Graphic technology - Exchange format for colour and process control data using XML or ASCII text

This International Standard defines an exchange format for colour and process control data (and the associated metadata necessary for its proper interpretation) in electronic form using either XML or ASCII formatted data files. It maintains human readability of the data as well as enabling machine readability. It includes a series of predefined tags and keywords, and provides extensibility through provision for the dynamic definition of additional tags and keywords as necessary. It is focused primarily on spectral measurement data, colorimetric data, and densitometric data. This International Standard is intended to be used in conjunction with other standards that will define the required data, and tags or keywords for specific data exchange applications.

Technologie graphique - Format d'échange pour les données de couleur et de contrôle de procédé en utilisant du texte XML ou ASCII

Grafična tehnologija - Format za izmenjavo upodobitvenih in procesnih nadzornih podatkov z uporabo XML ali teksta ASCII

Ta mednarodni standard opredeljuje format za izmenjavo upodobitvenih in procesnih nadzornih podatkov (in povezanih metapodatkov, ki so potrebni za pravilno interpretacijo) v elektronski obliki, z uporabo podatkovnih datotek v formatu XML ali ASCII. Vzdržuje berljivost podatkov za človeka, omogoča pa tudi strojno berljivost. Vključuje vrsto vnaprej opredeljenih oznak in ključnih besed ter z dinamično opredelitvijo dodatnih oznak in ključnih besed po potrebi zagotavlja razširljivost. Osredotoča se predvsem na podatke spektralnih meritev, kolorimetrične in denzitometrične podatke. Ta mednarodni standard se uporablja v povezavi z drugimi standardi, ki opredeljujejo zahtevane podatke ter oznake in ključne besede za posamezne aplikacije izmenjave podatkov.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
08-Apr-2010
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
12-Mar-2010
Due Date
17-May-2010
Completion Date
09-Apr-2010

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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 28178
First edition
2009-03-15
Graphic technology — Exchange format
for colour and process control data using
XML or ASCII text
Technologie graphique — Format d'échange pour les données de
couleur et de contrôle de procédé en utilisant du texte XML ou ASCII
Reference number
ISO 28178:2009(E)
ISO 2009
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 28178:2009(E)
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© ISO 2009

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Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2009 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 28178:2009(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ............................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction.........................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope......................................................................................................................................................1

2 Normative references............................................................................................................................1

3 Terms and definitions ...........................................................................................................................1

4 Requirements.........................................................................................................................................2

4.1 General description of a conforming file ............................................................................................2

4.2 Tags and keywords ...............................................................................................................................3

4.3 Data tables ...........................................................................................................................................11

Annex A (informative) Advantages of an XML data reporting format..........................................................16

Annex B (informative) Tag and keyword examples.......................................................................................18

Annex C (informative) Sample files.................................................................................................................22

Annex D (informative) Example of use of user-defined keywords...............................................................26

Annex E (informative) Corresponding tags and keywords used in database AMPAC..............................28

Bibliography......................................................................................................................................................36

© ISO 2009 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO 28178:2009(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies

(ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO

technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been

established has the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and

non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the

International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International Standards

adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publication as an

International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting a vote.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

ISO 28178 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 130, Graphic technology, and is based on

ANSI CGATS 17:2005.
iv © ISO 2009 – All rights reserved
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ISO 28178:2009(E)
Introduction

A number of International Standards used by the graphic technology community require the reporting of

measured and/or computed data. Several of these standards, e.g. the ISO 12642 series and ISO 13655,

contain suggested formats for the data to be exchanged. These have used the ASCII keyword-value pair

approach and have been widely used by some industry segments. However, there has never been a

consolidated definition of the various formats.

This International Standard is intended to support all existing and future graphic arts standards that require the

exchange of measured, computed, or process control data and the associated metadata necessary for its

proper interpretation. It is specifically not intended for graphic arts content data, which are covered by

ISO 15930 and ISO 12639.

In reviewing the needs of such a format the following requirements were identified:

⎯ applications based on the existing ASCII formats not be made obsolete;

⎯ data need to be in a form that is both human-readable (once the digital file has been displayed using

standard editors, or file readers) and machine-readable;

⎯ data need to be readable by automated programs to extract the necessary information;

⎯ data files need to be extensible by end users in such a way as to allow additional information to be

included without breaking automated readers of the file;
⎯ data files need to be capable of being created by automated programs;
⎯ the format needs to allow multiple language representation of data.

The file formats chosen to accomplish this task are a combination of XML and extensions of the existing ASCII

keyword-value file format, coupled with the necessary tools to allow appropriate conversions to and from XML

from ASCII keyword-value files. However, either the XML file format or the ASCII keyword-value file format

can be used independently. Annex E shows the AMPAC (see ISO/TR 16044) coding for each of the ASCII

keywords.

These formats make use of predefined XML tags and ASCII keywords. Values are associated with the tags

and keywords and remain in effect until another instance of the tag or keyword. Provision is made to allow the

use of data tables and to separately define the format within data tables. Multiple occurrences of such data

tables within a single file are also permitted. User-defined tags and keywords are also allowed.

See Annex A for a discussion of the advantages of an XML data reporting format and references to a

demonstration suite.

A demonstration suite based on this International Standard has been made available for use as part of a

testing and development program. It is available from NPES The Association for Suppliers of Printing,

Publishing and Converting Technologies, at http://www.npes.org/standards/tools.html. See A.5 for more

information.

