Lifts (elevators), escalators and moving walks - Risk assessment and reduction methodology (ISO 14798:2009)

ISO 14798:2009 establishes general principles and specific procedures for assessing risk. Its purpose is to provide a process for making decisions relevant to the safety of lifts during the
       design, construction, installation and servicing of lifts, lift components and systems,
       development of generic procedures for the use, operation, testing, compliance verification and servicing of lifts, and
       development of technical specifications and standards affecting the safety of lifts.
While the examples given in ISO 14798:2009 refer primarily to risks of harm to persons, the risk assessment procedure it specifies can be equally effective for assessing other types of risk relevant to lifts, such as the risk of damage to property and environment.

Aufzüge, Fahrtreppen und Fahrsteige - Verfahren zur Risikobeurteilung und -minderung (ISO 14798:2009)

Diese Internationale Norm legt allgemeine Leitsätze und spezifische Verfahren zur Beurteilung von Risiken fest.
Zweck dieser Internationalen Norm ist es, ein Verfahren für die Entscheidungsfindung hinsichtlich der Sicherheit von Aufzügen
a)   während des Entwurfs, des Baus, des Einbaus und der Wartung von Aufzügen, Aufzugsbauteilen und -systemen,
b)   bei der Erarbeitung generischer Verfahren für die Nutzung, den Betrieb, die Prüfung, die Übereinstimmungsnachweise und die Wartung von Aufzügen und
c)   bei der Erarbeitung technischer Spezifikationen und Normen, die die Sicherheit von Aufzügen betreffen,
bereitzustellen.
Während sich Beispiele in dieser Internationalen Norm vorrangig auf Personenschäden beziehen, kann das in dieser Internationalen Norm aufgeführte Verfahren zur Risikobeurteilung ebenso wirksam bei der Beurteilung anderer aufzugsrelevanter Risiken, wie das Risiko eines Schadens für Güter und Umwelt, sein.

Ascenseurs, escaliers mécaniques et trottoirs roulants - Méthodologie de l'appréciation et de la réduction du risque (ISO 14798:2009)

L'ISO 14798:2009 établit des principes généraux et des procédures spécifiques pour apprécier le risque.
Le but de la présente Norme internationale est de fournir un processus pour prendre des décisions liées à la sécurité des ascenseurs pendant
la conception, la construction, l'installation et l'entretien des ascenseurs et de leurs composants et systèmes,
le développement de procédures génériques pour l'utilisation, le fonctionnement, les essais, la vérification de conformité et l'entretien des ascenseurs, et
le développement de spécifications techniques et de normes affectant la sécurité des ascenseurs.
Bien que les exemples donnés dans l'ISO 14798:2009 s'appliquent en premier lieu aux risques de dommages aux personnes, la procédure d'appréciation du risque qui y est présentée peut être tout aussi efficace pour apprécier d'autres types de risque associés aux ascenseurs, tels que le risque d'atteinte aux biens et à l'environnement.

Dvigala (lifti), tekoče stopnice in tekoče steze - Postopki za ocenjevanje in zmanjšanje tveganja (ISO 14798:2009)

Ta mednarodni standard določa splošna načela in posebne postopke za ocenjevanje tveganja. Ta mednarodni standard je namenjen podajanju postopka za sprejemanje odločitev, ki so pomembne za varnost dvigal med a) načrtovanjem, izdelavo, namestitvijo in servisiranjem dvigal, komponent dvigal in sistemov; b) pripravo splošnih postopkov za uporabo, delovanje, preskušanje, preverjanje skladnosti in servisiranje dvigal ter c) pripravo tehničnih specifikacij in standardov, ki vplivajo na varnost dvigal. Primeri v tem mednarodnem standardu obravnavajo predvsem tveganje poškodb oseb, vendar pa se lahko postopek ocenjevanja tveganja iz tega mednarodnega standarda enako učinkovito uporablja tudi za ocenjevanje drugih vrst tveganj, ki veljajo za dvigala, na primer tveganje poškodb lastnine ali okolja.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
08-Jan-2013
Current Stage
6060 - Definitive text made available (DAV) - Publishing
Due Date
09-Jan-2013
Completion Date
09-Jan-2013

