# SIST EN 1996-3:2006

(Main)## Eurocode 6 - Design of masonry structures - Part 3: Simplified calculation methods for unreinforced masonry structures

## Eurocode 6 - Design of masonry structures - Part 3: Simplified calculation methods for unreinforced masonry structures

(1)P This Part 3 of Eurocode 6 provides simplified calculation methods to facilitate the design of the following unreinforced masonry walls, subject to certain conditions of application:

walls subjected to vertical loading and wind loading;

walls subjected to concentrated loads;

shear walls;

basement walls subjected to lateral earth pressure and vertical loads;

walls subjected to lateral loads but not subjected to vertical loads.

(2)P The rules given in Part 3 are consistent with those given in Part 1-1, but are more conservative in respect of the conditions and limitations of their use.

(3) For those types of masonry structure or parts of structures not covered by (1), the design shall be based on Part 1-1.

(4) This Part 3 applies only to those masonry structures, or parts thereof, that are described in Part 1-1 and Part 2.

(5) The simplified calculation methods given in this Part 3 do not cover the design for accidental situations.

## Eurocode 6 - Bemessung und Konstruktion von Mauerwerksbauten - Teil 3: Vereinfachte Berechnungsmethoden für unbewehrte Mauerwerksbauten

(1)P Dieser Teil 3 des Eurocode 6 enthält vereinfachte Berechnungsmethoden, mit denen die Bemessung und Konstruktion der folgenden unbewehrten Mauerwerkswände unter bestimmten Anwendungsbedingungen erleichtert werden:

vertikal und durch Windlast beanspruchte Wände;

Wände unter Einzellasten;

Wandscheiben;

Kellerwände, beansprucht durch horizontalen Erddruck und vertikale Lasten;

horizontal beanspruchte Wände, die vertikal nicht beansprucht sind.

(2)P Die in diesem Teil 3 angegebenen Regeln entsprechen denen in Teil 1-1, sind jedoch hinsichtlich der Anwendungsbedingungen und -grenzen konservativer.

(3) Tragwerke oder Teile von Tragwerken aus Mauerwerk, die nicht den unter (1) genannten entsprechen, sind nach Teil 1-1 zu bemessen.

(4) Dieser Teil 3 gilt nur für die Mauerwerksbauten oder Teile von diesen, die in Teil 1-1 und Teil 2 beschrieben sind.

(5) Die in diesem Teil 3 angegebenen vereinfachten Berechnungsmethoden gelten nicht für die Bemessung von außergewöhnlichen Einwirkungen.

## Eurocode 6 - Calcul des ouvrages en maçonnerie - Partie 3: Méthodes de calcul simplifiées pour les ouvrages en maçonnerie non armée

(1)P La présente partie 3 de l'Eurocode 6 énonce des méthodes de calcul simplifiées destinées a faciliter le calcul des murs en maçonnerie non armée suivants, soumis a certaines conditions d'application:

murs soumis a des charges verticales, et aux charges dues au vent ;

murs soumis a des charges concentrées ;

murs de contreventement ;

murs de soubassement soumis a une poussée latérale des terres et a des charges verticales ;

murs soumis a des charges latérales mais non soumis a des charges verticales.

(2)P Les regles données dans la présente partie 3 sont cohérentes avec celles données dans la partie 1-1, mais sont plus conservatoires en ce qui concerne les conditions et les limitations de leur emploi.

(3) Pour les types de structures ou parties de structures en maçonnerie non couverts par (1), le calcul doit etre effectué sur la base de la partie 1-1.

(4) La présente partie 3 s'applique uniquement aux structures en maçonnerie, ou aux parties de ces structures, décrites dans les parties 1-1 et 2.

(5) Les méthodes de calcul simplifiées données dans la présente partie 3 ne s'appliquent pas au calcul des situations accidentelles.