Subsequent to the final approval of this International Standard, ISO/TC 130 decided that additional verification

of the XML implementation was desirable and an editing committee was formed to address this issue. The

editing committee reported that the vendor of a commercial XML data exchange application had success in

mapping both the ASCII and XML portions of this International Standard into their application. This was felt to

provide a verification of the XML implementation proposed in this International Standard.

© ISO 2009 – All rights reserved v
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 28178:2009(E)
Graphic technology — Exchange format for colour and process
control data using XML or ASCII text
1 Scope

This International Standard defines an exchange format for colour and process control data (and the

associated metadata necessary for its proper interpretation) in electronic form using either XML or ASCII

formatted data files. It maintains human readability of the data as well as enabling machine readability. It

includes a series of predefined tags and keywords, and provides extensibility through provision for the

dynamic definition of additional tags and keywords as necessary. It is focused primarily on spectral

measurement data, colorimetric data, and densitometric data.

This International Standard is intended to be used in conjunction with other standards that will define the

required data, and tags or keywords for specific data exchange applications.
2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced

document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO/IEC 646, Information technology — ISO 7-bit coded character set for information interchange

Extensible Markup Language (XML) 1.0 (2nd ed.), World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), W3C

Recommendation 6 October 2000. Available at http://www.w3.org

XSL Transformations (XSLT) Version 1.0, World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), W3C Recommendation 16

November 1999. Available at http://www.w3.org
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
3.1
data format identifier

predefined set of characters, without intervening spaces, forming a unique word that is used to identify the

presence of a defined item of data in a subsequent data table
3.2
keyword

predefined set of characters, without intervening spaces, forming a unique word that is used to identify the

presence of a defined item of information
3.3
schema

XML document that, following the rules established by the World Wide Web Consortium, defines the structure

of a class of XML documents
© ISO 2009 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO 28178:2009(E)
3.4
value

information immediately following a keyword that represents the data content or “value” associated with that

keyword
4 Requirements
4.1 General description of a conforming file
4.1.1 XML format

This file format is an XML format that complies with Extensible Markup Language (XML) 1.0. The format

makes use of predefined tags that identify information commonly used to describe graphic arts samples. In

addition, users of this format are allowed to define tags to tailor the format to their specific needs according to

the rules of XML namespace.

The data file is divided into two sections. The preamble is the first section. This section provides general

information and describes the conditions under which data was collected. The preamble tag is

iso28178.preamble. Tags used in the preamble are listed in 4.2.

The data section is the second section, which is further divided into two parts. The first part of the data section

provides the information that describes the type and location of the table contents; the second section

contains the data values.

The schema associated with the XML format defined in this International Standard is contained in file

iso28178_data.xsd, which is an essential normative part of this International Standard. This International

Standard also provides structural XML tags that are needed for the proper specification of an XML document

instance.

NOTE See Annex A for a discussion on the need and application of the XML data reporting format.

4.1.2 ASCII format

This file format is an ASCII format keyword-value file. It makes use of predefined keywords and data tables.

Values are associated with the keyword that precedes them and remain in effect until another instance of the

keyword-value pair. Data values are delimited by the BEGIN_DATA and END_DATA keywords.

Keywords and values, as well as fields within data tables, are separated by white space. Valid white space

characters are space (position 2/0 of ISO/IEC 646), carriage return (position 0/13 of ISO/IEC 646), newline

(position 0/10 of ISO/IEC 646), and tab (position 0/9 of ISO/IEC 646). Keywords may be separated from

values using any valid white space character. Only the space and tab may precede a keyword on a line.

Comments are preceded by a single comment character (a single character keyword). The comment

character is the “#” (position 2/3 of ISO/IEC 646) symbol. Comments may begin any place on a line, and are

terminated by a newline or carriage return character.
4.1.3 Exchanged data file structure

A file containing measurement data would normally be structured as shown in Figure 1. This structure allows

multiple tables of data within a single exchange file.
2 © ISO 2009 – All rights reserved
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ISO 28178:2009(E)
Preamble
File header containing the tags/keywords Originator, File Descriptor, Created
Data Section 1
Header
Table Descriptor/Table Name plus tags/keywords
Data
The data table and its formatting information
Data Section N
Header
Table Descriptor/Table Name plus tags/keywords
Data
The data table and its formatting information
Figure 1 — File structure
4.2 Tags and keywords
4.2.1 General

Most tags and keywords may appear in the file in any order, and may appear multiple times within the file.

Values associated with tags and keywords that appear more than once shall be replaced by successive

instances, except for KEYWORD, COMPUTATIONAL_PARAMETER, and WEIGHTING_FUNCTION. Each

identifier shall show whether it may be used only once or multiple times within a given table. Tags and

keywords that describe data tables, however, shall be defined before the data table. Table 1 lists these tags

and keywords. These tags are described in greater detail below.
Table 1 — XML tags and ASCII keywords that appear in a defined order
Function XML tag ASCII keyword
data table width NUMBER_OF_FIELDS
data format delimiters BEGIN_DATA_FORMAT
END_DATA_FORMAT
data table length NUMBER_OF_SETS
data table delimiters BEGIN_DATA
END_DATA
© ISO 2009 – All rights reserved 3
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ISO 28178:2009(E)

Data format delimiters shall be preceded by a data table width tag or keyword. Data table delimiters shall be

preceded by a data table length tag or keyword. In the ASCII format, BEGIN_/END_ keywords begin and end

the data format or table data. In the XML format, tags have parameters and/or values and a standard syntax is

used, e.g. data format identifiers . Values for tags and keywords that describe

data tables shall be specified for each data table in the file, i.e. inheritance of these values is not permitted.