Buy Standard

Standard
EN ISO 14798:2013
English language
46 pages
sale 10% off
Preview
sale 10% off
Preview
e-Library read for
1 day

Standards Content (sample)

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.Aufzüge, Fahrtreppen und Fahrsteige - Verfahren zur Risikobeurteilung und Verringerung (ISO 14798:2009)Ascenseurs, escaliers mécaniques et trottoirs roulants - Méthodologie de l'appréciation et de la réduction du risque (ISO 14798:2009)Lifts (elevators), escalators and moving walks - Risk assessment and reduction methodology (ISO 14798:2009)91.140.90Lifts. EscalatorsICS:Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z:EN ISO 14798:2013SIST EN ISO 14798:2013en,de01-junij-2013SIST EN ISO 14798:2013SLOVENSKI

STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 14798:2013
EUROPEAN STANDARD NORME EUROPÉENNE EUROPÄISCHE NORM
EN ISO 14798
January 2013 ICS 91.140.90 English Version

Lifts (elevators), escalators and moving walks - Risk assessmentand reduction methodology (ISO 14798:2009)

Ascenseurs, escaliers mécaniques et trottoirs roulants - Méthodologie de l'appréciation et de la réduction du risque (ISO 14798:2009)

Aufzüge, Fahrtreppen und Fahrsteige - Verfahren zur Risikobeurteilung und -minderung (ISO 14798:2009) This European Standard was approved by CEN on 24 November 2012.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and United Kingdom.

EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
Management Centre:
Avenue Marnix 17,

B-1000 Brussels © 2013 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CEN national Members. Ref. No. EN ISO 14798:2013: ESIST EN ISO 14798:2013

EN ISO 14798:2013 (E) 2 Contents Page Foreword ..............................................................................................................................................................3 SIST EN ISO 14798:2013

EN ISO 14798:2013 (E) 3 Foreword The text of ISO 14798:2009 has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 178 “Lifts, escalators and moving walks” of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and has been taken over as EN ISO 14798:2013 by Technical Committee CEN/TC 10 “Lifts, escalators and moving walks” the secretariat of which is held by AFNOR. This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by July 2013, and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn at the latest by July 2013. Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent rights. CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organisations of the following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the United Kingdom. Endorsement notice The text of ISO 14798:2009 has been approved by CEN as a EN ISO 14798:2013 without any modification.

SIST EN ISO 14798:2013
SIST EN ISO 14798:2013
Reference numberISO 14798:2009(E)© ISO 2009

INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO14798First edition2009-03-01Lifts (elevators), escalators and moving walks — Risk assessment and reduction methodology Ascenseurs, escaliers mécaniques et trottoirs roulants — Méthodologie de l'appréciation et de la réduction du risque

SIST EN ISO 14798:2013

ISO 14798:2009(E) PDF disclaimer This PDF file may contain embedded typefaces. In accordance with Adobe's licensing policy, this file may be printed or viewed but shall not be edited unless the typefaces which are embedded are licensed to and installed on the computer performing the editing. In downloading this file, parties accept therein the responsibility of not infringing Adobe's licensing policy. The ISO Central Secretariat accepts no liability in this area. Adobe is a trademark of Adobe Systems Incorporated. Details of the software products used to create this PDF file can be found in the General Info relative to the file; the PDF-creation parameters were optimized for printing. Every care has been taken to ensure that the file is suitable for use by ISO member bodies. In the unlikely event that a problem relating to it is found, please inform the Central Secretariat at the address given below.

COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT

ISO 2009 All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and microfilm, without permission in writing from either ISO at the address below or ISO's member body in the country of the requester. ISO copyright office Case postale 56 • CH-1211 Geneva 20 Tel.

