area can be determined with the help of simple geometric equations. The test method applies to low permeable monolithic materials. Within the reproducibility ranges, the leaching results obtained with EN 15863 are expected to be equivalent to those obtained with CEN/TS 16637-2 (DMLT for construction products), because the main testing conditions are equalized in both standards. As shown in the results obtained with EN 15863 (see Annex E), they are also demonstrated to be comparable with US EPA method 1315 (SW846). These observations imply that a monolithic waste tested with this European Standard, does not need to be tested a second time, when the material proves suitable for beneficial use in construction and provided it has not undergone a treatment or other changes modifying its leaching behaviour. NOTE 1 If, in order to comply with the requirements of regular shape, the test portion is prepared by cutting or coring, then new surfaces are exposed which can lead to change(s) in leaching properties. On the other hand if the test portion is prepared by moulding, the surface will be dependent to the type of mould and the conditions of storage. If the intention is to evaluate the behaviour of the material core, the specimen needs to be stored without any contact with air to avoid carbonation. NOTE 2 For monolithic waste materials with a saturated hydraulic conductivity higher than 10−8 m/s water is likely to percolate through the monolith rather than flow around. In such cases relating the release to the geometric surface can lead to misinterpretation. A percolation test is more appropriate then (e.g. CEN/TS 14405). This procedure may not be applicable to materials reacting with the leachant, leading for example to excessive gas emission or an excessive heat release. This document has been developed to determine the release of mainly inorganic constituents from wastes. It does not take into account the particular characteristics of organic constituents, nor the consequences of microbiological processes in organic degradable wastes. 2 Normative references The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies. SIST EN 15863:2015

EN 15863:2015 (E) 8 EN 14346, n of dry matter by determination of dry residue or water content EN 15002,

EN 16192,

EN ISO 3696, tater for analytical labor EN ISO 5667-3, -mc 3 Terms and definitions For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply. 3.1 eluate solution obtained by a leaching test 3.2 laboratory sample sample or sub-sample(s) sent to or received by the laboratory [SOURCE: IUPAC:1990] Note 1 to entry: When the laboratory sample is further prepared (reduced) by subdividing, cutting, sawing, coring, or by combinations of these operations, the result is the test sample. When no preparation of the laboratory sample is required, the laboratory sample is the test sample. A test portion is removed from the test sample for the performance of the test or for analysis. The laboratory sample is the final sample from the point of view of sampling but it is the initial sample from the point of view of the laboratory. Note 2 to entry: Several laboratory samples may be prepared and sent to different laboratories or to the same laboratory for different purposes. When it is sent to the same laboratory, the set is generally considered as a single laboratory sample and is documented as a single sample. 3.3 leachant liquid that is brought into contact with the test portion in the leaching procedure Note 1 to entry: For the purpose of this document the leachant is water as specified in 5.1. 3.4 leaching behaviour of a waste release and change with time in release from the waste upon contact with a leachant under the conditions specified in the scenario, especially within the specified time frame [SOURCE: EN 12920:2006+A1:2008] 3.5 leachant renewal selection of time intervals after which the leachant is renewed SIST EN 15863:2015

EN 15863:2015 (E) 9 3.6 liquid volume to surface area ratio L/A ratio between the amount of liquid (L) which in a given step of the test is in contact with the monolith, and the surface area of the test portion (A) Note 1 to entry: L/A is expressed in ml·cm−2. 3.7 monolithic waste waste which has certain minimum dimensions and physical and mechanical properties that ensure its integrity over a certain period of time in the considered scenario Note 1 to entry: A monolithic stabilized or solidified waste means a waste stabilized by the application of binder(s) to form a coherent body of specified dimensions maintaining its integrity in the landfill over a specified timeframe. 3.8 release emission of constituents from a waste, which pass through the external surface of the waste mass, as specified in the considered scenario [SOURCE: EN 12920:2006+A1:2008] 3.9 release mechanism physico-chemical processes that control the release of constituents from a solid into solution (leaching) Note 1 to entry: In the case of monolithic materials, examples of these processes are diffusion, dissolution of constituents, initial surface wash-off and dissolution of the matrix. 3.10 sample portion of material selected from a larger quantity of material 3.11 test portion amount or volume of the test sample taken for analysis, usually of known weight or volume [SOURCE: IUPAC:1990] 3.12 test portion of monolithic waste of regular shape test portion of monolithic waste for which the surface area of the test portion can be calculated on the basis of simple geometric equations 3.13 test sample sample, prepared from the laboratory sample, from which test portions are removed for testing or for analysis [SOURCE: IUPAC:1990] 3.14 waste monolith waste delivered as bulky forms of specified minimum dimensions retaining its form in the landfill over a specified timeframe Note 1 to entry: A waste monolith disposed among regular waste will not generally be required to be tested, as its contribution to landfill leachate quality is marginal. SIST EN 15863:2015

EN 15863:2015 (E) 10 4 Principle This European Standard describes a method to determine as a function of time the release of constituents from a monolithic waste material, with a leachant in contact with its surface. The test portion of monolithic waste is placed in a reactor / leaching vessel and completely submerged in a leachant. The leachant is introduced in the reactor up to a given volume of liquid to surface area ratio (L/A ratio), at a given temperature and renewed at predetermined time intervals. The following test conditions are fixed: — the type of leachant; — the temperature; — L/A ratio (ml·cm−2); — the total duration of the test; — the number of eluates to be collected at fixed time intervals. The eluate is collected in a fixed number of separate fractions. The eluate collection scheme is designed such that release mechanisms can be deduced from the analytical results. The eluate fractions are filtered, and characterized physically and chemically according to existing standards (e.g. EN 16192). The results of the test are expressed as a function of time, in terms of both mg of the constituents released per litre of eluate, and mg of constituents released cumulatively per m2 of geometric surface area of the waste material exposed to leaching. The test conditions (L/A ratio, leachant renewal scheme) have been designed such, that the identification of leaching mechanisms and their relative importance is enabled. The main leaching mechanisms that can be distinguished and identified are: — diffusion (through the pores and / or from the surface to the bulk of the leachant); — initial surface wash-off; — other processes (e.g. solubility control, changes in speciation, depletion). 5 Reagents Use only reagents of recognized analytical grade, unless otherwise specified. 5.1 Distilled water, deminerali

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