Stationary source emissions - Determination of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in energy-intensive industries - Part 5: Lime industry

This European Standard provides a harmonized methodology for calculating GHG emissions from the lime industry. It includes the manufacture of lime, and any downstream lime products manufactured at the plant, such as ground or hydrated lime. This standard allows for reporting of GHG emissions for various purposes and on different basis, such as plant basis, company basis (by country or by region) or international organization basis.
Since lime is defined as the generic name for quicklime, dolime and sintered dolime, plants manufacturing at least one of these products shall be covered by this standard.
This European Standard addresses all of the following direct and indirect sources of GHG included as defined in ISO 14064 1:
-   direct greenhouse gas emissions from greenhouse gas sources that are owned or controlled by the company, such as emissions resulting from the following sources:
-   calcination of carbonates and combustion of organic carbon contained in the kiln stone;
-   combustion of kiln fuels (fossil kiln fuels, alternative fossil fuels, mixed fuels with biogenic carbon content, biomass fuels and bio fuels) related to lime production and/or drying of raw materials;
-   combustion of non-kiln fuels (fossil kiln fuels, mixed fuels with biogenic carbon content, biomass fuels and bio fuels) related to equipment and on-site vehicles, heating/cooling and other on-site uses;
-   combustion of fuels for on-site power generation.
-   indirect greenhouse gas emissions from the generation of imported electricity, heat or steam consumed by the organization;
-   other indirect greenhouse gas emissions, other than energy indirect GHG emissions, which is a consequence of an organization's activities, but arises from greenhouse gas sources that are owned or controlled by other organizations such as from imported kiln stone.
This European Standard is to be used in conjunction with EN 19694-1, which contains generic, overall requirements, definitions and rules applicable to the determination of GHG emissions for all energy-intensive sectors, provides common methodological issues and defines the details for applying the rules. The application of this standard to the sector-specific standards ensures accuracy, precision and reproducibility of the results and is for this reason a normative reference standard.
Together these standards provide a harmonized method for:
a)   measuring, testing and quantifying methods for GHG emissions;
b)   assessing the level of GHG emissions performance of production processes over time, at production sites;
c)   establishment and provision of reliable, accurate and quality information for reporting and verification purposes.
GHG emissions offset mechanisms, including but not limited to voluntary offset schemes or nationally or internationally recognized offset mechanisms, shall not be used at any point in the GHG assessment according to this standard.

Emissionen aus stationären Quellen - Bestimmung von Treibhausgasen (THG) aus energieintensiven Industrien - Teil 5: Kalkindustrie