+ 41 22 749 01 11 Fax
+ 41 22 749 09 47 E-mail
copyright@iso.org Web
www.iso.org Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2009 – All rights reserved
SIST EN ISO 14798:2013

ISO 14798:2009(E) © ISO 2009 – All rights reserved iii Contents Page Foreword............................................................................................................................................................iv Introduction.........................................................................................................................................................v 1 Scope......................................................................................................................................................1 2 Terms and definitions...........................................................................................................................1 3 General principles.................................................................................................................................3 3.1 Concept of safety..................................................................................................................................3 3.2 Concept of risk assessment.................................................................................................................3 4 Risk analysis procedure.......................................................................................................................5 4.1 Step 1 — Determination of the reason for conducting a risk assessment......................................5 4.2 Step 2 — Formation of a risk assessment team................................................................................5 4.3 Step 3 — Determination of the subject of risk assessment and related factors............................6 4.4 Step 4 — Identification of scenarios: hazardous situations, causes and effects...........................8 4.5 Step 5 — Risk estimation......................................................................................................................9 5 Step 6 — Risk evaluation....................................................................................................................15 6 Step 7 — Has the risk been sufficiently mitigated?.........................................................................15 7 Step 8 — Reduction of risk — Protective measures........................................................................16 8 Documentation....................................................................................................................................17 Annex A (normative)

Risk assessment template...........................................................................................18 Annex B (informative)

Quick references to hazards (Table B.1), hazardous situations (Table B.2), causes (Table B.3), effects (Table B.4) and harm (Table B.5).........................................................20 Annex C (normative)

Estimation of risk elements —

Severity (Table C.1) and probability (Table C.2)............................................................................................................................................25 Annex D (normative)

Risk estimation and evaluation...................................................................................26 Annex E (informative)

Role of the team moderator.......................................................................................28 Annex F (informative)

Examples of a risk assessment and protective measures.....................................32 Bibliography......................................................................................................................................................38

SIST EN ISO 14798:2013

ISO 14798:2009(E) iv © ISO 2009 – All rights reserved Foreword ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization. International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2. The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International Standards adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publication as an International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting a vote. Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. ISO 14798 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 178, Lifts, escalators and moving walks. This first edition of ISO 14798 cancels and replaces ISO/TS 14798:2006, which has been technically revised.

SIST EN ISO 14798:2013

ISO 14798:2009(E) © ISO 2009 – All rights reserved v Introduction The objective of this International Standard is to describe principles and set procedures for a consistent and systematic risk assessment methodology relevant to lifts (elevators), escalators, moving walks (“lifts”, for short). The risk analysis and assessment principles and process described in this International Standard may, however, be used for assessment of risk relevant to equipment other than lifts. This risk assessment methodology is a tool used to identify risk of harm resulting from various hazards, hazardous situations and harmful events. Knowledge and experience of the design, use, installation, maintenance, incidents, accidents and related harm are brought together in order to assess the risk during all phases of the life of lifts 1) (elevators), escalators and moving walks (hereafter referred to as “lifts”), from design and construction up to decommissioning. The users of the methodology do not make medical judgements but, rather, evaluate events that can possibly lead to levels of harm defined in this International Standard. By itself, this International Standard does not provide a presumption of conformity to any safety requirements for lifts, including those noted in Clause 1. NOTE Risk assessment is not an exact science, as there is a certain degree of subjectivity in the process. It is recommended that this International Standard be incorporated into training courses and manuals so as to provide basic instructions on safety aspects to those involved in a) assessing designs, operations, testing and use of lift equipment, and b) writing of specifications or standards incorporating safety requirements for lifts. This International Standard describes a qualitative methodology for risk assessment that relies very much on the judgement and deliberations of the members of the risk assessment team who carry out the assessment. To ensure the most realistic and consistent assessment, it is essential that the methodology be followed faithfully. Aids such as numeric methods of assessment that follow the format described in this International Standard are not precluded from use. It should, however, be recognized that numeric aids to qualitative methods may still retain some of the subjectivity inherent in the qualitative process. Clause 3 describes the concepts of safety and risk assessment. Clause 4 describes the procedure of risk analysis, including risk estimation. The procedure for risk evaluation is set out in Clause 5 and assessment in Clause 6. Clause 7 deals with protective measures. Clause 8 specifies relevant documentation.