## Evrokod 6: Projektiranje zidanih konstrukcij - 3. del: Poenostavljene računske metode za nearmirane zidane konstrukcije

### General Information

### RELATIONS

### Standards Content (sample)

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.Eurocode 6 - Design of masonry structures - Part 3: Simplified calculation methods for unreinforced masonry structuresEurocode 6 - Calcul des ouvrages en maçonnerie - Partie 3: Méthodes de calcul simplifiées pour les ouvrages en maçonnerie non arméeEurocode 6 - Bemessung und Konstruktion von Mauerwerksbauten - Teil 3: Vereinfachte Berechnungsmethoden für unbewehrte MauerwerksbautenTa slovenski standard je istoveten z:EN 1996-3:2006SIST EN 1996-3:2006en91.080.30Zidane konstrukcijeMasonry91.010.30Technical aspectsICS:SIST ENV 1996-3:20041DGRPHãþDSLOVENSKI

STANDARDSIST EN 1996-3:200601-maj-2006EUROPEAN STANDARDNORME EUROPÉENNEEUROPÄISCHE NORMEN 1996-3January 2006ICS 91.010.30; 91.080.30Supersedes ENV 1996-3:1999

English VersionEurocode 6 - Design of masonry structures - Part 3: Simplifiedcalculation methods for unreinforced masonry structuresEurocode 6 - Calcul des ouvrages en maçonnerie - Partie3: Méthodes de calcul simplifiées pour les ouvrages enmaçonnerie non arméeEurocode 6 - Bemessung und Konstruktion vonMauerwerksbauten - Teil 3: VereinfachteBerechnungsmethoden für unbewehrte MauerwerksbautenThis European Standard was approved by CEN on 24 November 2005.CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this EuropeanStandard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such nationalstandards may be obtained on application to the Central Secretariat or to any CEN member.This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translationunder the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the Central Secretariat has the same status as the officialversions.CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France,Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania,Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATIONCOMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATIONEUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNGManagement Centre: rue de Stassart, 36

B-1050 Brussels© 2006 CENAll rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reservedworldwide for CEN national Members.Ref. No. EN 1996-3:2006: E

EN 1996-3:2006 (E) 2 Contents Background of the Eurocode programme.........................................................................................4 Status and field of application of Eurocodes.....................................................................................5 National Standards implementing Eurocodes..................................................................................6 Links between Eurocodes and harmonised technical specifications (ENs and ETAs) for products....................................................................................................................................6 National Annex for EN 1996-3...........................................................................................................7 1 General.....................................................................................................................................8 1.1 Scope Part 3 of Eurocode 6.....................................................................................................8 1.2 Normative references..............................................................................................................8 1.3 Assumptions.............................................................................................................................8 1.4 Distinction between Principles and Application Rules........................................................8 1.5 Definitions.................................................................................................................................9 1.5.1 General.....................................................................................................................................9 1.5.2 Masonry....................................................................................................................................9 1.6 Symbols.....................................................................................................................................9 2 Basis of design........................................................................................................................10 2.1 General...................................................................................................................................10 2.2 Basic variables........................................................................................................................10 2.3 Verification by the partial factor method...........................................................................10 3 Materials.................................................................................................................................11 3.1 General...................................................................................................................................11 3.2 Characteristic compressive strength of masonry...............................................................11 3.3 Characteristic flexural strength of masonry.......................................................................11 3.4 Characteristic initial shear strength of masonry................................................................11 4 Design of unreinforced masonry walls using simplified calculation methods.................12 4.1 General...................................................................................................................................12 4.2 Simplified calculation method for walls subjected to vertical and wind loading............12 4.2.1 Conditions for application....................................................................................................12 4.2.2 Determination of design vertical load resistance of a wall................................................15 4.3 Simplified calculation method for walls subjected to concentrated loads........................18 4.4 Simplified calculation method for shear walls....................................................................19 4.4.1 Verification of shear resistance of walls..............................................................................19 4.4.2 Design shear resistance.........................................................................................................20 4.5 Simplified calculation method for basement walls subject to lateral earth pressure...................................................................................................................................21 4.6 Simplified calculation method for the design of walls subjected to limited lateral load but no vertical loads......................................................................................................22 4.7 Simplified calculation method for the design of walls subjected to uniform lateral load but no vertical loads......................................................................................................22