Diese Europäische Norm stellt eine harmonisierte Methodik zur Berechnung der Treibhausgasemissionen aus der Kalkindustrie bereit. Sie umfasst die Herstellung von Kalk und in der Anlage hergestellte nachgelagerte Kalkprodukte, z. B. gemahlener oder gelöschter Kalk. Diese Norm ermöglicht die Berichterstattung zu Treibhausgasemissionen für verschiedene Zwecke und auf unterschiedlicher Basis, zum Beispiel auf Anlagen  bzw. Werkbasis, auf Unternehmensbasis (nach Land oder nach Region) oder auf internationaler Organisationsbasis.
Da Kalk als generische Bezeichnung für Branntkalk, Dolomitkalk und gesinterten Dolomitkalk definiert ist, muss diese Norm Anlagen abdecken, in denen mindestens eines dieser Produkte hergestellt wird.
Diese Europäische Norm behandelt alle folgenden direkten und indirekten Treibhausgasquellen nach ISO 14064 1:
direkte Treibhausgasemissionen aus Treibhausgasquellen, die im Besitz des Unternehmens sind oder von diesem kontrolliert werden, z. B. Emissionen aus folgenden Quellen:
Kalzinierung der Carbonate und Verbrennung des im Brenngut enthaltenen organischen Kohlen¬stoffs;
Verbrennung der Ofenbrennstoffe (fossile Ofenbrennstoffe, alternative fossile Brennstoffe, Mischbrennstoffe mit biogenem Kohlenstoffanteil, Biomassebrennstoffe und Biobrennstoffe) im Zusammenhang mit der Kalkherstellung und/oder dem Trocknen der Rohstoffe;
Verbrennung der Nicht-Ofenbrennstoffe (fossile Ofenbrennstoffe, Mischbrennstoffe mit biogenem Kohlenstoffanteil, Biomassebrennstoffe und Biobrennstoffe) im Zusammenhang mit Betriebseinrichtungen und vor Ort eingesetzten Fahrzeugen, dem Heizen/Kühlen und anderen Verwendungen vor Ort;
Verbrennung der Brennstoffe zur Stromerzeugung vor Ort;
—   indirekte Treibhausgasemissionen aus der Erzeugung importierter elektrischer Energie, Wärme oder Dampf, die von der Organisation verbraucht werden;
—   sonstige indirekte Treibhausgasemissionen außer energiebedingte indirekte Treibhausgasemissionen, die eine Folge der Tätigkeiten einer Organisation sind, die jedoch aus den Treibhausgasquellen stammen, die sich im Besitz anderer Organisationen befinden oder von diesen kontrolliert werden, z. B. aus importiertem Brenngut.
Diese Norm ist in Verbindung mit FprEN 19694 1 anzuwenden, in der generische, allgemeine Anforderungen, Definitionen und Regeln behandelt sind und die für die Bestimmung von Treibhausgasemissionen aus allen energieintensiven Sektoren gelten, und in der gemeinsame methodische Aspekte beschrieben und die Einzelheiten zur Anwendung dieser Regeln festgelegt sind. Durch die Anwendung dieser Norm auf sektorspezifische Normen sind die Genauigkeit, Präzision und Wiederholbarkeit der Ergebnisse sichergestellt, daher handelt es sich hierbei um eine normative Bezugsnorm.
Gemeinsam stellen diese Normen ein harmonisiertes Verfahren bereit zur:
a)   Messung, Prüfung und Quantifizierung der Treibhausgasemissionen;
b)   Bewertung des Treibhausgasemissionsniveaus von Produktionsprozessen im zeitlichen Verlauf an Produktionsstandorten;
c)   Erarbeitung und Bereitstellung verlässlicher, genauer und hochwertiger Informationen für die Erstellung von Berichten und für Verifizierungszwecke.
Nach dieser Norm dürfen an keiner Stelle THG Bewertungsmechanismen zur Verrechnung von Treibhaus-gasemissionen, darunter freiwillige Verrechnungsmodelle oder nationale bzw. internationale anerkannte Verrechnungsmechanismen, angewendet werden.

Émissions de sources fixes - Détermination des émissions de gaz à effet de serre (GES) dans les industries énergo-intensives - Partie 5: Industrie de la chaux