ASCII keywords may be composed of any combination of the following:
⎯ ASCII upper-case letters;
⎯ ASCII digits 0 to 9;
⎯ ASCII characters:
⎯ - (position 2/13 of ISO/IEC 646),
⎯ _ (position 5/15 of ISO/IEC 646).

For this International Standard all XML tags shall match their equivalent ASCII keywords but shall use lower-

case letters.

In the ASCII format, unless used as part of a data format definition, keywords should not be preceded on a

line by anything other than white space. Unless otherwise noted, each keyword has a character string value

associated with it. All character string values shall be enclosed in quotes, regardless of whether there is white

space contained within the string. Enclosed in quotes means beginning and ending the character string with

the " symbol (position 2/2 of ISO/IEC 646). The " symbol itself is represented within a string as "", as in the C

language syntax.

For XML tag/keyword entries the form is value. If attribute names are provided in the XML

section of a definition, the information is represented in the XML-formatted data as XML attribute using the

form .

The value associated with keywords NUMBER_OF_FIELDS and NUMBER_OF_SETS shall be an integer.

These values should not be enclosed in quotes.

Format and table delimiters do not have explicit values associated with them but rather enclose either the data

format definition or table data.

See Annex B for examples of the use of each tag and keyword shown in 4.2.2 and 4.2.3.

4.2.2 Required preamble tags and keywords
4.2.2.1 General

Certain tags and keywords are required as part of each file, while others are optional depending upon the data

to be included. All keywords shall occur before the BEGIN_DATA_FORMAT keyword and the sequence order

for required tags and keywords shall follow the order shown in 4.2.2.2 to 4.2.2.9.

The STANDARD, ORIGINATOR, FILE_DESCRIPTOR and CREATED tags/keywords may occur only once

within a file.

The first line in the ASCII format shall be ISO28178. The use of this identifier indicates that the data contained

in the file adheres to this International Standard. This information is represented in the XML format with the

tag. See 4.2.2.2.
4.2.2.2 Standard

The use of this identifier indicates that the data contained in the file adheres to the indicated standard.

4 © ISO 2009 – All rights reserved
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ISO 28178:2009(E)
Format Tag/Keyword Attribute Data type
XML String

NOTE There is no ASCII keyword for this because in the ASCII format this information is carried in the first line of the

file.
4.2.2.3 Originator

Identifies the specific system, organization or individual that created the data file.

Format Tag/Keyword Attribute Data type
XML String
ASCII ORIGINATOR String
4.2.2.4 File descriptor
Describes the purpose or contents of the data file.
Format Tag/Keyword Attribute Data type
XML String
ASCII FILE_DESCRIPTOR String
4.2.2.5 Created

Indicates the creation date of the data file. The form for this date is CCYY-MM-DDThh:mm:ss[Z | +/-hh:mm].

Format Tag/Keyword Attribute Data type
XML String
date String
ASCII CREATED String

NOTE The date attribute is a string that follows the ISO 8601 specification for numeric representations of date. The

preferred specification is as defined in §3.2.7 of the W3C XSLT Specification.
4.2.2.6 Number of fields

Indicates the number of fields (data format identifiers) that are included in the data format definition that

follows.
Format Tag/Keyword Attribute Data type
XML Integer
ASCII NUMBER_OF_FIELDS Integer
4.2.2.7 Data format

Marks the beginning and end of a data format definition. END_DATA_FORMAT shall be preceded by

BEGIN_DATA_FORMAT. See 4.3.4 for information on the data that would be included between these

tags/keywords.
© ISO 2009 – All rights reserved 5
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ISO 28178:2009(E)
Format Tag/Keyword Attribute Data type
XML NA
ASCII BEGIN_DATA_FORMAT
END_DATA_FORMAT
4.2.2.8 Number of sets of data

Indicates the number of repetitions or sets of data, i.e. the number of rows in the data table. The associated

value is an integer.
Format Tag/Keyword Attribute Data type
XML Integer
ASCII NUMBER_OF_SETS Integer
4.2.2.9 Data table
Marks the beginning and end of a data table.
Format Tag/Keyword Attribute Data type
XML
NA
ASCII BEGIN_DATA
END_DATA
4.2.3 Optional tags and keywords
4.2.3.1 General

Certain additional general tags and keywords are optional and may be used as needed. The currently defined

optional tags and keywords are defined in 4.2.3.2 to 4.2.3.19. The optional tags and keywords shall occur

after the CREATED tag/keyword and before the NUMBER_OF_FIELDS tag/keyword.
4.2.3.2 Comment

Comments are ignored by automated readers. In the XML syntax, all characters within the

tags are ignored. In the ASCII syntax, all characters between the comment keyword and the end

of line indicator are ignored. End of line is indicated by either carriage return or newline. Comments indicate to

users that the information that follows is of informative interest. Comments need not be enclosed in quotes.