EN 1996-3:2006 (E)3 Annex A (Informative)

Simplified calculation method for unreinforced masonry walls of buildings not greater than 3 storeys.....................................................................................23 Annex B (Normative)

Simplified calculation method for the design of internal walls not subject to vertical loads and with limited lateral load.......................................................26 Annex C (Informative)

Simplified calculation method for the design of walls subjected to uniform lateral design load and no vertical loads..............................................................30 Annex D (Normative)

Simplified method of determining the characteristic strength of masonry..................................................................................................................................35

EN 1996-3:2006 (E) 4 Foreword This European Standard EN 1996-3 has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 250 “Structural Eurocodes”, the secretariat of which is held by BSI. This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by July 2006, and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn at the latest by March 2010. CEN/TC 250 is responsible for all Structural Eurocodes. This document supersedes ENV 1996-3:1999 According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom. Background of the Eurocode programme In 1975, the Commission of the European Community decided on an action programme in the field of construction, based on article 95 of the Treaty. The objective of the programme was the elimination of technical obstacles to trade and the harmonisation of technical specifications. Within this action programme, the Commission took the initiative to establish a set of harmonised technical rules for the design of construction works which, in a first stage, would serve as an alternative to the national rules in force in the Member States and, ultimately, would replace them. For fifteen years, the Commission, with the help of a Steering Committee with Representatives of Member States, conducted the development of the Eurocodes programme, which led to the first generation of European codes in the 1980s. In 1989, the Commission and the Member States of the EU and EFTA decided, on the basis of an agreement1 between the Commission and CEN, to transfer the preparation and the publication of the Eurocodes to the CEN through a series of Mandates, in order to provide them with a future status of European Standard (EN). This links de facto the Eurocodes with the provisions of all the Council’s Directives and/or Commission’s Decisions dealing with European standards (e.g. the Council Directive 89/106/EEC on construction products -CPD- and Council Directives 93/37/EEC, 92/50/EEC and 89/440/EEC on public works and services and equivalent EFTA Directives initiated in pursuit of setting up the internal market). The Structural Eurocode programme comprises the following standards generally consisting of a number of Parts:

1 Agreement between the Commission of the European Communities and the European Committee for Standardisation (CEN) concerning the work on Eurocodes for the design of building and civil engineering works (BC/CEN/03/89).

EN 1996-3:2006 (E)5 EN 1990, Eurocode: Basis of structural design . EN 1991, Eurocode 1: Actions on structures. EN 1992, Eurocode 2: Design of concrete structures. EN 1993, Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures. EN 1994, Eurocode 4: Design of composite steel and concrete structures. EN 1995, Eurocode 5: Design of timber structures. EN 1996, Eurocode 6: Design of masonry structures. EN 1997, Eurocode 7: Geotechnical design. EN 1998, Eurocode 8: Design of structures for earthquake resistance. EN 1999, Eurocode 9: Design of aluminium structures. Eurocode standards recognise the responsibility of regulatory authorities in each Member State and have safeguarded their right to determine values related to regulatory safety matters at national level where these continue to vary from State to State. Status and field of application of Eurocodes The Member States of the EU and EFTA recognise that Eurocodes serve as reference documents for the following purposes:

as a means to prove compliance of building and civil engineering works with the essential requirements of Council Directive 89/106/EEC, particularly Essential Requirement N°1 – Mechanical resistance and stability – and Essential Requirement N°2 – Safety in case of fire;

as a basis for specifying contracts for construction works and related engineering services;

as a framework for drawing up harmonised technical specifications for construction products (ENs and ETAs). The Eurocodes, as far as they concern the construction works themselves, have a direct relationship with the Interpretative Documents2 referred to in Article 12 of the CPD, although they are of a different nature from harmonised product standards3. Therefore, technical aspects arising from the