La présente Norme européenne fournit une méthodologie harmonisée pour calculer les émissions de GES de l'industrie de la chaux. Elle inclut la fabrication de la chaux et les sous-produits dérivés en aval fabriqués en usine, tels que la chaux broyée ou hydratée. La présente norme permet de déclarer les émissions de GES à différentes fins et sur différentes bases, telles qu'au niveau d'une usine, d'une entreprise (par pays ou par région) ou d'une organisation internationale.
La chaux étant définie comme le terme générique de la chaux vive, de la dolomie et de la dolomie frittée, les usines fabriquant au moins l'un de ces produits doivent être couvertes par la présente norme.
La présente Norme européenne examine toutes les sources suivantes d'émissions directes et indirectes de GES concernées et définies dans l'ISO 14064 1 :
-   émissions directes de gaz à effet de serre provenant de sources de GES détenues ou contrôlées par l'entreprise, les émissions émanant des sources suivantes :
-   calcination des carbonates et combustion du carbone organique contenu dans le calcaire d'alimentation des fours ;
-   combustion des combustibles alimentant les fours (combustibles fossiles utilisés pour alimenter les fours, combustibles fossiles de substitution, combustibles mixtes contenant du carbone biogénique, combustibles issus de la biomasse et biocarburants) et liés à la production de chaux et/ou au séchage des matières premières ;
-   combustion des combustibles non destinés à alimenter les fours (combustibles fossiles, combustibles fossiles de substitution, combustibles mixtes contenant du carbone biogénique, combustibles issus de la biomasse et biocarburants) et liés aux équipements et véhicules utilisés sur site, au chauffage/refroidissement et autres utilisations sur site ;
-   combustion des combustibles pour la production d'électricité sur site.
-   émissions indirectes de gaz à effet de serre provenant de la génération d'électricité, de chaleur ou de vapeur importée qui est consommée par l'organisation ;
-   autres émissions indirectes de gaz à effet de serre, autres que les émissions indirectes de GES des énergies, qui résultent des activités d'une organisation mais qui proviennent des sources de gaz à effet de serre qui sont détenues ou contrôlées par d'autres organisations, telles que le calcaire importé pour l'alimentation des fours.
La présente Norme européenne doit être utilisée conjointement avec le FprEN 19694-1 qui contient des exigences générales génériques, des définitions et des règles applicables pour la détermination des émissions de GES pour tous les secteurs consommateurs d'énergie, expose des questions méthodologiques communes et détaille l'application des règles exposées. L'application de la présente norme aux normes sectorielles garantit l'exactitude, la fidélité et la reproductibilité des résultats et est, de ce fait, une norme de référence normative.
Ces normes fournissent conjointement une méthode harmonisée pour :
a)   mesurer, contrôler et quantifier les méthodes relatives aux émissions de GES ;
b)   évaluer au fil du temps le niveau des émissions de GES des procédés de fabrication des sites de production ;
c)   établir et fournir des informations fiables, précises et de qualité à des fins de déclaration et de vérification.
Les mécanismes de compensation des émissions de GES, incluant mais sans s'y limiter les programmes de compensation volontaires ou les mécanismes de compensation reconnus à l'échelle nationale ou internationale, ne doivent être utilisés à aucun moment de l'évaluation des GES conformément à la présente norme.

Emisije nepremičnih virov - Določevanje emisij toplogrednih plinov (TGP) v energetsko intenzivnih industrijah - 5. del: Proizvodnja apna

Potrjeni standard zajema določitev najpomembnejših emisij toplogrednih plinov in njihovih virov med postopkom izdelave apna z začetkom v kamnolomu in zaključkom s proizvodom iz peči. Ta standard zajema tudi nekatere običajne nadaljnje postopke, kot sta »mletje« in »hidratacija«.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
19-Jul-2016
Current Stage
6060 - Definitive text made available (DAV) - Publishing
Due Date
20-Jul-2016
Completion Date
20-Jul-2016

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN 19694-5:2017
01-julij-2017
(PLVLMHQHSUHPLþQLKYLURY'RORþHYDQMHHPLVLMWRSORJUHGQLKSOLQRY 7*3 Y
HQHUJHWVNRLQWHQ]LYQLKLQGXVWULMDKGHO3URL]YRGQMDDSQD
Stationary source emissions - Determination of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in
energy-intensive industries - Part 5: Lime industry
Emissionen aus stationären Quellen - Bestimmung von Treibhausgasen (THG) aus
energieintensiven Industrien - Teil 5: Kalkindustrie

Émissions de sources fixes - Détermination des émissions des gaz à effet de serre dans

les industries à forte intensité énergétique - Partie 5: Industrie de la chaux
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN 19694-5:2016
ICS:
13.020.40 Onesnaževanje, nadzor nad Pollution, pollution control
onesnaževanjem in and conservation
ohranjanje
13.040.40 (PLVLMHQHSUHPLþQLKYLURY Stationary source emissions
91.100.10 Cement. Mavec. Apno. Malta Cement. Gypsum. Lime.
Mortar
SIST EN 19694-5:2017 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN 19694-5:2017
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SIST EN 19694-5:2017
EN 19694-5
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
July 2016
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 13.040.40
English Version
Stationary source emissions - Determination of
greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in energy-intensive
industries - Part 5: Lime industry

