Fire safety engineering -- Part 7: Detection, activation and suppression

Ingénierie de la sécurité contre l'incendie -- Partie 7: Détection, activation et suppression

Požarno inženirstvo - 7. del: Odkrivanje, aktiviranje in gašenje

General Information

Status
Withdrawn
Publication Date
31-Jan-2001
Withdrawal Date
15-Jun-2022
Technical Committee
Current Stage
9900 - Withdrawal (Adopted Project)
Start Date
13-Jun-2022
Due Date
06-Jul-2022
Completion Date
16-Jun-2022

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST ISO/TR 13387-7:2001
01-februar-2001
Požarno inženirstvo - 7. del: Odkrivanje, aktiviranje in gašenje
Fire safety engineering -- Part 7: Detection, activation and suppression

Ingénierie de la sécurité contre l'incendie -- Partie 7: Détection, activation et suppression

Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: ISO/TR 13387-7:1999
ICS:
13.220.01 Varstvo pred požarom na Protection against fire in
splošno general
SIST ISO/TR 13387-7:2001 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST ISO/TR 13387-7:2001
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SIST ISO/TR 13387-7:2001
TECHNICAL ISO/TR
REPORT 13387-7
First edition
1999-10-15
Fire safety engineering —
Part 7:
Detection, activation and suppression
Ingénierie de la sécurité contre l'incendie —
Partie 7: Détection, activation et suppression
Reference number
ISO/TR 13387-7:1999(E)
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST ISO/TR 13387-7:2001
ISO/TR 13387-7:1999(E)
Contents

1 Scope ........................................................................................................................................................................1

2 Normative references ..............................................................................................................................................1

3 Terms and definitions .............................................................................................................................................2

4 Symbols and abbreviated terms ............................................................................................................................4

4.1 Symbols.................................................................................................................................................................4

4.2 Abbreviated terms ................................................................................................................................................4

5 Subsystem 4 of the total design system ...............................................................................................................4

5.1 General discussion...............................................................................................................................................4

5.2 Explanation and illustrations...............................................................................................................................4

5.3 Information flow....................................................................................................................................................6

6 Subsystem evaluations...........................................................................................................................................7

6.1 Detection time .......................................................................................................................................................7

6.2 Activation time ....................................................................................................................................................14

6.3 Performance of suppression systems..............................................................................................................19

7 Engineering methods ............................................................................................................................................26

7.1 General applications to subsystem 4 ...............................................................................................................26

7.2 Estimation formulae ...........................................................................................................................................26

7.3 Computer models ...............................................................................................................................................26

7.4 Experimental methods .......................................................................................................................................27

7.5 Reliability analysis..............................................................................................................................................28

Annex A (informative) Physical mechanisms of suppression by water sprays..................................................29

Annex B (informative) Calculation of response time for fixed temperature detectors.......................................30

Annex C (informative) Extinguishment by chemical and powder aerosols ........................................................31

Bibliography..............................................................................................................................................................32

© ISO 1999

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic

or mechanical, including photocopying and microfilm, without permission in writing from the publisher.

International Organization for Standardization
Case postale 56 • CH-1211 Genève 20 • Switzerland
Internet iso@iso.ch
Printed in Switzerland
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
SIST ISO/TR 13387-7:2001
© ISO
ISO/TR 13387-7:1999(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies (ISO

member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO technical

committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been established has

the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in

liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical

Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.

The main task of ISO technical committees is to prepare International Standards, but in exceptional circumstances a

technical committee may propose the publication of a Technical Report of one of the following types:

 type 1, when the required support cannot be obtained for the publication of an International Standard, despite

repeated efforts;

 type 2, when the subject is still under technical development or where for any other reason there is the future

but not immediate possibility of an agreement on an International Standard;

 type 3, when a technical committee has collected data of a different kind from that which is normally published

as an International Standard (“state of the art“, for example).

Technical Reports of types 1 and 2 are subject to review within three years of publication, to decide whether they

can be transformed into International Standards. Technical Reports of type 3 do not necessarily have to be

reviewed until the data they provide are considered to be no longer valid or useful.

ISO/TR 13387-7, which is a Technical Report of type 2, was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 92, Fire

safety, Subcommittee SC 4, Fire safety engineering.

It is one of eight parts which outlines important aspects which need to be considered in making a fundamental

approach to the provision of fire safety in buildings. The approach ignores any constraints which might apply as a

consequence of regulations or codes; following the approach will not, therefore, necessarily mean compliance with

national regulations.

ISO/TR 13387 consists of the following parts, under the general title Fire safety engineering:

 Part 1: Application of fire performance concepts to design objectives
 Part 2: Design fire scenarios and design fires
 Part 3: Assessment and verification of mathematical fire models
 Part 4: Initiation and development of fire and generation of fire effluents
 Part 5: Movement of fire effluents
 Part 6: Structural response and fire spread beyond the enclosure of origin
 Part 7: Detection, activation and suppression
 Part 8: Life safety — Occupant behaviour, location and condition
Annexes A to C of this part of ISO 13387 are for information only.
iii
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SIST ISO/TR 13387-7:2001
© ISO
ISO/TR 13387-7:1999(E)
Introduction

There are many important active measures that can be implemented to warn occupants and building management

about the existence of a fire, to change or modify the normal progress of a fire so that safety and loss reduction

criteria can be satisfied. These active protection measures, which constitute subsystem 4 in the fire safety

engineering design process, are described and discussed in detail in this document.