2 According to Article 3.3 of the CPD, the essential requirements (ERs) shall be given concrete form in interpretative documents for the creation of the necessary links between the essential requirements and the mandates for harmonised ENs and ETAGs/ETAs. 3 According to Article 12 of the CPD the interpretative documents shall: a) give concrete form to the essential requirements by harmonising the terminology and the technical bases and indicating classes or levels for each requirement where necessary; b) indicate methods of correlating these classes or levels of requirement with the technical specifications, e.g. methods of calculation and of proof, technical rules for project design, etc.;

EN 1996-3:2006 (E) 6 Eurocodes work need to be adequately considered by CEN Technical Committees and/or EOTA Working Groups working on product standards with a view to achieving full compatibility of these technical specifications with the Eurocodes. The Eurocode standards provide common structural design rules for everyday use for the design of whole structures and component products of both a traditional and an innovative nature. Unusual forms of construction or design conditions are not specifically covered and additional expert consideration will be required by the designer in such cases. National Standards implementing Eurocodes The National Standards implementing Eurocodes will comprise the full text of the Eurocode (including any annexes), as published by CEN, which may be preceded by a National title page and National foreword, and may be followed by a National Annex (informative). The National Annex may only contain information on those parameters which are left open in the Eurocode for national choice, known as Nationally Determined Parameters, to be used for the design of buildings and civil engineering works to be constructed in the country concerned, i.e.: values and/or classes where alternatives are given in the Eurocode, values to be used where a symbol only is given in the Eurocode, country specific data (geographical, climatic, etc), e.g. snow map, the procedure to be used where alternative procedures are given in the Eurocode and it may also contain decisions on the application of informative annexes, references to non-contradictory complementary information to assist the user to apply the Eurocode. Links between Eurocodes and harmonised technical specifications (ENs and ETAs) for products. There is a need for consistency between the harmonised technical specifications for construction products and the technical rules for works4. Furthermore, all the information accompanying the CE Marking of the construction products which refer to Eurocodes shall clearly mention which Nationally Determined Parameters have been taken into account. This European Standard is part of EN 1996 which comprises the following parts: Part 1-1: General

rules for reinforced and unreinforced masonry.c) serve as a reference for the establishment of harmonised standards and guidelines for European technical approvals.

The Eurocodes, de facto, play a similar role in the field of the ER 1 and a part of ER 2. 4 See Article 3.3 and Article 12 of the CPD, as well as clauses 4.2, 4.3.1, 4.3.2 and 5.2 of ID 1.

EN 1996-3:2006 (E)7 Part 1-2: General rules - Structural fire design. Part 2: Design considerations, selection of materials and execution of masonry. Part 3: Simplified calculation methods for unreinforced

masonry structures. EN 1996-1-1 describes the principles and requirements for safety, serviceability and durability of masonry structures. It is based on the limit state concept used in conjunction with a partial factor method. This EN 1996-3 describes simplified calculation methods to facilitate the design of unreinforced masonry walls based on the principles from EN 1996-1-1. For the design of new structures, EN 1996 is intended to be used, for direct application, together with ENs 1990, 1991, 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1997, 1998 and 1999. EN 1996-3 is intended for use by: committees drafting standards for structural design and related product, testing and execution standards; clients (e.g. for the formulation of their specific requirements on reliability levels and durability); designers and contractors; relevant authorities. National Annex for EN 1996-3 This standard gives some symbols for which a National value needs to be given, with notes indicating where national choices may have to be made. Therefore the National Standard implementing EN 1996-3 should have a National Annex containing all Nationally Determined Parameters to be used for the design of buildings and civil engineering works to be constructed in the relevant country.