1) Hereafter in this International Standard, the term “lift” is used instead of the term “elevator”. In addition, the term “lift” is also used instead of the terms “lifts, escalators and moving walks”. SIST EN ISO 14798:2013

SIST EN ISO 14798:2013

INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 14798:2009(E) © ISO 2009 – All rights reserved 1 Lifts (elevators), escalators and moving walks — Risk assessment and reduction methodology 1 Scope This International Standard establishes general principles and specific procedures for assessing risk. The purpose of this International Standard is to provide a process for making decisions relevant to the safety of lifts during the a) design, construction, installation and servicing of lifts, lift components and systems, b) development of generic procedures for the use, operation, testing, compliance verification and servicing of lifts, and c) development of technical specifications and standards affecting the safety of lifts. While examples in this International Standard refer primarily to risks of harm to persons, the risk assessment procedure set out in this International Standard can be equally effective for assessing other types of risk relevant to lifts, such as the risk of damage to property and environment. 2 Terms and definitions For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply. 2.1 cause circumstance, condition, event or action that in a hazardous situation contributes to the production of an effect 2.2 effect result of a cause in the presence of a hazardous situation 2.3 harm physical injury or damage to the health of people, or damage to property or the environment [ISO/IEC Guide 51:1999, 3.3] 2.4 harmful event occurrence in which a hazardous situation results in harm [ISO/IEC Guide 51:1999, 3.4] NOTE In this International Standard, the term “harmful event” is interpreted as a combination of cause and effect. SIST EN ISO 14798:2013

ISO 14798:2009(E) 2 © ISO 2009 – All rights reserved 2.5 hazard potential source of harm NOTE The term “hazard” can be qualified in order to define its origin or the nature of the expected harm (e.g. electric shock hazard, crushing hazard, cutting hazard, toxic hazard, fire hazard, drowning hazard). [ISO/IEC Guide 51:1999, 3.5] 2.6 hazardous situation circumstance in which people, property or the environment are exposed to one or more hazards [ISO/IEC Guide 51:1999, 3.6] 2.7 life cycle period of usage of a component or a lift system 2.8 protective measure means used to reduce risk NOTE Protective measures include risk reduction by inherently safe design, protective devices, personal protective equipment, information for use and installation and training [ISO/IEC Guide 51:1999, 3.8] 2.9 residual risk risk remaining after protective measures have been taken [ISO/IEC Guide 51:1999, 3.9] 2.10 risk combination of the probability of occurrence of harm and the severity of that harm [ISO/IEC Guide 51:1999, 3.2] 2.11 risk analysis systematic use of available information to identify hazards and to estimate the risk [ISO/IEC Guide 51:1999, 3.10] 2.12 risk assessment overall process comprising a risk analysis and a risk evaluation [ISO/IEC Guide 51:1999, 3.12] 2.13 risk evaluation consideration of the risk analysis results to determine if the risk reduction is required 2.14 scenario sequence of a hazardous situation, cause and effect 2.15 severity level of potential harm SIST EN ISO 14798:2013

ISO 14798:2009(E) © ISO 2009 – All rights reserved 3 3 General principles 3.1 Concept of safety Safety, within this International Standard, is considered as freedom from unacceptable risk. There can be no absolute safety. Some risks, defined in this International Standard as residual risk, can remain. Therefore, a product or process (e.g. operation, use, inspection, testing, or servicing) can be only relatively safe. Safety is achieved by sufficient mitigation or reduction of the risk. Safety is achieved by the search for an optimal balance between the ideal of absolute safety, the demand to be met by a product or process, and factors such as benefit to the user, suitability for purpose, cost effectiveness and conventions of the society concerned. Consequently, there is a need to review continually the established safety levels, in particular when experience necessitates review of the pre-set safety levels and when developments, both in technology and knowledge, can lead to feasible improvements to attain sufficient mitigation of the risk compatible with the use of a product, process, or service. 3.2 Concept of risk assessment 3.2.1 Safety is achieved by the iterative process of risk assessment (risk analysis and risk evaluation) and risk reduction (see Figure 1). 3.2.2 Risk assessment is a series of logical steps that enables, in a systematic way, the examination of hazards associated with lifts. Risk assessment is followed, whenever necessary, by the risk reduction process, as described in Clause 7. When this process is repeated, it gives the iterative process for eliminating hazards as far as possible and for implementing protective measures. 3.2.3 Risk assessment includes: a) risk analysis 1) determination of the subject of analysis (see 4.3), 2) identification of scenarios: hazardous situations, causes and effects (see 4.4), and 3) risk estimation (see 4.5);