Subsystem 4 provides guidance on the use of engineering methods for evaluation of the time to detect smoke or

flames by a wide range of commercial devices, including the time required for heat sensitive elements in

suppression or other control devices to respond to the gas-flow generated by an incipient or growing fire. To

accomplish this, subsystem 4 draws on subsystems 1 to 3 for characterizing the size of the fire as well as the

temperature, species concentration and gas velocity fields generated by the design fire, as described further in

clause 5. Subsystem 4 also draws on a description of sensor locations and characteristics from building design

parameters as well as information available from ISO/TC 21 (Equipment for fire protection and fire fighting)

standards on fire detection and alarm systems.

Once detection has occurred, the subsystem also provides guidance on how to evaluate the time required to

activate the desired response to a fire, such as an alarm, a smoke damper or a specified flow of extinguishing agent

from typical distribution devices. To accomplish this, subsystem 4 draws on information from the vendors and

manufacturers of detection and suppression systems. The hydraulic design of suppression agent piping systems is

considered to be part of the activation process of bringing agent to the stage of interacting with the fire.

The effect of various suppression strategies on the fire heat release rate is evaluated in subsystem 4 by reference

to installation guidelines, information obtained from ISO/TC 21 standards on fixed fire extinguishing systems and the

use of engineering judgement in the application of these guidelines and standards to design-fire scenarios. Once a

suppression strategy (usually in terms of a required agent flow rate) is assumed, there is considerable feedback

required between subsystem 4 and subsystem 2 to determine the resultant fire environment, as described in

clause 5. Typically, the success of a strategy is judged from expected maximum gas or material temperatures,

radiant heat to target locations, effluent/species concentrations and/or the total amount of suppression agent

required compared to design objectives.

The main discussion of how engineering methods are used to evaluate or calculate the important subsystem 4

outputs is carried out in clause 6, which is subdivided into subclauses on detection time, activation time and effect of

suppression strategies. Each of these subclauses contains a discussion of fire safety engineering design, the

important physical and chemical processes to be considered, evaluation methods for specific classes of devices as

well as an explicit list of required input parameters needed to perform an engineering analysis and the outputs from

such an analysis.

Clause 7 is a discussion of the engineering methods available to evaluate detection, activation and suppression

design options. The engineering method selected to solve the design problem should be assessed and verified

using the principles documented in ISO/TR 13387-3, Assessment and verification of mathematical fire models.

Special care should be taken when using input data published in the literature since this information and/or data

may be related to specific test conditions and/or specific commercial products; the application of information and/or

data under different conditions may result in significant errors.

Further information and background material together with specific literature references that support the discussion

in the preceding clauses with details of the fundamental approach to fire safety engineering is available from the

sources listed in the bibliography.
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SIST ISO/TR 13387-7:2001
TECHNICAL REPORT © ISO ISO/TR 13387-7:1999(E)
Fire safety engineering —
Part 7:
Detection, activation and suppression
1 Scope

This part of ISO 13387 is intended to provide guidance to designers, regulators and fire-safety professionals on the

fundamental engineering methods that should be included in design guides and reference manuals for the

prediction of:

a) times to detect fire events, based on the design-fire environment and properties and/or location of automatic

detection devices;

b) times to activate automatic alarm systems and automatic systems designed to control fire growth or to control

the effects of fire, based on system design parameters;

c) the effectiveness of activated automatic suppression systems in limiting the potential consequences of a fire,

based on key system characteristics.

NOTE The effect of human intervention on detection, activation or suppression is considered beyond the scope of this

document.

This part of ISO 13387 is not itself a design guide or reference manual but can be used as a resource by national

organizations in the preparation of such documents. This report also provides a framework for critically reviewing

the suitability of engineering methods, whether hand calculations or predictive computer models or correlations

based on empirical data, to predict detection, activation and the effect of fire suppression systems. Note that the

term “engineering method” used in this document refers to any of the preceding techniques.

2 Normative references

The following normative documents contain provisions which, through reference in this text, constitute provisions of

this part of ISO/TR 13387. For dated references, subsequent amendments to, or revisions of, any of these

publications do not apply. However, parties to agreements based on this part of ISO/TR 13387 are encouraged to

investigate the possibility of applying the most recent editions of the normative documents indicated below. For

undated references, the latest edition of the normative document referred to applies. Members of ISO and IEC

maintain registers of currently valid International Standards.
ISO 3009:1976, Fire-resistance tests — Glazed elements.

ISO 6182-1:— , Fire protection — Automatic sprinkler systems — Part 1: Requirements and test methods for

sprinklers.
To be published. (Replaces ISO 6182-1:1993).
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SIST ISO/TR 13387-7:2001
© ISO
ISO/TR 13387-7:1999(E)
ISO/TR 13387-1,

Fire safety engineering — Part 1: Application of fire performance concepts to design objectives.

ISO/TR 13387-2, Fire safety engineering — Part 2: Design fire scenarios and design fires.

ISO/TR 13387-3, Fire safety engineering — Part 3: Assessment and verification of mathematical fire models.

ISO/TR 13387-4, Fire safety engineering — Part 4: Initiation and development of fire and generation of fire effluents.

ISO/TR 13387-5, Fire safety engineering — Part 5: Movement of fire effluents.

ISO/TR 13387-6, Fire safety engineering — Part 6: Structural response and fire spread beyond the enclosure of

origin.