Comments may occur anywhere except within a table.
Format Tag/Keyword Attribute Data type
XML String
ASCII # String
4.2.3.3 Instrumentation

This tag/keyword is used to report the specific instrumentation used (e.g. manufacturer, model number and

serial number, etc.) to generate the data reported. This data will often provide more information about the

particular data collected than an extensive list of specific details. This is particularly important for spectral data

or data derived from spectrophotometry.
Format Tag/Keyword Attribute Data type
6 © ISO 2009 – All rights reserved
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ISO 28178:2009(E)
XML String
manufacturer String
model String
serial_number String
ASCII INSTRUMENTATION String
4.2.3.4 Measurement geometry

The type of measurement, either reflection or transmission, should be indicated along with details of the

geometry and the aperture size and shape. For example, for transmission measurements it is important to

identify 0/diffuse, diffuse/0, opal or integrating sphere, etc. For reflection measurements it is important to

identify 0/45, 45/0, sphere (specular included or excluded), etc.
Format Tag/Keyword Attribute Data type
XML String
ASCII MEASUREMENT_GEOMETRY String
4.2.3.5 Measurement source

This tag/keyword describes the illumination (e.g. incandescent, daylight, colour temperature, etc.) used during

spectral measurement. This data helps provide a guide to the potential for issues of paper fluorescence, etc.

Format Tag/Keyword Attribute Data type
XML String
ASCII MEASUREMENT_SOURCE String
4.2.3.6 Filter

This tag/keyword identifies the use of physical filter(s) during measurement. This is typically used to denote

the use of filters such as none, D65, red, green or blue.
Format Tag/Keyword Attribute Data type
XML String
ASCII FILTER String
4.2.3.7 Polarization

This tag/keyword identifies the use of a physical polarization filter during measurement. Allowed values are

“yes”, “none” or “na”.
Format Tag/Keyword Attribute Data type
XML String
ASCII POLARIZATION String
4.2.3.8 Weighting function

This tag/keyword indicates such functions as: the CIE standard observer functions used in the calculation of

various data parameters (2 degree and 10 degree); CIE standard illuminant functions used in the calculation

of various data parameters (e.g. D50, D65, etc.); density status response; etc. If used, there shall be at least

© ISO 2009 – All rights reserved 7
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ISO 28178:2009(E)

one name-value pair following the WEIGHTING_ FUNCTION tag/keyword. The first attribute in the set shall

be “name” and shall identify the particular parameter used. The second shall be “value” and shall provide the

value associated with that name. For ASCII data a string containing the name and value attribute pairs shall

follow the weighting function keyword. A semi-colon shall be used to separate attribute pairs from each other,

and within the attribute the name and value shall be separated by a comma.
Format Tag/Keyword Attribute Data type
XML String
name String
value String
ASCII WEIGHTING_FUNCTION String
4.2.3.9 Computational parameter

This tag/keyword is the parameter that is used in computing a value from measured data. Name is the name

of the calculation, parameter is the name of the parameter used in the calculation, and value is the value of

the parameter.
Format Tag/Keyword Attribute Data type
XML NA
name String
parameter String
value String
ASCII COMPUTATIONAL_PARAMETER String
4.2.3.10 Sample backing

This tag/keyword identifies the backing material used behind the sample during measurement. Allowed values

are “black”, “white”, “self” or “na”.
Format Tag/Keyword Attribute Data type
XML String
ASCII SAMPLE_BACKING String
4.2.3.11 Manufacturer

This tag/keyword indicates the manufacturer of the sample from which the data was measured.

Format Tag/Keyword Attribute Data type
XML String
ASCII MANUFACTURER String
8 © ISO 2009 – All rights reserved
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ISO 28178:2009(E)
4.2.3.12 Material

This tag/keyword identifies the material or substrate on which the target was produced, using a code

identifying the material.
Format Tag/Keyword Attribute Data type
XML String
ASCII MATERIAL String
4.2.3.13 Target type

This tag/keyword identifies the type of target being measured, e.g. IT8.7/1, IT8.7/3, user-defined, etc.

Format Tag/Keyword Attribute Data type
XML String
ASCII TARGET_TYPE String
4.2.3.14 Colorant(s)
This tag/keyword identifies the colorant(s) used in creating the target.
Format Tag/Keyword Attribute Data type
XML String
ASCII COLORANT String
4.2.3.15 Production date

This tag/keyword identifies the year and month of production of the target in the form yyyy:mm.

Format Tag/Keyword Attribute Data type
XML String
year String
month String
ASCII PROD_DATE String
4.2.3.16 Print conditions

This tag/keyword is used to define the characteristics of the printed sheet being reported. Where standard

conditions have been defined (e.g. SWOP at nominal) named conditions may suffice. Otherwise, detailed

information shall be provided.
Format Tag/Keyword Attribute Data type
XML String
ASCII PRINT_CONDITIONS String
© ISO 2009 – All rights reserved 9
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ISO 28178:2009(E)
4.2.3.17 Serial number
This tag/keyword uniquely identifies physical samples.
Format Tag/Keyword Attribute Data type
XML String
ASCII SERIAL String
4.2.3.18 Process colour identification

This tag/keyword uniquely identifies colour and sequence associated with the numerical values assigned to

each process colour set.
Format Tag/Keyword Attribute Data type
XML
colors_in_set Integer
color_number Integer
color String
ASCII PROCESSCOLOR_ID String

NOTE Where the data format identifier PCm_n is used, a process colour tag/keyword (,

PROCESSCOLOR_ID) needs to be included for each process colour used. The value m represents the number of colours

in the process colour set. The value n is used to identify the individual colour within the process colour set and is assigned

according to the order of laydown (sequence of printing).
4.2.3.19 Spot colour identification

This tag/keyword uniquely identifies colour associated with the numerical value assigned to each spot colour

(or line colour).
Format Tag/Keyword Attribute Data type
XML
number Integer
color String
ASCII SPOT_ID String

NOTE Where the data format identifiers SPOT_1 through SPOT_n are used, a spot colour tag/keyword (,

SPOTID) needs to be included for each spot colour used.
4.2.3.20 Copyright

This tag/keyword identifies any specific copyright information associated with the file.