National choice is allowed in EN 1996-3 through clauses: 2.3 (2)P Verification by the partial factor method

4.1 (P) Verification of the overall stability of a building

4.2.1.1 (1)P General conditions

4.2.2.3 (1) Capacity reduction factor

D.1 (1) Characteristic compressive strength

D.2 (1) Characteristic flexural strength

D.3 (1) Characteristic initial shear strength.

EN 1996-3:2006 (E) 8 1 General 1.1 Scope Part 3 of Eurocode 6 (1)P The scope of Eurocode 6 for Masonry Structures as given in 1.1.1 of EN 1996-1-1:2005 applies also to this EN 1996-3. NOTE: Eurocode 6 deals only with the requirements for resistance, serviceability and durability of structures. Other requirements are not considered. Eurocode 6 does not cover the special requirements of seismic design. (2)P EN 1996-3 provides simplified calculation methods to facilitate the design of the following unreinforced masonry walls, subject to certain conditions of application: walls subjected to vertical loading and wind loading; walls subjected to concentrated loads; shear walls; basement walls subjected to lateral earth pressure and vertical loads; walls subjected to lateral loads but not subjected to vertical loads. (3)P The rules given in EN 1996-3 are consistent with those given in EN 1996-1-1, but are more conservative in respect of the conditions and limitations of their use. (4) For those types of masonry structure or parts of structures not covered by (1), the design shall be based on EN 1996-1-1.

(5) ThisEN 1996-3 applies only to those masonry structures, or parts thereof, that are described in EN 1996-1-1 and EN 1996-2. (6) The simplified calculation methods given in this

EN 1996-3 do not cover the design for accidental situations. 1.2 Normative references

(1)P The references in 1.2 of EN 1996-1-1:2005 apply to this EN 1996-3. 1.3 Assumptions (1)P The assumptions given in 1.3 of EN 1990:2002 apply to this EN 1996-3. 1.4 Distinction between Principles and Application Rules (1)P The rules of 1.4 of EN 1990:2002 apply to this EN 1996-3.

EN 1996-3:2006 (E)9 1.5 Definitions 1.5.1 General (1) The terms and definitions given in 1.5 of EN 1990:2002 apply to this EN 1996-3. (2) The terms and definitions in 1.5 of EN 1996-1-1:2005 apply to this EN 1996-3. (3) Additional terms and definitions used in this EN 1996-2 are given the meanings contained in clause 1.5.2. 1.5.2 Masonry 1.5.2.1 basement wall a retaining wall constructed partly or fully below ground level. 1.6 Symbols

(1)P Material-independent symbols are given in 1.6 of EN 1990. (2)P For the purpose of this standard the symbols given in

EN 1996-1-1 apply. (3)P Other symbols used in this EN 1996-3 are: bc is the distance apart of cross walls or other buttressing elements; c is a constant; fk,s is the characteristic compressive strength of masonry, determined from a simplified method; fvdo is the design value of the initial shear strength; fvdu is the design value of the limit to the shear strength; ha is the average height of the building; he is the height of the wall under ground level hm is the maximum height of a building allowed with the simplified calculation method; kG is a constant;

l is the length of a wall in the horizontal direction; lbx is the plan dimension of a building in the x-direction; lby is the plan dimension of a building in the y-direction; lf is the span of a floor;

lf,ef is the effective span of a floor; lsx is the length of a shear wall orientated in the x-direction;

lsy is the length of a shear wall orientated in the y-direction;EN 1996-3:2006 (E) 10 NEd,max is the design value of the maximum vertical load NEd,min is the design value of the minimum vertical load qEwd is the design wind load per unit area; wEk is the characteristic wind load per unit area; α is the loading ratio; β is a constant; ρe is the weight per volume of the soil; Φs is the capacity reduction factor. 2 Basis of design 2.1 General (1)P The design of masonry buildings shall be in accordance with the general rules given in EN 1990. (2)P Specific provisions for masonry structures are given in section 2 of EN 1996-1-1:2005 and shall be applied. 2.2 Basic variables (1) P Actions shall be obtained from the relevant parts of EN 1991. (2)P Partial factors for load shall be obtained from EN 1990. (3)P Properties for materials and construction products and geometrical data to be used for design shall be those specified in EN 1996-1-1, or other relevant hENs of ETAs, unless otherwise indicated in this EN 1996-3.