Émissions de sources fixes - Détermination des Emissionen aus stationären Quellen - Bestimmung von

émissions de gaz à effet de serre (GES) dans les Treibhausgasen (THG) aus energieintensiven

industries énergo-intensives - Partie 5: Industrie de la Industrien - Teil 5: Kalkindustrie

chaux
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 5 May 2016.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,

Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Brussels

© 2016 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN 19694-5:2016 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN 19694-5:2017
EN 19694-5:2016 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 4

1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................................... 5

2 Normative references .................................................................................................................................... 6

3 Terms and definitions ................................................................................................................................... 6

4 Symbols and abbreviations ......................................................................................................................... 8

5 Introduction ................................................................................................................................................... 10

5.1 Overview of the lime manufacturing process .................................................................................... 10

5.2 Direct greenhouse gas emissions from calcination of kiln stone (process emissions) ...... 11

5.3 Direct greenhouse gas emissions from fuels for kiln operation (combustion

emissions) ....................................................................................................................................................... 11

5.4 Energy indirect greenhouse gas emissions ........................................................................................ 12

6 System boundaries ...................................................................................................................................... 12

6.1 Appropriate boundaries to distinguish ............................................................................................... 12

6.2 Organizational boundaries ....................................................................................................................... 12

6.3 Operational boundaries ............................................................................................................................. 13

6.4 Sources and greenhouse gases to be included................................................................................... 14

6.5 Internal lime transfers ............................................................................................................................... 14

6.6 Assessment period ....................................................................................................................................... 14

7 Principles ........................................................................................................................................................ 14

8 Determination of greenhouse gas emissions: general requirements ....................................... 15

8.1 Monitoring Plan and other requirements for identifying, calculating and reporting of

greenhouse gas emissions ........................................................................................................................ 15

8.2 Stack-measurement-based method or mass-balance-based method ....................................... 15

9 Direct greenhouse gas emissions) and their determination ........................................................ 15

9.1 Sources of direct greenhouse gas emissions and the applicability of determination

methods ........................................................................................................................................................... 15

9.2 Direct CO greenhouse gas emissions from the calcination of kiln stone (process

emissions) using the mass-balance-based method ......................................................................... 16

9.3 Direct greenhouse gas emissions from kiln fuels (combustion emissions) using the

mass-balance-based method .................................................................................................................... 26

9.4 Direct greenhouse gas emissions from non-kiln fuels (combustion emissions) using

the mass-balance-based method ............................................................................................................ 30

10 Energy indirect greenhouse gas emissions and their determination ....................................... 33

10.1 Overview of the sources of energy indirect greenhouse gas emissions ................................... 33

10.2 Determination of the quantity of externally generated electricity used (activity data) .... 33

10.3 Determination of the emission factor for externally generated electricity ............................ 35

11 Other indirect greenhouse gas emissions from imported kiln stone and transport of

kiln stone by third parties ........................................................................................................................ 35

11.1 Other indirect indirect greenhouse gas emissions, third party and of site

transportation ............................................................................................................................................... 35

11.2 Greenhouse gas emissions from manufacture of imported kiln stone ..................................... 35

11.3 GHG from transport of kiln stone by third parties ........................................................................... 36

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SIST EN 19694-5:2017
EN 19694-5:2016 (E)

12 Reporting and performance assessment ............................................................................................. 37

12.1 Reporting data to include .......................................................................................................................... 37

12.2 Performance assessment ........................................................................................................................... 37

13 Uncertainty of GHG inventories ............................................................................................................... 39

13.1 General principles ........................................................................................................................................ 39

13.2 Assessment of uncertainty for the mass-balance- base method ................................................. 39

13.3 Assessment of uncertainty for the stack-measurement-based method ................................... 43

14 Verification / certification ......................................................................................................................... 43