b) risk evaluation (see Clause 5). 3.2.4 Risk analysis provides the information required for the risk evaluation, which in turn allows judgements to be made on the level of safety of the lift and lift component, and any relevant process (e.g. operation, use, inspection, testing, or servicing). 3.2.5 Risk assessment relies on judgemental decisions. These decisions should be supported by qualitative methods complemented, as far as possible, by quantitative methods. Quantitative methods are particularly appropriate when the foreseeable severity and extent of harm are high. Qualitative methods are useful to assess alternative safety measures and to determine which one gives better protection. NOTE The application of quantitative methods is restricted by the amount of useful data that is available, and in many applications, only a qualitative risk assessment is possible. 3.2.6 The risk assessment shall be conducted so that it is possible to note down the procedure that has been followed and the results that have been achieved (see Clause 8). SIST EN ISO 14798:2013

ISO 14798:2009(E) 4 © ISO 2009 – All rights reserved

Figure 1 — Iterative process of risk assessment and risk reduction SIST EN ISO 14798:2013

ISO 14798:2009(E) © ISO 2009 – All rights reserved 5 4 Risk analysis procedure 4.1 Step 1 — Determination of the reason for conducting a risk assessment Before a risk assessment process can start, the reason for the assessment should be determined. It can be, but is not limited to, the following: a) verification that the risks are eliminated or sufficiently mitigated in relation to 1) design for, or installation of, a lift or a component, or a subsystem thereof, 2) the operation and use of a lift, or 3) procedures for testing, inspection, servicing, or performing any other work with intent to maintain the lift or a lift component in its intended operating conditions;

NOTE This especially applies to lifts and their components for which no recognized relevant safety standards are available. b) development of standards and regulations that stipulate requirements related to lift safety. 4.2 Step 2 — Formation of a risk assessment team 4.2.1 General Considering the variety in design, process and technology relevant to lifts, the diversity in the interests and working experience of lift experts, and in order to minimize any bias, a team approach for this risk assessment process is preferable. NOTE Risk assessment carried out by an individual might not be as comprehensive as that carried out by a team. 4.2.2 Team members Selection of the members of the risk assessment team, including the team moderator, is of paramount importance to the success of this risk assessment process. The team should be comprised of individuals with varied interests and having experience in all fields that can be affected by the product or process being assessed. EXAMPLE When assessing the design of a lift with a view to the safety of mechanics who will service the lift, the team can include persons with related work experience in construction, installation, testing, inspection and servicing, in addition to safety experts and experts in the design of various lift systems and subsystems. Experts with specialized knowledge may be engaged in a consulting role for all or appropriate portions of the risk assessment process. Such participation can significantly enhance the quality of the results. 4.2.3 Team moderator The team moderator should: a) have an overall understanding of the product or process being assessed; b) understand the risk assessment process; c) be able to assume an impartial view free of any bias; d) have “facilitating” abilities; e) act as a facilitator rather than participant in the debates of the team, and f) be able to facilitate arbitration when no team consensus can be reached. NOTE For further information on the role and responsibilities of the moderator, refer to Annex E. SIST EN ISO 14798:2013

ISO 14798:2009(E) 6 © ISO 2009 – All rights reserved 4.3 Step 3 — Determination of the subject of risk assessment and related factors 4.3.1 Determination of the subject of the assessment Once the reason for a risk assessment process is determined in accordance with 4.1, the subject of the assessment shall be determined as precisely as possible. Without limiting generalities, the subject may include one or more of the following: a) complete lift system 1) for a specific load, speed, travel, or range thereof, 2) for any location type, e.g. indoor or exposed to weather, in a public building or private residence, or in a factory or school, 3) for a specified or unspecified life cycle (see 4.3.2.2), 4) powered by any drive type (e.g. electric or hydraulic), 5) in a building that is accessible to the general public or that has strictly controlled use and access thereto, and 6) for the transportation of persons from the general public, a defined category of persons, goods only, or a combination thereof; b) component or subsystem of a lift in a), such as 1) enclosure of lift car, lift well, machine room or machinery space, 2) drive system or braking system, during normal operation or in case of emergency; 3) entrances to lift car and lift well (hoistway), machine room or well pit area, 4) operation control or motion control, incorporating diversified or specific technologies, and 5) locking devices; c) persons in relation to a lift in a), such as those who 1) use the lift for transportation, 2) are in, or could gain access to, the area where any part of the lift is located or operated, 3) perform any work on, or in the vicinity of, a lift, such as installing, testing, inspection, servicing, repairing, altering, rescuing, or cleaning (e.g. cleaning pit, car or well enclosures), 4) have certain physical disabilities, and 5) perform specific functions, e.g. fire fighting or transportation of hospital patients; d) processes related to a lift or its components, such as 1) installation, 2) service, 3) repair, 4) cleaning, 5) testing, 6) modernization, 7) replacement, and 8) rescue. SIST EN ISO 14798:2013