ISO/TR 13387-8, Fire safety engineering — Part 8: Life safety — Occupant behaviour, location and condition.

ISO 13943, Fire safety — Vocabulary.
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this part of ISO/TR 13387, the definitions given in ISO 13943, ISO/TR 13387-1 and the

following apply.
3.1
activation time

time interval from response by a sensing device until the suppression system, smoke control system, alarm system

or other fire safety system is fully operational
3.2
ADD

measured volumetric flow rate of water per unit area from ESFR sprinklers that is delivered near the base of a fire

plume for a specific fire heat release rate
3.3
agent outlet

point in fixed extinguishing system at which a sprinkler, suppression or control device is located

3.4
control-mode sprinkler

sprinkler (for example, conventional or spray type) that limits fire propagation through wetting/soaking of uninvolved

fuel
3.5
conventional sprinkler

sprinkler type which projects 40 % to 60 % of the total water flow initially downward

3.6
design density
sprinkler application rate in the absence of a fire
3.7
detection time

time interval from ignition of a fire until its detection by an automatic or manual system

3.8
engineering judgement

process exercised by a professional who is qualified, because of training, experience and recognized skills, to

complement, supplement, accept or reject elements of a quantitative analysis
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SIST ISO/TR 13387-7:2001
© ISO
ISO/TR 13387-7:1999(E)
3.9
fire extinguishment
process by which agents eliminate all flaming combustion
3.10
HRR
heat release rate
3.11
method

abbreviation for one of the recommended engineering methods used to predict detection and activation times and

the effect of fire suppression or fire control systems, whether by hand calculation, predictive computer models or

empirical correlations
3.12
prewetting

process by which water from sprinkler sprays gradually, soaks or wets fuel surrounding the fuel region actively

involved in fire, leading to a reduction in fire propagation
3.13
RDD

volumetric flow rate of water per unit area, applied uniformly to the top surface of a fuel array, needed to cause fire

HRR to decay rapidly to a sufficiently low level
3.14
smoke management

the use of compartmentation and buoyancy effects, in addition to flow control, dilution and pressurization, to re-

direct smoke
3.15
spray sprinkler

sprinkler type which projects 80 % to 100 % of the total water flow initially downward

3.16
sprinkler activation area
total horizontal area over which sprinklers are designed to operate
3.17
sprinkler application rate

volumetric water flow rate applied per unit surface area from operating sprinklers (also called “sprinkler density” or

“discharge density” for horizontal surfaces or, more generally, “surface density”)

3.18
suppression-mode sprinkler

sprinkler (for example, ESFR type) that delivers water directly to burning fuel surfaces, thereby reducing the fire

HRR
3.19
suppression system

a system designed for active stabilization, reduction or elimination of fire propagation and heat/smoke release

3.20
water mist protection system

array of devices designed for fire extinguishment through the use of multiple water sprays

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SIST ISO/TR 13387-7:2001
© ISO
ISO/TR 13387-7:1999(E)
4 Symbols and abbreviated terms
4.1 Symbols
1/2
C Conductivity factor, expressed in (m/s)
d Geometric number-mean diameter of particles, expressed in mm
K Light extinction coefficient in smoke/effluent species, expressed in m
N Number concentration of particles, expressed in m
T Temperature of detector sensing element, expressed in K
T Nominal operating temperature of detector, expressed in K

T Actual gas temperature in test section of tunnel or near detector during fire, expressed in K

T Ambient air temperature during testing, expressed in K
t Response time of detector, expressed in s

u Actual gas velocity in test section of tunnel or near the detector during fire, expressed in m/s

sGeometric standard deviation of particle diameter, expressed in mm
4.2 Abbreviated terms
ADD Actual delivered density, expressed in mm/s
CFD Computational fluid dynamics
ESFR Early suppression fast response (suppression-mode sprinkler type)
HRR Heat release rate, expressed in kW
IR Infra-red
RDD Required delivered density, expressed in mm/s
1/2
RTI Response time index, expressed in (m·s)
UV Ultra-violet
5 Subsystem 4 of the total design system
5.1 General discussion

This clause describes the procedure by which this document is to be used together with other parts of ISO 13387.

5.2 Explanation and illustrations

To aid in the use of this document in a comprehensive fire safety design process, the information herein can be

considered to be part of a detection, activation and suppression subsystem 4 within the total fire safety design

system (see Figure 1). The first layer of the design system contains a set of global information, which contains data

either transferred among various subsystems or employed to make engineering decisions. These data include three

types of global information, which are described more fully in ISO/TR 13387-1:
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SIST ISO/TR 13387-7:2001
© ISO
ISO/TR 13387-7:1999(E)
a) prescribed and/or estimated parameters, consisting of

1) building parameters (includes location and/or specifications for all fire-related systems);

2) occupant parameters;
3) fire loads;
4) fire scenarios;
5) environmental parameters;
b) intervention effects, consisting of
1) alarm activation;
2) heat and smoke control activation;
3) suppression activation;
4) fire brigade intervention;
c) simulation dynamics profiles versus time, consisting of
1) size of fire and/or smoke;
2) thermal profile;
3) pressure and/or velocity profile;
4) effluent/species profile;
5) occupant condition;
6) occupant location;
7) building condition;
8) contents condition.

The next layer of the design system consists of a set of evaluations, which in the case of subsystem 4, includes

three types of analysis results providing
a) detection time;
b) activation time;
c) performance of suppression systems.

Each of these three types of evaluations is discussed in detail in the three parts of clause 6.