Format Tag/Keyword Attribute Data type
XML String
ASCII COPYRIGHT String

NOTE Where no copyright is associated with a file and it can be freely used without restriction, creators of the file are

urged to note that fact.
10 © ISO 2009 – All rights reserved
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ISO 28178:2009(E)
4.2.4 User-defined tags and keywords

This tag/keyword declares a user-defined tag or keyword. This is primarily intended for vendor-specific

information, but can also be used as a mechanism to add new keywords in the future without breaking

automated readers in existence prior to tag/keyword revision. See Annex D for an example of use of

user-defined keywords.

User-defined tags and keywords do not take effect until they are defined and remain in effect for the rest of the

file. Automated readers may ignore user- or vendor-defined keywords,
...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST ISO 28178:2010
01-maj-2010
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Graphic technology - Exchange format for colour and process control data using XML or

ASCII text

Technologie graphique - Format d'échange pour les données de couleur et de contrôle

de procédé en utilisant du texte XML ou ASCII
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: ISO 28178:2009
ICS:
35.240.30 Uporabniške rešitve IT v IT applications in information,
informatiki, dokumentiranju in documentation and
založništvu publishing
37.100.99 'UXJLVWDQGDUGLY]YH]L] Other standards related to
JUDILþQRWHKQRORJLMR graphic technology
SIST ISO 28178:2010 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST ISO 28178:2010
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST ISO 28178:2010
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 28178
First edition
2009-03-15
Graphic technology — Exchange format
for colour and process control data using
XML or ASCII text
Technologie graphique — Format d'échange pour les données de
couleur et de contrôle de procédé en utilisant du texte XML ou ASCII
Reference number
ISO 28178:2009(E)
ISO 2009
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST ISO 28178:2010
ISO 28178:2009(E)
PDF disclaimer

This PDF file may contain embedded typefaces. In accordance with Adobe's licensing policy, this file may be printed or viewed but

shall not be edited unless the typefaces which are embedded are licensed to and installed on the computer performing the editing. In

downloading this file, parties accept therein the responsibility of not infringing Adobe's licensing policy. The ISO Central Secretariat

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Contents Page

Foreword ............................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction.........................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope......................................................................................................................................................1

2 Normative references............................................................................................................................1

3 Terms and definitions ...........................................................................................................................1

4 Requirements.........................................................................................................................................2

4.1 General description of a conforming file ............................................................................................2

4.2 Tags and keywords ...............................................................................................................................3

4.3 Data tables ...........................................................................................................................................11

Annex A (informative) Advantages of an XML data reporting format..........................................................16

Annex B (informative) Tag and keyword examples.......................................................................................18

Annex C (informative) Sample files.................................................................................................................22

Annex D (informative) Example of use of user-defined keywords...............................................................26

Annex E (informative) Corresponding tags and keywords used in database AMPAC..............................28

Bibliography......................................................................................................................................................36

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Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies

(ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO

technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been

established has the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and

non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the

International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International Standards

adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publication as an

International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting a vote.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

ISO 28178 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 130, Graphic technology, and is based on

ANSI CGATS 17:2005.
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Introduction

A number of International Standards used by the graphic technology community require the reporting of

measured and/or computed data. Several of these standards, e.g. the ISO 12642 series and ISO 13655,

contain suggested formats for the data to be exchanged. These have used the ASCII keyword-value pair

approach and have been widely used by some industry segments. However, there has never been a

consolidated definition of the various formats.

This International Standard is intended to support all existing and future graphic arts standards that require the

exchange of measured, computed, or process control data and the associated metadata necessary for its

proper interpretation. It is specifically not intended for graphic arts content data, which are covered by

ISO 15930 and ISO 12639.

In reviewing the needs of such a format the following requirements were identified:

⎯ applications based on the existing ASCII formats not be made obsolete;

⎯ data need to be in a form that is both human-readable (once the digital file has been displayed using

standard editors, or file readers) and machine-readable;

⎯ data need to be readable by automated programs to extract the necessary information;

⎯ data files need to be extensible by end users in such a way as to allow additional information to be

included without breaking automated readers of the file;
⎯ data files need to be capable of being created by automated programs;
⎯ the format needs to allow multiple language representation of data.

The file formats chosen to accomplish this task are a combination of XML and extensions of the existing ASCII

keyword-value file format, coupled with the necessary tools to allow appropriate conversions to and from XML

from ASCII keyword-value files. However, either the XML file format or the ASCII keyword-value file format

can be used independently. Annex E shows the AMPAC (see ISO/TR 16044) coding for each of the ASCII

keywords.