2.3 Verification by the partial factor method (1)P The verification by the partial factor method shall be done according to clause 2.4 of EN 1996-1-1:2005. NOTE: The notes to 2.4.2 of EN 1996-1-1:2005 also apply. (2)P The relevant values of the partial factor for materials γM shall be used for the ultimate limit state for ordinary situations.

NOTE: The numerical values to be ascribed to the symbol γM may be found in the National Annex. Recommended values are those as given in clause 2.4.3 of EN 1996-1-1:2005. The recommended values for masonry are repeated in the table below.

EN 1996-3:2006 (E)γM Class Material

Masonry made with 1 2 3 4 5 Units of Category I, designed mortar 1,5 1,7 2,0 2,2 2,5 Units of Category I, prescribed mortar 1,7 2,0 2,2 2,5 2,7 Units of Category II 2,0 2,2 2,5 2,7 3,0

END of NOTE 3 Materials 3.1 General (1)P The materials used in the masonry walls referred to in this EN 1996-3 shall be in accordance with Section 3 of EN 1996-1-1:2005. (2) Masonry units should be grouped as Group 1, Group 2, Group 3 or Group 4 according to clause 3.1.1 of EN 1996-1-1:2005. NOTE: Normally the manufacturer will state the grouping of his units in his product declaration. 3.2 Characteristic compressive strength of masonry (1) The characteristic compressive strength of masonry should be determined according to 3.6.1 of EN 1996-1-1:2005.

(2) A simplified method to determine the characteristic compressive strength of masonry for use in this document is provided in Annex D. 3.3 Characteristic flexural strength of masonry (1) The characteristic flexural strength of masonry should be determined according to 3.6.3 of EN 1996-1-1:2005. (2) A simplified method to determine the characteristic flexural strengths of masonry for use in this document is provided in Annex D. 3.4 Characteristic initial shear strength of masonry (1) The characteristic initial shear strength of masonry, fvko, should be determined according to 3.6.2 of EN 1996-1-1:2005.

EN 1996-3:2006 (E) 12 (2) A simplified method to determine the characteristic initial shear strength of masonry for use in this document is provided in Annex D. 4 Design of unreinforced masonry walls using simplified calculation methods 4.1 General (1)P The overall stability of a building, of which the wall forms a part, shall be verified. NOTE: The verification may be carried out in accordance with 5.4(1) of EN 1996-1-1:2005 or from a simplified method, which may be given in the National Annex. 4.2 Simplified calculation method for walls subjected to vertical and wind loading 4.2.1 Conditions for application 4.2.1.1 General conditions (1)P For use of the simplified method the following conditions shall be complied with: the height of the building above ground level shall not exceed hm; for buildings with a sloping roof the height shall be determined as average height ha indicated in

Figure 4.1. ha ha ha haFigure 4.1 F

Determination of average height NOTE The numerical value to be ascribed to the symbol hm for use in a country may be found in its National Annex. Recommended values, given as classes, are given in the table below. Class 1 2 3 hm 20 m 16 m 12 m

the span of the floors supported by the walls shall not exceed 7,0 m; the span of the roof supported by the walls shall not exceed 7,0 m, except in the case of a lightweight trussed roof structure where the span shall not exceed 14,0 m; the clear storey height shall not exceed 3,2 m unless the overall height of the building is greater than 7,0 m, in which case the clear storey height of the ground storey may be 4,0 m.