The final layer of the design system consists of processes that include
a) convective heat detection;
b) effluent/species detection;
c) radiant energy detection;
d) agent flow in suppression systems;
e) interactions between suppression systems and fires;
f) interactions between smoke control and suppression systems.

These six different processes, plus other related processes, are part of calculation procedures that generate the

three types of evaluations required by subsystem 4 for use by the other subsystems in the total fire safety design

system.
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SIST ISO/TR 13387-7:2001
© ISO
ISO/TR 13387-7:1999(E)
5.3 Information flow

To perform one of the three types of evaluations (detection, activation or suppression), a fire safety engineering

practitioner must make use of global information data as input parameters for the detailed process calculations.

These calculations allow the time for response of alarm, smoke and/or heat control and active suppression devices

to be output for use by life safety (and in the future, property, culture and environmental protection) subsystems. In

addition to outputting response times, the process calculations in this subsystem also evaluate the success of

strategies for active suppression of fire by providing empirical information on required flow rates of suppression

agents to reduce or eliminate flaming combustion. With information on the potential success of suppression

strategies, the fire growth, smoke movement and life safety subsystems can more readily evaluate the net effect on

the fire environment and on people. Finally, the process layer of design subsystem 4 can determine the detailed

characteristics of suppression agent delivery, thus allowing alternative, predictive field model calculations to be

performed in the fire growth and/or smoke movement subsystems.
ISO TC 92/SC 4 FIRE SAFETY ENGINEERING BUS SYSTEM
Subsystem 4 (SS4) — Detection, activation and suppression

Figure 1 — Illustration of the global information, evaluation and process buses for SS4.

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SIST ISO/TR 13387-7:2001
© ISO
ISO/TR 13387-7:1999(E)
6 Subsystem 4 evaluations

This clause discusses in detail the primary engineering evaluations related to fire detection times (see 6.1),

activation times (see 6.2) of alarms and heat and/or smoke control measures and the effectiveness of suppression

and other systems (see 6.3) for actively reducing fire consequences. The evaluation of operating characteristics of

fire suppression and control systems (for example, flow capacities, nozzle performance, exhaust capacities and

other parameters typically obtained from vendors) is discussed as part of the evaluation of activation times in 6.2

since system operating characteristics actually determine the time required for these systems to begin to interact

with the design fire. In 6.3, the system operating characteristics (for example, agent flow rates from nozzles)

required for successful fire suppression are evaluated. These requirements must be met by system performance

during activation, as calculated in 6.2.

Associated with each key subsystem output, recommended engineering methods for predicting unit physical and

chemical processes are discussed and all input information required by such methods is identified. Guidance on

locating unit process input data is also provided, along with available literature references. Areas for which a lack of

knowledge and/or input data are known to exist are addressed.
6.1 Detection time
6.1.1 Role in fire safety engineering design

Because the response time of detectors plays such an important role in fire safety, the selection of the proper

detector type and detector location for application to each type of occupancy must be consistent with clearly

established design objectives. Descriptions of the three major detector types, thermal, effluent/species (which

includes obscuration and/or optical beam detectors) and radiant emission, along with references to recommended

design documents, are discussed in the following clauses. This information should be used to match particular

design objectives (for example, resistance to non-fire related alarms, shortest possible detection time or

compatibility with the building and/or contents environment) to the detector selection and location process. In very

general terms (see references [10], [11] and [19] in the bibliography for additional information), thermal point or line

detectors are best suited to situations where cost and reliability are overriding factors, for example, to trigger water

flow in automatic sprinkler systems or where there are large numbers of locations to be monitored or where there is

a high particle count (for example, fine dust or droplets, fumes, insects, etc.) that can cause other detector types to

alarm without a fire. Effluent/species detectors are generally best suited when high sensitivity is needed to give the

shortest possible detection time, for example, when life safety or sensitive contents is the overriding concern.

Point detectors, whether thermal or effluent and/or species, often depend on fire-induced convective flows to

transport heat or smoke up to ceiling level in a plume and then radially outward in a ceiling-jet. This natural buoyant

motion, especially in the earliest stages of fire growth, may often:

a) bypass detectors improperly located outside of the plume or ceiling-jet flows (see reference [45] for information

on ceiling-jet thickness);
b) require significant transport times;
c) be disrupted by HVAC vent system flows; and

d) be disrupted by ambient stratification of the air in the building, as discussed in 6.1.2.4 of subsystem 2 and in

reference [19], pp. 4-15.

All of these phenomena can lead to significant detection delays. Radiant emission detectors and tubing networks of

sampling effluent/species detectors are often best suited for situations where such delays would result in detection

times that are inconsistent with design objectives (for example, very early detection of small fires).

Detection systems that are not properly designed because of incorrect detector type or location can result in large

numbers of alarms to non-fire signals, or “false alarms” being produced, especially when hundreds or thousands of

smoke detectors at a single location (for example, a hospital) can produce several false alarms per day. In some

instances false alarms can outnumber “real” alarms by ratios in excess of 20:1. Large numbers of false alarms can

lead to situations in which the alarm is ignored by many or all of the occupants or in which all detectors are disabled.

Careful location of detectors coupled with the correct choice of detector type and/or the use of detectors (see 6.1.6)

which incorporate multi-criteria detection, for example, can result in significantly fewer false alarms. With correct

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SIST ISO/TR 13387-7:2001
© ISO
ISO/TR 13387-7:1999(E)

design, false alarm to fire ratios can be reduced to 3:1 or fewer. The importance of the ongoing maintenance of fire

detection and alarm systems as a means of minimizing false alarms should also not be overlooked.