These formats make use of predefined XML tags and ASCII keywords. Values are associated with the tags

and keywords and remain in effect until another instance of the tag or keyword. Provision is made to allow the

use of data tables and to separately define the format within data tables. Multiple occurrences of such data

tables within a single file are also permitted. User-defined tags and keywords are also allowed.

See Annex A for a discussion of the advantages of an XML data reporting format and references to a

demonstration suite.

A demonstration suite based on this International Standard has been made available for use as part of a

testing and development program. It is available from NPES The Association for Suppliers of Printing,

Publishing and Converting Technologies, at http://www.npes.org/standards/tools.html. See A.5 for more

information.

Subsequent to the final approval of this International Standard, ISO/TC 130 decided that additional verification

of the XML implementation was desirable and an editing committee was formed to address this issue. The

editing committee reported that the vendor of a commercial XML data exchange application had success in

mapping both the ASCII and XML portions of this International Standard into their application. This was felt to

provide a verification of the XML implementation proposed in this International Standard.

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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 28178:2009(E)
Graphic technology — Exchange format for colour and process
control data using XML or ASCII text
1 Scope

This International Standard defines an exchange format for colour and process control data (and the

associated metadata necessary for its proper interpretation) in electronic form using either XML or ASCII

formatted data files. It maintains human readability of the data as well as enabling machine readability. It

includes a series of predefined tags and keywords, and provides extensibility through provision for the

dynamic definition of additional tags and keywords as necessary. It is focused primarily on spectral

measurement data, colorimetric data, and densitometric data.

This International Standard is intended to be used in conjunction with other standards that will define the

required data, and tags or keywords for specific data exchange applications.
2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced

document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO/IEC 646, Information technology — ISO 7-bit coded character set for information interchange

Extensible Markup Language (XML) 1.0 (2nd ed.), World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), W3C

Recommendation 6 October 2000. Available at http://www.w3.org

XSL Transformations (XSLT) Version 1.0, World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), W3C Recommendation 16

November 1999. Available at http://www.w3.org
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
3.1
data format identifier

predefined set of characters, without intervening spaces, forming a unique word that is used to identify the

presence of a defined item of data in a subsequent data table
3.2
keyword

predefined set of characters, without intervening spaces, forming a unique word that is used to identify the

presence of a defined item of information
3.3
schema

XML document that, following the rules established by the World Wide Web Consortium, defines the structure

of a class of XML documents
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3.4
value

information immediately following a keyword that represents the data content or “value” associated with that

keyword
4 Requirements
4.1 General description of a conforming file
4.1.1 XML format

This file format is an XML format that complies with Extensible Markup Language (XML) 1.0. The format

makes use of predefined tags that identify information commonly used to describe graphic arts samples. In

addition, users of this format are allowed to define tags to tailor the format to their specific needs according to

the rules of XML namespace.

The data file is divided into two sections. The preamble is the first section. This section provides general

information and describes the conditions under which data was collected. The preamble tag is

iso28178.preamble. Tags used in the preamble are listed in 4.2.

The data section is the second section, which is further divided into two parts. The first part of the data section

provides the information that describes the type and location of the table contents; the second section

contains the data values.

The schema associated with the XML format defined in this International Standard is contained in file

iso28178_data.xsd, which is an essential normative part of this International Standard. This International

Standard also provides structural XML tags that are needed for the proper specification of an XML document

instance.

NOTE See Annex A for a discussion on the need and application of the XML data reporting format.

4.1.2 ASCII format

This file format is an ASCII format keyword-value file. It makes use of predefined keywords and data tables.

Values are associated with the keyword that precedes them and remain in effect until another instance of the

keyword-value pair. Data values are delimited by the BEGIN_DATA and END_DATA keywords.

Keywords and values, as well as fields within data tables, are separated by white space. Valid white space

characters are space (position 2/0 of ISO/IEC 646), carriage return (position 0/13 of ISO/IEC 646), newline

(position 0/10 of ISO/IEC 646), and tab (position 0/9 of ISO/IEC 646). Keywords may be separated from

values using any valid white space character. Only the space and tab may precede a keyword on a line.

Comments are preceded by a single comment character (a single character keyword). The comment

character is the “#” (position 2/3 of ISO/IEC 646) symbol. Comments may begin any place on a line, and are

terminated by a newline or carriage return character.
4.1.3 Exchanged data file structure

A file containing measurement data would normally be structured as shown in Figure 1. This structure allows

multiple tables of data within a single exchange file.
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Preamble
File header containing the tags/keywords Originator, File Descriptor, Created
Data Section 1
Header
Table Descriptor/Table Name plus tags/keywords
Data
The data table and its formatting information
Data Section N
Header
Table Descriptor/Table Name plus tags/keywords
Data
The data table and its formatting information
Figure 1 — File structure
4.2 Tags and keywords
4.2.1 General

Most tags and keywords may appear in the file in any order, and may appear multiple times within the file.