Annex A (informative) Objective and outcome of the site trails ............................................................... 44

Annex B (normative) Minimum content of the monitoring plan .............................................................. 47

Annex C (informative) Details about the calculation of process emissions from lime kilns

using the mass balance-based-method ................................................................................................. 50

Annex D (informative) Example of an uncertainty calculation ................................................................. 56

Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................. 58

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SIST EN 19694-5:2017
EN 19694-5:2016 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN 19694-5:2016) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 264 “Air

quality”, the secretariat of which is held by DIN.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by January 2017, and conflicting national standards shall

be withdrawn at the latest by January 2017.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent

rights.

This document has been prepared under a mandate M/478 given to CEN by the European Commission

and the European Free Trade Association.

This part of EN 19694 deals with sector-specific aspects for the determination of greenhouse gas (GHG)

emissions from lime manufacture.

This European Standard can be used to measure, report and compare the GHG emissions of a lime

manufacturing plant. Data for individual plants, sites or works may be combined to measure, report and

compare GHG emissions for an organization, corporation or group.

EN 19694, Stationary source emissions – Determination of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in energy

intensive industries is a series of standards that consists of the following parts:

— Part 1: General aspects
— Part 2: Iron and steel industry
— Part 3: Cement industry
— Part 4: Aluminium industry
— Part 5: Lime industry
— Part 6: Ferroalloy industry

According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia,

France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta,

Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and the United Kingdom.
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SIST EN 19694-5:2017
EN 19694-5:2016 (E)
1 Scope

This European Standard provides a harmonized methodology for calculating GHG emissions from the

lime industry. It includes the manufacture of lime, and any downstream lime products manufactured at

the plant, such as ground or hydrated lime. This standard allows for reporting of GHG emissions for

various purposes and on different basis, such as plant basis, company basis (by country or by region) or

international organization basis.

Since lime is defined as the generic name for quicklime, dolime and sintered dolime, plants

manufacturing at least one of these products shall be covered by this standard.

This European Standard addresses all of the following direct and indirect sources of GHG included as

defined in ISO 14064-1:

— direct greenhouse gas emissions from greenhouse gas sources that are owned or controlled by the

company, such as emissions resulting from the following sources:

— calcination of carbonates and combustion of organic carbon contained in the kiln stone;

— combustion of kiln fuels (fossil kiln fuels, alternative fossil fuels, mixed fuels with biogenic

carbon content, biomass fuels and bio fuels) related to lime production and/or drying of raw

materials;

— combustion of non-kiln fuels (fossil kiln fuels, mixed fuels with biogenic carbon content,

biomass fuels and bio fuels) related to equipment and on-site vehicles, heating/cooling and

other on-site uses;
— combustion of fuels for on-site power generation.

— indirect greenhouse gas emissions from the generation of imported electricity, heat or steam

consumed by the organization;

— other indirect greenhouse gas emissions, other than energy indirect GHG emissions, which is a

consequence of an organization's activities, but arises from greenhouse gas sources that are owned

or controlled by other organizations such as from imported kiln stone.

This European Standard is to be used in conjunction with EN 19694-1, which contains generic, overall

requirements, definitions and rules applicable to the determination of GHG emissions for all energy-

intensive sectors, provides common methodological issues and defines the details for applying the

rules. The application of this standard to the sector-specific standards ensures accuracy, precision and

reproducibility of the results and is for this reason a normative reference standard.

Together these standards provide a harmonized method for:
a) measuring, testing and quantifying methods for GHG emissions;

b) assessing the level of GHG emissions performance of production processes over time, at production

sites;

c) establishment and provision of reliable, accurate and quality information for reporting and

verification purposes.