The task of determining the response of detectors to a design fire that properly tests whether design objectives

have been achieved is complicated by the fact that most occupancies (except some single-family residential units)

contain detectors that are interconnected with a central control system. This central system can have a range of

capabilities from activation of an alarm when any detector in the network responds all the way to sophisticated

programmable or learned decisions as to the proper alarm level based on analysis of the history of

...

TECHNICAL ISO/TR
REPORT 13387-7
First edition
1999-10-15
Fire safety engineering —
Part 7:
Detection, activation and suppression
Ingénierie de la sécurité contre l'incendie —
Partie 7: Détection, activation et suppression
Reference number
ISO/TR 13387-7:1999(E)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/TR 13387-7:1999(E)
Contents

1 Scope ........................................................................................................................................................................1

2 Normative references ..............................................................................................................................................1

3 Terms and definitions .............................................................................................................................................2

4 Symbols and abbreviated terms ............................................................................................................................4

4.1 Symbols.................................................................................................................................................................4

4.2 Abbreviated terms ................................................................................................................................................4

5 Subsystem 4 of the total design system ...............................................................................................................4

5.1 General discussion...............................................................................................................................................4

5.2 Explanation and illustrations...............................................................................................................................4

5.3 Information flow....................................................................................................................................................6

6 Subsystem evaluations...........................................................................................................................................7

6.1 Detection time .......................................................................................................................................................7

6.2 Activation time ....................................................................................................................................................14

6.3 Performance of suppression systems..............................................................................................................19

7 Engineering methods ............................................................................................................................................26

7.1 General applications to subsystem 4 ...............................................................................................................26

7.2 Estimation formulae ...........................................................................................................................................26

7.3 Computer models ...............................................................................................................................................26

7.4 Experimental methods .......................................................................................................................................27

7.5 Reliability analysis..............................................................................................................................................28

Annex A (informative) Physical mechanisms of suppression by water sprays..................................................29

Annex B (informative) Calculation of response time for fixed temperature detectors.......................................30

Annex C (informative) Extinguishment by chemical and powder aerosols ........................................................31

Bibliography..............................................................................................................................................................32

© ISO 1999

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic

or mechanical, including photocopying and microfilm, without permission in writing from the publisher.

International Organization for Standardization
Case postale 56 • CH-1211 Genève 20 • Switzerland
Internet iso@iso.ch
Printed in Switzerland
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
© ISO
ISO/TR 13387-7:1999(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies (ISO

member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO technical

committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been established has

the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in

liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical

Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.

The main task of ISO technical committees is to prepare International Standards, but in exceptional circumstances a

technical committee may propose the publication of a Technical Report of one of the following types:

 type 1, when the required support cannot be obtained for the publication of an International Standard, despite

repeated efforts;

 type 2, when the subject is still under technical development or where for any other reason there is the future

but not immediate possibility of an agreement on an International Standard;

 type 3, when a technical committee has collected data of a different kind from that which is normally published

as an International Standard (“state of the art“, for example).

Technical Reports of types 1 and 2 are subject to review within three years of publication, to decide whether they

can be transformed into International Standards. Technical Reports of type 3 do not necessarily have to be

reviewed until the data they provide are considered to be no longer valid or useful.

ISO/TR 13387-7, which is a Technical Report of type 2, was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 92, Fire

safety, Subcommittee SC 4, Fire safety engineering.

It is one of eight parts which outlines important aspects which need to be considered in making a fundamental

approach to the provision of fire safety in buildings. The approach ignores any constraints which might apply as a

consequence of regulations or codes; following the approach will not, therefore, necessarily mean compliance with

national regulations.

ISO/TR 13387 consists of the following parts, under the general title Fire safety engineering:

 Part 1: Application of fire performance concepts to design objectives
 Part 2: Design fire scenarios and design fires
 Part 3: Assessment and verification of mathematical fire models
 Part 4: Initiation and development of fire and generation of fire effluents
 Part 5: Movement of fire effluents
 Part 6: Structural response and fire spread beyond the enclosure of origin
 Part 7: Detection, activation and suppression
 Part 8: Life safety — Occupant behaviour, location and condition
Annexes A to C of this part of ISO 13387 are for information only.
iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
© ISO
ISO/TR 13387-7:1999(E)
Introduction

There are many important active measures that can be implemented to warn occupants and building management

about the existence of a fire, to change or modify the normal progress of a fire so that safety and loss reduction

criteria can be satisfied. These active protection measures, which constitute subsystem 4 in the fire safety

engineering design process, are described and discussed in detail in this document.

Subsystem 4 provides guidance on the use of engineering methods for evaluation of the time to detect smoke or

flames by a wide range of commercial devices, including the time required for heat sensitive elements in

suppression or other control devices to respond to the gas-flow generated by an incipient or growing fire. To

accomplish this, subsystem 4 draws on subsystems 1 to 3 for characterizing the size of the fire as well as the

temperature, species concentration and gas velocity fields generated by the design fire, as described further in

clause 5. Subsystem 4 also draws on a description of sensor locations and characteristics from building design

parameters as well as information available from ISO/TC 21 (Equipment for fire protection and fire fighting)

standards on fire detection and alarm systems.