Values associated with tags and keywords that appear more than once shall be replaced by successive

instances, except for KEYWORD, COMPUTATIONAL_PARAMETER, and WEIGHTING_FUNCTION. Each

identifier shall show whether it may be used only once or multiple times within a given table. Tags and

keywords that describe data tables, however, shall be defined before the data table. Table 1 lists these tags

and keywords. These tags are described in greater detail below.
Table 1 — XML tags and ASCII keywords that appear in a defined order
Function XML tag ASCII keyword
data table width NUMBER_OF_FIELDS
data format delimiters BEGIN_DATA_FORMAT
END_DATA_FORMAT
data table length NUMBER_OF_SETS
data table delimiters BEGIN_DATA
END_DATA
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Data format delimiters shall be preceded by a data table width tag or keyword. Data table delimiters shall be

preceded by a data table length tag or keyword. In the ASCII format, BEGIN_/END_ keywords begin and end

the data format or table data. In the XML format, tags have parameters and/or values and a standard syntax is

used, e.g. data format identifiers . Values for tags and keywords that describe

data tables shall be specified for each data table in the file, i.e. inheritance of these values is not permitted.

ASCII keywords may be composed of any combination of the following:
⎯ ASCII upper-case letters;
⎯ ASCII digits 0 to 9;
⎯ ASCII characters:
⎯ - (position 2/13 of ISO/IEC 646),
⎯ _ (position 5/15 of ISO/IEC 646).

For this International Standard all XML tags shall match their equivalent ASCII keywords but shall use lower-

case letters.

In the ASCII format, unless used as part of a data format definition, keywords should not be preceded on a

line by anything other than white space. Unless otherwise noted, each keyword has a character string value

associated with it. All character string values shall be enclosed in quotes, regardless of whether there is white

space contained within the string. Enclosed in quotes means beginning and ending the character string with

the " symbol (position 2/2 of ISO/IEC 646). The " symbol itself is represented within a string as "", as in the C

language syntax.

For XML tag/keyword entries the form is value. If attribute names are provided in the XML

section of a definition, the information is represented in the XML-formatted data as XML attribute using the

form .

The value associated with keywords NUMBER_OF_FIELDS and NUMBER_OF_SETS shall be an integer.

These values should not be enclosed in quotes.

Format and table delimiters do not have explicit values associated with them but rather enclose either the data

format definition or table data.

See Annex B for examples of the use of each tag and keyword shown in 4.2.2 and 4.2.3.

4.2.2 Required preamble tags and keywords
4.2.2.1 General

Certain tags and keywords are required as part of each file, while others are optional depending upon the data

to be included. All keywords shall occur before the BEGIN_DATA_FORMAT keyword and the sequence order

for required tags and keywords shall follow the order shown in 4.2.2.2 to 4.2.2.9.

The STANDARD, ORIGINATOR, FILE_DESCRIPTOR and CREATED tags/keywords may occur only once

within a file.

The first line in the ASCII format shall be ISO28178. The use of this identifier indicates that the data contained

in the file adheres to this International Standard. This information is represented in the XML format with the

tag. See 4.2.2.2.
4.2.2.2 Standard

The use of this identifier indicates that the data contained in the file adheres to the indicated standard.

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Format Tag/Keyword Attribute Data type
XML String

NOTE There is no ASCII keyword for this because in the ASCII format this information is carried in the first line of the

file.
4.2.2.3 Originator

Identifies the specific system, organization or individual that created the data file.

Format Tag/Keyword Attribute Data type
XML String
ASCII ORIGINATOR String
4.2.2.4 File descriptor
Describes the purpose or contents of the data file.
Format Tag/Keyword Attribute Data type
XML String
ASCII FILE_DESCRIPTOR String
4.2.2.5 Created

Indicates the creation date of the data file. The form for this date is CCYY-MM-DDThh:mm:ss[Z | +/-hh:mm].

Format Tag/Keyword Attribute Data type
XML String
date String
ASCII CREATED String

NOTE The date attribute is a string that follows the ISO 8601 specification for numeric representations of date. The

preferred specification is as defined in §3.2.7 of the W3C XSLT Specification.
4.2.2.6 Number of fields

Indicates the number of fields (data format identifiers) that are included in the data format definition that

follows.
Format Tag/Keyword Attribute Data type
XML Integer
ASCII NUMBER_OF_FIELDS Integer
4.2.2.7 Data format

Marks the beginning and end of a data format definition. END_DATA_FORMAT shall be preceded by

BEGIN_DATA_FORMAT. See 4.3.4 for information on the data that would be included between these

tags/keywords.
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Format Tag/Keyword Attribute Data type
XML NA
ASCII BEGIN_DATA_FORMAT
END_DATA_FORMAT
4.2.2.8 Number of sets of data

Indicates the number of repetitions or sets of data, i.e. the number of rows in the data table. The associated

value is an integer.
Format Tag/Keyword Attribute Data type
XML Integer
ASCII NUMBER_OF_SETS Integer
4.2.2.9 Data table
Marks the beginning and end of a data table.
Format Tag/Keyword Attribute Data type
XML
NA
ASCII BEGIN_DATA
END_DATA
4.2.3 Optional tags and keywords
4.2.3.1 General

Certain additional general tags and keywords are optional and may be used as needed. The currently defined

optional tags and keywords are defined in 4.2.3.2 to 4.2.3.19. The optional tags and keywords shall occur

after the CREATED tag/keyword and before the NUMBER_OF_FIELDS tag/keyword.
4.2.3.2 Comment

Comments are ignored by automated readers. In the XML syntax, all characters within the

tags are ignored. In the ASCII syntax, all characters between the comment keyword and the end

of line indicator are ignored. End of line is indicated by either carriage return or newline. Comments indicate to

users that the information that follows is of informative interest. Comments need not be enclosed in quotes.