EN 1996-3:2006 (E)13 the characteristic values of the variable actions on the floors and the roof shall not exceed 5,0 kN/m²; the walls are laterally restrained by the floors and roof in the horizontal direction at right angles to the plane of the wall, either by the floors and roof themselves or by suitable methods, e.g. ring beams with sufficient stiffness according to 8.5.1.1 of EN 1996-1-1:2005 the walls are vertically aligned throughout their height. the floors and roof have a bearing on the wall of at least 0,4 t of the thickness of the wall but not less than 75 mm; the final creep coefficient of the masonry φ∞ does not exceed 2,0; the thickness of the wall and the compressive strength of the masonry shall be checked at each storey level, unless these variables are the same at all storeys.

NOTE A further simplified calculation method, applicable to buildings not exceeding 3 storeys in height, is given in Annex A. 4.2.1.2 Additional conditions (1) For walls acting as end supports to floors (see

Figure 4.2), the simplified calculation method given in 4.2.2 may be applied only if the floor span lf is not greater than: 7,0 m when NEd ≤ kG t b fd (4.1a) or the lesser of

4,5 + 10 t (in m) and 7,0 m when fd > 2,5 N/mm² (4.1b) orthe lesser of

4,5 + 10 t (in m) and 6,0 m when fd ≤ 2,5 N/mm² (4.1c) where:

NEd is the design vertical load on the level being considered; t

is the actual thickness of the wall, or the load bearing leaf of a cavity wall, acting as an end support, in metres; b is the width over which the vertical load is effective; fd is the design compressive strength of the masonry; kG is 0,2 for Group 1 masonry units is 0,1 for Group 2, Group 3 and Group 4 masonry units.

EN 1996-3:2006 (E) 14 h Figure 4.2F Wall acting as end support (2)P Walls acting as end supports to floors or roofs that are subjected to wind loading shall be designed according to 4.2.2 only if:

hcNtbhqc2Ed2Ewd1+≥ (4.2) where: h is the clear storey height; qEwd is the design wind load on the wall per unit area of the wall; NEd is the design value of the vertical load giving the least severe effect on the wall at the top of the storey considered;

b is the width over which the vertical load is effective; t is the actual thickness of the wall, or the load bearing leaf of a cavity wall, acting as an end support; α is dEdfbtN; c1, c2 are constants derived from

Table 4.1. Table 4.1 : Constants c1 and c2 α c1 c2 0,05 0.12 0,017 0,10 0,12 0,019 0,20 0,14 0,022 0,30 0,15 0,025 0,50 0,23 0,031 NOTE

Linear interpolation is permitted.EN 1996-3:2006 (E)

15 NOTE Annex C gives a simplified method for lateral load design, but it may be used to obtain the thickness t instead of equation (4.2) if the design vertical load giving the most severe effect is k b t fd or less, where k, b, t and fd are as described in 4.2.1.2. 4.2.2 Determination of design vertical load resistance of a wall 4.2.2.1 General (1)P Under the ultimate limit state it shall be verified that: NEd ≤ NRd (4.3) where: NEd

is the design vertical load on the wall; NRdis the design vertical load resistance of the wall according to clause 4.2.2.2. 4.2.2.2 Design vertical load resistance (1) The design vertical load resistance NRd may be determined from: NRd = Φs fd A (4.4) where: Φs is the capacity reduction factor allowing for the effects of slenderness and eccentricity of the loading, obtained from 4.2.2.3; fd is the design compressive strength of the masonry; A is the loaded horizontal gross sectional area of the wall. 4.2.2.3

Capacity reduction factor(1) The capacity reduction factor Φs for intermediate walls should be determined from equation (4.5a). Φs = 0,85 – 0,0011 2effthe (4.5a)

For walls acting as end supports to the floors Φs should be determined from the lesser of

equation (4.5a) or Φs = 1,3 – 8eff,l≤ 0,85 (4.5b) For walls at the highest level acting as end support to the top floor or roof Φs should be determined from the lesser of equations (4.5a), (4.5b) or Φs = 0,4 (4.5c)

EN 1996-3:2006 (E) 16 where: hef is the effective height of the wall (see 4.2.2.4); tef is the effective thickness determined in accordance with 5.5.1.3 of EN 1996-1-1:2005

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