Once detection has occurred, the subsystem also provides guidance on how to evaluate the time required to

activate the desired response to a fire, such as an alarm, a smoke damper or a specified flow of extinguishing agent

from typical distribution devices. To accomplish this, subsystem 4 draws on information from the vendors and

manufacturers of detection and suppression systems. The hydraulic design of suppression agent piping systems is

considered to be part of the activation process of bringing agent to the stage of interacting with the fire.

The effect of various suppression strategies on the fire heat release rate is evaluated in subsystem 4 by reference

to installation guidelines, information obtained from ISO/TC 21 standards on fixed fire extinguishing systems and the

use of engineering judgement in the application of these guidelines and standards to design-fire scenarios. Once a

suppression strategy (usually in terms of a required agent flow rate) is assumed, there is considerable feedback

required between subsystem 4 and subsystem 2 to determine the resultant fire environment, as described in

clause 5. Typically, the success of a strategy is judged from expected maximum gas or material temperatures,

radiant heat to target locations, effluent/species concentrations and/or the total amount of suppression agent

required compared to design objectives.

The main discussion of how engineering methods are used to evaluate or calculate the important subsystem 4

outputs is carried out in clause 6, which is subdivided into subclauses on detection time, activation time and effect of

suppression strategies. Each of these subclauses contains a discussion of fire safety engineering design, the

important physical and chemical processes to be considered, evaluation methods for specific classes of devices as

well as an explicit list of required input parameters needed to perform an engineering analysis and the outputs from

such an analysis.

Clause 7 is a discussion of the engineering methods available to evaluate detection, activation and suppression

design options. The engineering method selected to solve the design problem should be assessed and verified

using the principles documented in ISO/TR 13387-3, Assessment and verification of mathematical fire models.

Special care should be taken when using input data published in the literature since this information and/or data

may be related to specific test conditions and/or specific commercial products; the application of information and/or

data under different conditions may result in significant errors.

Further information and background material together with specific literature references that support the discussion

in the preceding clauses with details of the fundamental approach to fire safety engineering is available from the

sources listed in the bibliography.
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TECHNICAL REPORT © ISO ISO/TR 13387-7:1999(E)
Fire safety engineering —
Part 7:
Detection, activation and suppression
1 Scope

This part of ISO 13387 is intended to provide guidance to designers, regulators and fire-safety professionals on the

fundamental engineering methods that should be included in design guides and reference manuals for the

prediction of:

a) times to detect fire events, based on the design-fire environment and properties and/or location of automatic

detection devices;

b) times to activate automatic alarm systems and automatic systems designed to control fire growth or to control

the effects of fire, based on system design parameters;

c) the effectiveness of activated automatic suppression systems in limiting the potential consequences of a fire,

based on key system characteristics.

NOTE The effect of human intervention on detection, activation or suppression is considered beyond the scope of this

document.

This part of ISO 13387 is not itself a design guide or reference manual but can be used as a resource by national

organizations in the preparation of such documents. This report also provides a framework for critically reviewing

the suitability of engineering methods, whether hand calculations or predictive computer models or correlations

based on empirical data, to predict detection, activation and the effect of fire suppression systems. Note that the

term “engineering method” used in this document refers to any of the preceding techniques.

2 Normative references

The following normative documents contain provisions which, through reference in this text, constitute provisions of

this part of ISO/TR 13387. For dated references, subsequent amendments to, or revisions of, any of these

publications do not apply. However, parties to agreements based on this part of ISO/TR 13387 are encouraged to

investigate the possibility of applying the most recent editions of the normative documents indicated below. For

undated references, the latest edition of the normative document referred to applies. Members of ISO and IEC

maintain registers of currently valid International Standards.
ISO 3009:1976, Fire-resistance tests — Glazed elements.

ISO 6182-1:— , Fire protection — Automatic sprinkler systems — Part 1: Requirements and test methods for

sprinklers.
To be published. (Replaces ISO 6182-1:1993).
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© ISO
ISO/TR 13387-7:1999(E)
ISO/TR 13387-1,

Fire safety engineering — Part 1: Application of fire performance concepts to design objectives.

ISO/TR 13387-2, Fire safety engineering — Part 2: Design fire scenarios and design fires.

ISO/TR 13387-3, Fire safety engineering — Part 3: Assessment and verification of mathematical fire models.

ISO/TR 13387-4, Fire safety engineering — Part 4: Initiation and development of fire and generation of fire effluents.

ISO/TR 13387-5, Fire safety engineering — Part 5: Movement of fire effluents.

ISO/TR 13387-6, Fire safety engineering — Part 6: Structural response and fire spread beyond the enclosure of

origin.

ISO/TR 13387-8, Fire safety engineering — Part 8: Life safety — Occupant behaviour, location and condition.