GHG emissions offset mechanisms, including but not limited to voluntary offset schemes or nationally

or internationally recognized offset mechanisms, shall not be used at any point in the GHG assessment

according to this standard.
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SIST EN 19694-5:2017
EN 19694-5:2016 (E)
2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

EN 459-2, Building lime — Part 2: Test methods

EN 932-1, Tests for general properties of aggregates — Part 1: Methods for sampling

EN 12485, Chemicals used for treatment of water intended for human consumption — Calcium carbonate,

high-calcium lime, half-burnt dolomite, magnesium oxide and calcium magnesium carbonate — Test

methods
EN 13639, Determination of total organic carbon in limestone
EN 15442, Solid recovered fuels — Methods for sampling

EN 19694-1:2016, Stationary source emissions — Determination of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in

energy-intensive industries — Part 1: General aspects

ISO 5069-1, Brown coals and lignites — Principles of sampling — Part 1: Sampling for determination of

moisture content and for general analysis
ISO 13909 (all parts), Hard coal and coke — Mechanical sampling
ISO 18283, Hard coal and coke — Manual sampling

ISO 14064-1, Greenhouse gases — Part 1: Specification with guidance at the organization level for

quantification and reporting of greenhouse gas emissions and removals
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in EN 19694-1 and the following

apply.
3.1
activity data

information on material flow, consumption of fuel, input material or production output

Note 1 to entry: Expressed as energy [GJ] or as mass or volume [t or m ] in the case of fuels and mass or

volume in the case of raw materials or products [t or m ].
3.2
dolime

product resulting from the calcination of kiln stone consisting of calcium carbonate and magnesium

carbonate
3.3
downstream lime product

downstream lime products including Run-Of-Kiln lime (ROK), Lime Kiln Dust (LKD) and products made

from them at the plant including ground lime and hydrated lime
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SIST EN 19694-5:2017
EN 19694-5:2016 (E)
3.4
free CaO and MgO

calcium oxide or magnesium oxide that has been produced in the kiln during the decarbonation of

calcium carbonate or magnesium carbonate

Note 1 to entry: The terminology free CaO and MgO as used in this standard may differ from the terminology

applied in other standards.
3.5
kiln battery
group of kilns at the same plant and of the same design

EXAMPLE Parallel Flow Regenerative Kilns, Annular Shaft Kilns, Mixed Feed Shaft Kilns, Preheater Rotary

Kilns or Long Rotary Kilns
3.6
kiln stone
limestone that is fed into the kiln
3.7
lime
generic name for quicklime, dolime or sintered dolime
3.8
lime kiln dust
LKD

partly calcined kiln stone material which is extracted by the kiln particulate abatement system

3.9
limestone

sedimentary rock consisting of calcium carbonate (CaCO ), magnesium carbonate (MgCO ), mineral and

3 3

other minor impurities, including in some cases a small fraction of organic carbon

3.10
non kiln stone aggregates
all stones extracted from a quarry except that used as kiln stone
3.11
quicklime

product resulting from the calcination of limestone consisting primarily of calcium carbonate

3.12
residual CO

CO that remains in the product leaving the kiln which is bound with CaO in the form of CaCO and

2 3
possibly with MgO in form of MgCO
3.13
run-of-kiln lime
ROK
direct output from the kiln
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SIST EN 19694-5:2017
EN 19694-5:2016 (E)
3.14
sintered dolime

dolime heated to temperatures below its melting temperature, so as to increase its density

4 Symbols and abbreviations
m mass of CO emitted through the stack t
CO2−stack
arithmetic mean of the measured values
CaCO weight fraction of calcium carbonate in the dry ROK lime
3 LI-ROK
produced by the kiln
CaCO weight fraction of calcium carbonate in the dry LKD
3 LKD
CaCO weight fraction of calcium carbonate in the dry limestone fed
3 LS
into the kiln
CaO free CaO
CaO weight fraction of free calcium oxide in the dry ROK lime
LI-ROK
produced by the kiln
CaO weight fraction of free calcium oxide in the dry LKD
LKD
CaO total CaO