Comments may occur anywhere except within a table.
Format Tag/Keyword Attribute Data type
XML String
ASCII # String
4.2.3.3 Instrumentation

This tag/keyword is used to report the specific instrumentation used (e.g. manufacturer, model number and

serial number, etc.) to generate the data reported. This data will often provide more information about the

particular data collected than an extensive list of specific details. This is particularly important for spectral data

or data derived from spectrophotometry.
Format Tag/Keyword Attribute Data type
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XML String
manufacturer String
model String
serial_number String
ASCII INSTRUMENTATION String
4.2.3.4 Measurement geometry

The type of measurement, either reflection or transmission, should be indicated along with details of the

geometry and the aperture size and shape. For example, for transmission measurements it is important to

identify 0/diffuse, diffuse/0, opal or integrating sphere, etc. For reflection measurements it is important to

identify 0/45, 45/0, sphere (specular included or excluded), etc.
Format Tag/Keyword Attribute Data type
XML String
ASCII MEASUREMENT_GEOMETRY String
4.2.3.5 Measurement source

This tag/keyword describes the illumination (e.g. incandescent, daylight, colour temperature, etc.) used during

spectral measurement. This data helps provide a guide to the potential for issues of paper fluorescence, etc.

Format Tag/Keyword Attribute Data type
XML String
ASCII MEASUREMENT_SOURCE String
4.2.3.6 Filter

This tag/keyword identifies the use of physical filter(s) during measurement. This is typically used to denote

the use of filters such as none, D65, red, green or blue.
Format Tag/Keyword Attribute Data type
XML String
ASCII FILTER String
4.2.3.7 Polarization

This tag/keyword identifies the use of a physical polarization filter during measurement. Allowed values are

“yes”, “none” or “na”.
Format Tag/Keyword Attribute Data type
XML String
ASCII POLARIZATION String
4.2.3.8 Weighting function

This tag/keyword indicates such functions as: the CIE standard observer functions used in the calculation of

various data parameters (2 degree and 10 degree); CIE standard illuminant functions used in the calculation

of various data parameters (e.g. D50, D65, etc.); density status response; etc. If used, there shall be at least

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one name-value pair following the WEIGHTING_ FUNCTION tag/keyword. The first attribute in the set shall

be “name” and shall identify the particular parameter used. The second shall be “value” and shall provide the

value associated with that name. For ASCII data a string containing the name and value attribute pairs shall

follow the weighting function keyword. A semi-colon shall be used to separate attribute pairs from each other,

and within the attribute the name and value shall be separated by a comma.
Format Tag/Keyword Attribute Data type
XML String
name String
value String
ASCII WEIGHTING_FUNCTION String
4.2.3.9 Computational parameter

This tag/keyword is the parameter that is used in computing a value from measured data. Name is the name

of the calculation, parameter is the name of the parameter used in the calculation, and value is the value of

the parameter.
Format Tag/Keyword Attribute Data type
XML NA
name String
parameter String
value String
ASCII COMPUTATIONAL_PARAMETER String
4.2.3.10 Sample backing

This tag/keyword identifies the backing material used behind the sample during measurement. Allowed values

are “black”, “white”, “self” or “na”.
Format Tag/Keyword Attribute Data type
XML String
ASCII SAMPLE_BACKING String
4.2.3.11 Manufacturer

This tag/keyword indicates the manufacturer of the sample from which the data was measured.

Format Tag/Keyword Attribute Data type
XML String
ASCII MANUFACTURER String
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4.2.3.12 Material

This tag/keyword identifies the material or substrate on which the target was produced, using a code

identifying the material.
Format Tag/Keyword Attribute Data type
XML String
ASCII MATERIAL String
4.2.3.13 Target type

This tag/keyword identifies the type of target being measured, e.g. IT8.7/1, IT8.7/3, user-defined, etc.

Format Tag/Keyword Attribute Data type
XML String
ASCII TARGET_TYPE String
4.2.3.14 Colorant(s)
This tag/keyword identifies the colorant(s) used in creating the target.
Format Tag/Keyword Attribute Data type
XML String
ASCII COLORANT String
4.2.3.15 Production date

This tag/keyword identifies the year and month of production of the target in the form yyyy:mm.

Format Tag/Keyword Attribute Data type
XML String
year String
month String
ASCII PROD_DATE String
4.2.3.16 Print conditions

This tag/keyword is used to define the characteristics of the printed sheet being reported. Where standard

conditions have been defined (e.g. SWOP at nominal) named conditions may suffice. Otherwise, detailed

information shall be provided.
Format Tag/Keyword Attribute Data type
XML String
ASCII PRINT_CONDITIONS String
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4.2.3.17 Serial number
This tag/keyword uniquely identifies physical samples.
Format Tag/Keyword Attribute Data type
XML String
ASCII SERIAL String
4.2.3.18 Process colour identification

This tag/keyword uniquely identifies colour and sequence associated with the numerical values assigned to

each process colour set.
Format Tag/Keyword Attribute Data type
XML
colors_in_set Integer
color_number Integer
color String
ASCII PROCESSCOLOR_ID String

NOTE Where the data format identifier PCm_n is used, a process colour tag/keyword (,

PROCESSCOLOR_ID) needs to be included for each process colour used. The value m represents the number of colours

in the process colour set. The value n is used to identify the individual colour within the process colour set and is assigned

according to the order of laydown (sequence of printing).
4.2.3.19 Spot colour identification
This tag/keyword uniquely identifies
...

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