ISO 13943, Fire safety — Vocabulary.
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this part of ISO/TR 13387, the definitions given in ISO 13943, ISO/TR 13387-1 and the

following apply.
3.1
activation time

time interval from response by a sensing device until the suppression system, smoke control system, alarm system

or other fire safety system is fully operational
3.2
ADD

measured volumetric flow rate of water per unit area from ESFR sprinklers that is delivered near the base of a fire

plume for a specific fire heat release rate
3.3
agent outlet

point in fixed extinguishing system at which a sprinkler, suppression or control device is located

3.4
control-mode sprinkler

sprinkler (for example, conventional or spray type) that limits fire propagation through wetting/soaking of uninvolved

fuel
3.5
conventional sprinkler

sprinkler type which projects 40 % to 60 % of the total water flow initially downward

3.6
design density
sprinkler application rate in the absence of a fire
3.7
detection time

time interval from ignition of a fire until its detection by an automatic or manual system

3.8
engineering judgement

process exercised by a professional who is qualified, because of training, experience and recognized skills, to

complement, supplement, accept or reject elements of a quantitative analysis
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ISO/TR 13387-7:1999(E)
3.9
fire extinguishment
process by which agents eliminate all flaming combustion
3.10
HRR
heat release rate
3.11
method

abbreviation for one of the recommended engineering methods used to predict detection and activation times and

the effect of fire suppression or fire control systems, whether by hand calculation, predictive computer models or

empirical correlations
3.12
prewetting

process by which water from sprinkler sprays gradually, soaks or wets fuel surrounding the fuel region actively

involved in fire, leading to a reduction in fire propagation
3.13
RDD

volumetric flow rate of water per unit area, applied uniformly to the top surface of a fuel array, needed to cause fire

HRR to decay rapidly to a sufficiently low level
3.14
smoke management

the use of compartmentation and buoyancy effects, in addition to flow control, dilution and pressurization, to re-

direct smoke
3.15
spray sprinkler

sprinkler type which projects 80 % to 100 % of the total water flow initially downward

3.16
sprinkler activation area
total horizontal area over which sprinklers are designed to operate
3.17
sprinkler application rate

volumetric water flow rate applied per unit surface area from operating sprinklers (also called “sprinkler density” or

“discharge density” for horizontal surfaces or, more generally, “surface density”)

3.18
suppression-mode sprinkler

sprinkler (for example, ESFR type) that delivers water directly to burning fuel surfaces, thereby reducing the fire

HRR
3.19
suppression system

a system designed for active stabilization, reduction or elimination of fire propagation and heat/smoke release

3.20
water mist protection system

array of devices designed for fire extinguishment through the use of multiple water sprays

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© ISO
ISO/TR 13387-7:1999(E)
4 Symbols and abbreviated terms
4.1 Symbols
1/2
C Conductivity factor, expressed in (m/s)
d Geometric number-mean diameter of particles, expressed in mm
K Light extinction coefficient in smoke/effluent species, expressed in m
N Number concentration of particles, expressed in m
T Temperature of detector sensing element, expressed in K
T Nominal operating temperature of detector, expressed in K

T Actual gas temperature in test section of tunnel or near detector during fire, expressed in K

T Ambient air temperature during testing, expressed in K
t Response time of detector, expressed in s

u Actual gas velocity in test section of tunnel or near the detector during fire, expressed in m/s

sGeometric standard deviation of particle diameter, expressed in mm
4.2 Abbreviated terms
ADD Actual delivered density, expressed in mm/s
CFD Computational fluid dynamics
ESFR Early suppression fast response (suppression-mode sprinkler type)
HRR Heat release rate, expressed in kW
IR Infra-red
RDD Required delivered density, expressed in mm/s
1/2
RTI Response time index, expressed in (m·s)
UV Ultra-violet
5 Subsystem 4 of the total design system
5.1 General discussion

This clause describes the procedure by which this document is to be used together with other parts of ISO 13387.

5.2 Explanation and illustrations

To aid in the use of this document in a comprehensive fire safety design process, the information herein can be

considered to be part of a detection, activation and suppression subsystem 4 within the total fire safety design

system (see Figure 1). The first layer of the design system contains a set of global information, which contains data

either transferred among various subsystems or employed to make engineering decisions. These data include three

types of global information, which are described more fully in ISO/TR 13387-1:
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© ISO
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a) prescribed and/or estimated parameters, consisting of

1) building parameters (includes location and/or specifications for all fire-related systems);

2) occupant parameters;
3) fire loads;
4) fire scenarios;
5) environmental parameters;
b) intervention effects, consisting of
1) alarm activation;
2) heat and smoke control activation;
3) suppression activation;
4) fire brigade intervention;
c) simulation dynamics profiles versus time, consisting of
1) size of fire and/or smoke;
2) thermal profile;
3) pressure and/or velocity profile;
4) effluent/species profile;
5) occupant condition;
6) occupant location;
7) building condition;
8) contents condition.

The next layer of the design system consists of a set of evaluations, which in the case of subsystem 4, includes

three types of analysis results providing
a) detection time;
b) activation time;
c) performance of suppression systems.

Each of these three types of evaluations is discussed in detail in the three parts of clause 6.

The final layer of the design system consists of processes that include
a) convective heat detection;
b) effluent/species detection;
c) radiant energy detection;
d) agent flow in suppression systems;
e) interactions between suppression systems and fires;
f) interactions between smoke control and suppression systems.

These six different processes, plus other related processes, are part of calculation procedures that generate the

three types of evaluations required by subsystem 4 for use by the other subsystems in the total fire safety design

system.
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© ISO
ISO/TR 13387-7:1999(E)
5.3 Information flow

To perform one of the three types of evaluations (detection, activation or suppression), a fire safety engineering

practitioner must make use of global information data as input parameters for the detailed process calculations.