CV calorific value of the fuel (y). It is important to note that the GJ/t or GJ/m3N

applied calorific value always has to match the status of the
fuel, especially with respect to the correct moisture content
during its weighing (e.g. raw coal or dried coal)
d the transport distance of the kiln stone for the mode i
EF emission factor of the ROK lime, here the CO emissions CO / t
LI 2 2e
resulting from the calcination of the limestone factor per mass
of ROK lime
EF emission factor of the limestone, here the CO emissions CO / t
LS 2 2e
resulting from the calcination of the limestone factor per mass
of limestone
EF emission factor of externally generated electricity (CO / kWh)
ELEC 2e
EF emission factor of the fuel (y) expressed as (combustion t /GJ
Fy CO2e
emissions)
EF the greenhouse gas emission factor of imported kiln stone
LS-PUR i
LI lime
LKD lime kiln dust
LS limestone
m dry mass of ROK lime t
LI-ROK
m dry mass of LKD generated by the process t
LKD
m LS dry mass of limestone fed into the kiln or kiln battery t
M molar mass of magnesium carbonate 84,314 g/mol
MgCO3
M molar mass of magnesium oxide 40,304 g/mol
MgO
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SIST EN 19694-5:2017
EN 19694-5:2016 (E)
M molar mass of calcium carbonate 100,087 g/mol
CaCO3
M molar mass of calcium oxide 56,077 g/mol
CaO
M molar mass of carbon dioxide 44,010 g/mol
CO2
m material flow of a fuel (y), i.e. the fuel consumption expressed t or m
Fy N
as mass for solid and liquid fuels or as volume for gaseous fuels
MgCO weight fraction of magnesium carbonate in the dry ROK lime
3 LI-ROK
produced by the kiln. In practice, this mass fraction can be
considered as close to 0 as the magnesium carbonate is fully
converted to magnesium oxide due to the temperatures
prevailing in the kiln
MgCO weight fraction of magnesium carbonate in the dry LKD
3 LKD
MgCO weight fraction of magnesium carbonate in the dry limestone
3 LS
fed into the kiln
MgO weight fraction of free magnesium oxide in the dry ROK lime
LI-ROK
produced by the kiln
MgO weight fraction of free magnesium oxide in the dry LKD
LKD
MgO
m the mass of load i t
m measured mass of downstream lime product
LI-Prod
m dry mass of LKD that is not blended with the downstream lime t
LKD-out
m the annual total (wet) mass of imported kiln stone from the t
LS-PUR i
third party that is imported into the plant and used for lime
manufacture during the 12 month reporting period
Ox oxidation factor of the fuel (y)
Q quantity of electricity consumed
ELEC
ROK run of kiln
t metric tonne t
t tonnes of aggregates used for the production of fillers t
e e
TF emission factor per wet mass for kiln stone imported kgCO /t
LS-PUR 2
TF the GHG emission factor of transport mode i
LS-PUR i
t a given period of time t
gt gt
TOC total organic carbon content of the limestone
Ua uncertainty associated with the overall analytical procedure
U relative expanded uncertainty
Um uncertainty associated with the sampling procedure
Umi uncertainty of the weighbridge for measurement of load I
Umtotal total relative uncertainty of the mass measurement
w average moisture content of the kiln stone determined
according to the provisions of 9.2.2.3
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x absolute amount of mass flow or material in stock in the mass
balance
y fuel consumed
η mass flow of LKD generated in the dedusting system(s) of the
kiln divided by the mass flow of ROK lime produced by the kiln
η mass flow of LKD generated in the dedusting system(s) of the
kiln divided by the dry mass flow of limestone fed into the kiln
5 Introduction
5.1 Overview of the lime manufacturing process
Lime manufacture includes three main process steps: 1

a) kiln stone preparation including quarrying, crushing, washing, screening and transporting to the

lime kiln;

b) kiln operation including lime manufacture using pyro-processing to calcine the kiln stone in a lime

kiln;

c) downstream processing including crushing, screening, transporting to silos, grinding/milling,

hydrating and packing.
Figure 1 — Process steps in lime manufacture

A lime manufacturing plant may also encompass the use of additional fuel for on-site power generation

and for preparation or processing of fuels for use in the plant.