These calculations allow the time for response of alarm, smoke and/or heat control and active suppression devices

to be output for use by life safety (and in the future, property, culture and environmental protection) subsystems. In

addition to outputting response times, the process calculations in this subsystem also evaluate the success of

strategies for active suppression of fire by providing empirical information on required flow rates of suppression

agents to reduce or eliminate flaming combustion. With information on the potential success of suppression

strategies, the fire growth, smoke movement and life safety subsystems can more readily evaluate the net effect on

the fire environment and on people. Finally, the process layer of design subsystem 4 can determine the detailed

characteristics of suppression agent delivery, thus allowing alternative, predictive field model calculations to be

performed in the fire growth and/or smoke movement subsystems.
ISO TC 92/SC 4 FIRE SAFETY ENGINEERING BUS SYSTEM
Subsystem 4 (SS4) — Detection, activation and suppression

Figure 1 — Illustration of the global information, evaluation and process buses for SS4.

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6 Subsystem 4 evaluations

This clause discusses in detail the primary engineering evaluations related to fire detection times (see 6.1),

activation times (see 6.2) of alarms and heat and/or smoke control measures and the effectiveness of suppression

and other systems (see 6.3) for actively reducing fire consequences. The evaluation of operating characteristics of

fire suppression and control systems (for example, flow capacities, nozzle performance, exhaust capacities and

other parameters typically obtained from vendors) is discussed as part of the evaluation of activation times in 6.2

since system operating characteristics actually determine the time required for these systems to begin to interact

with the design fire. In 6.3, the system operating characteristics (for example, agent flow rates from nozzles)

required for successful fire suppression are evaluated. These requirements must be met by system performance

during activation, as calculated in 6.2.

Associated with each key subsystem output, recommended engineering methods for predicting unit physical and

chemical processes are discussed and all input information required by such methods is identified. Guidance on

locating unit process input data is also provided, along with available literature references. Areas for which a lack of

knowledge and/or input data are known to exist are addressed.
6.1 Detection time
6.1.1 Role in fire safety engineering design

Because the response time of detectors plays such an important role in fire safety, the selection of the proper

detector type and detector location for application to each type of occupancy must be consistent with clearly

established design objectives. Descriptions of the three major detector types, thermal, effluent/species (which

includes obscuration and/or optical beam detectors) and radiant emission, along with references to recommended

design documents, are discussed in the following clauses. This information should be used to match particular

design objectives (for example, resistance to non-fire related alarms, shortest possible detection time or

compatibility with the building and/or contents environment) to the detector selection and location process. In very

general terms (see references [10], [11] and [19] in the bibliography for additional information), thermal point or line

detectors are best suited to situations where cost and reliability are overriding factors, for example, to trigger water

flow in automatic sprinkler systems or where there are large numbers of locations to be monitored or where there is

a high particle count (for example, fine dust or droplets, fumes, insects, etc.) that can cause other detector types to

alarm without a fire. Effluent/species detectors are generally best suited when high sensitivity is needed to give the

shortest possible detection time, for example, when life safety or sensitive contents is the overriding concern.

Point detectors, whether thermal or effluent and/or species, often depend on fire-induced convective flows to

transport heat or smoke up to ceiling level in a plume and then radially outward in a ceiling-jet. This natural buoyant

motion, especially in the earliest stages of fire growth, may often:

a) bypass detectors improperly located outside of the plume or ceiling-jet flows (see reference [45] for information

on ceiling-jet thickness);
b) require significant transport times;
c) be disrupted by HVAC vent system flows; and

d) be disrupted by ambient stratification of the air in the building, as discussed in 6.1.2.4 of subsystem 2 and in

reference [19], pp. 4-15.

All of these phenomena can lead to significant detection delays. Radiant emission detectors and tubing networks of

sampling effluent/species detectors are often best suited for situations where such delays would result in detection

times that are inconsistent with design objectives (for example, very early detection of small fires).

Detection systems that are not properly designed because of incorrect detector type or location can result in large

numbers of alarms to non-fire signals, or “false alarms” being produced, especially when hundreds or thousands of

smoke detectors at a single location (for example, a hospital) can produce several false alarms per day. In some

instances false alarms can outnumber “real” alarms by ratios in excess of 20:1. Large numbers of false alarms can

lead to situations in which the alarm is ignored by many or all of the occupants or in which all detectors are disabled.

Careful location of detectors coupled with the correct choice of detector type and/or the use of detectors (see 6.1.6)

which incorporate multi-criteria detection, for example, can result in significantly fewer false alarms. With correct

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© ISO
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design, false alarm to fire ratios can be reduced to 3:1 or fewer. The importance of the ongoing maintenance of fire

detection and alarm systems as a means of minimizing false alarms should also not be overlooked.

The task of determining the response of detectors to a design fire that properly tests whether design objectives

have been achieved is complicated by the fact that most occupancies (except some single-family residential units)

contain detectors that are interconnected with a central control system. This central system can have a range of

capabilities from activation of an alarm when any detector in the network responds all the way to sophisticated

programmable or learned decisions as to the proper alarm level based on analysis of the history of previous

ambient conditions. With such sophisticated systems, which can be just one component of a much larger building

automation system, the calculation of “detection time” depends not only on information discussed in 6.1 but also on

activation times associated with the complete control system. Just as non-fire signals can be minimized by careful

location and selection of individual detectors, false alarms produced by a centralized detection system can be

minimized by selection of the proper logic and/or computer algorithms, by a higher level of integrity for detection

functions than for other building functions and by careful design to eliminate electrical interference, system faults

and even malicious action by occupants or employees. Detection subsystems within a building automation system

must have directly measurable performance and reliability that is suitable for an emergency system.

There are several reviews of engineering methods for evaluating the response of fire detectors in a variety of design

situations. Fo
...

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