There are two main sources of direct greenhouse gas emissions in the lime manufacturing process:

— calcination of kiln stone through pyro-processing in the lime kiln (known as process emissions);

— combustion of kiln fuels (known as combustion emissions).
These two sources are described in more detail below.
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Other minor direct greenhouse gas emissions may come from non-kiln fuels such as on-site transport,

pumps, room heating and other on-site uses.

The main source of energy indirect greenhouse gas emissions in the lime manufacturing process come

from external power production or transport but these sources are relatively small in comparison to

the direct greenhouse gas emissions.

For the lime sector, only the greenhouse gas CO is relevant as demonstrated by different field tests.

Details about these tests are provided in Annex A.

5.2 Direct greenhouse gas emissions from calcination of kiln stone (process emissions)

In the lime manufacturing process, CO is released due to the chemical decomposition of calcium,

magnesium and other carbonates in the kiln stone when the kiln stone is heated to high temperatures:

CaCO →+CaO CO
(1)
MgCO →+MgO CO
(2)

This process is called "calcining" or "calcination". It results in direct emissions of CO through the kiln

stack. When considering CO emissions due to calcination, two components can be distinguished:

— CO from kiln stone used for lime production;
— CO from materials leaving the kiln system as partly calcined LKD.

The CO2 from lime production is dependent on the quality of the final lime product, i.e. the degree of

calcination. This varies depending on the kiln design and targeted final lime product properties. The

amount of LKD leaving the kiln system varies with kiln type. The associated greenhouse gas emissions

are likely to be relevant and so shall be accounted for.

CO emissions from calcination can be determined as a part of the measurement method or by using the

following mass-balance-based methods which are in principle equivalent:

a) the Input Method, based on the mass of kiln stone entering the kiln and chemical composition of

the limestone, lime and LKD leaving the kiln system;

b) the Output Method, based on the mass and chemical composition of the lime and LKD leaving the

kiln system;
c) direct greenhouse gas emissions from organic carbon in kiln stone.

Some kiln stone sources contain a small fraction of organic carbon, which can be expressed as total

organic carbon (TOC) content. Organic carbon in the kiln stone is converted to CO during pyro-

processing. The contribution of this component to the overall CO emissions is typically very small. The

organic carbon content of kiln stone can, however, vary substantially between locations and shall be

assessed.
5.3 Direct greenhouse gas emissions from fuels for kiln operation (combustion
emissions)

The lime industry uses various fossil fuels to heat the kiln, including natural gas, coal and fuel oil. In

recent years, fuels derived from waste materials have become important substitutes. These alternative

fuels (AF) include fossil fuel-derived fractions, such as waste oil, as well as biomass-derived fractions,

such as waste wood. Furthermore, fuels are increasingly used which contain both fossil and biogenic

carbon, such as municipal and pre-treated industrial wastes or waste tyres (containing natural and

synthetic rubber).
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Both traditional and AF result in direct greenhouse gas emissions through the kiln stack. However,

biomass fuels and the biomass component of mixed fuels are considered “climate-neutral” in

accordance with IPCC definitions.

Greenhouse gas emissions from combustion of fuels can be calculated based on the mass, calorific value

and chemical composition of fuels entering the kiln.

The mass-balance-based method used in this standard is compatible with the 2006 IPCC Guidelines for

National Greenhouse Gas Inventories issued by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC).

Alternatively, kiln GHG emissions, from combustion, calcination and organic carbon in the kiln stone,

can be determined by direct measurement at the kiln stack using the stack-measurement-based

method. Emissions from the kiln stack all sources are determined based on continuous measurement of

the concentration of the relevant GHG in the flue gas and of the flue gas volume flow. For the stack-

measurement-based method non-kiln emissions are measured using a mass balance approach similar

to the mass-balance-based method. Direct greenhouse gas emissions from non-kiln fuels (combustion

emissions)
Greenhouse gas emissions from us
...

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