ISO 14798:2009(E) © ISO 2009 – All rights reserved 7 4.3.2 Determination of any additional factors and data to be considered 4.3.2.1 General In addition to the reason (see 4.1) and the subject (see 4.3.1) for the risk assessment, any additional factors that can modify or clarify the subject shall be determined, and any experience with similar products should be taken into consideration in the course of the assessment. 4.3.2.2 Life cycle of the subject being assessed 4.3.2.2.1 The intended life cycle is an important factor in determining the probability that a given event will occur. It does not, however, always come into play. If a standard is being written to address intrinsic safety, the life cycle need not be taken into account. EXAMPLE A safe gap can be defined by “a dimension not exceeding x”. This requirement is not related to time. Exceeding “x” is deemed to be unsafe. 4.3.2.2.2 Life cycle does have a role when considering the probability that a particular event will occur due to a component failure. In this situation, the life cycle of the system incorporating the component shall be considered. If, for example the system is to perform its function for 8 years, then the life of components shall at least match this to avoid a high probability of failure and, therefore, the occurrence of a given event. If, however, the component, through preventive maintenance, is replaced before failure occurs, the probability of the occurrence of a given event is low. EXAMPLE 1 If a component expected to perform its safety function no longer than 8 years is incorporated in a lift system that is expected to operate safely during a 20-year interval, the lift will do so only if the component is replaced with a new one in intervals of less than 8 years, as shown in Figure 2.

Key 1 time of system life cycle, 20 years 2 component life cycle, 8 years 3 time of replacement (prior to expected end of component life cycle end) Figure 2 — Replacement of components with a component life cycle shorter than the system life cycle EXAMPLE 2 If a component critical for lift safety could fail once, twice or thrice during the life cycle of a lift system, the probability of the failure of the component, as well as the probability of an unsafe condition occurring on the lift system, would be estimated as “C — occasional” when estimating the risk in accordance with 4.5.4 and Table C.2 of Annex C. If, however, there is a programme in place to regularly replace the component before the end of its lifetime, the probability of an unsafe condition occurring in the lift system would be estimated as “D — remote” or “E — improbable”, depending on the reliability of the component, as well as the reliability of the replacement programme. SIST EN ISO 14798:2013

ISO 14798:2009(E) 8 © ISO 2009 – All rights reserved 4.3.2.3 Information and data 4.3.2.3.1 Any available information and data that could assist in the qualitative and quantitative analysis should be taken into account. This includes accident and incident history, and causes and effects, which are relevant to the subject of the assessment or to similar products or procedures. 4.3.2.3.2 The absence of an accident history, a small number of accidents, or the low severity of the effects of the accidents should not lead to an automatic presumption of low risk. 4.3.2.3.3 Quantitative data can be used to supplement the data, based on the consensus of expert opinion derived from experience, as described in this International Standard. 4.4 Step 4 — Identification of scenarios: hazardous situations, causes and effects NOTE 1 In addition to the risk scenarios given in this subclause, Annex B and Annex F, further examples are provided in ISO/TS 22559-1. NOTE 2 Examples of hazards in Annex B are related to lifts. More general and comprehensive examples of hazards, hazardous situations and harmful events related to machinery in general, are provided in ISO 14121-1. 4.4.1 Hazard identification 4.4.1.1 The focal point of a scenario is the identification of hazards that could be associated with the subject being assessed. Table B.1 lists typical hazards that could be associated with lifts, including details and examples of the hazards. The list can be used as a starting point when formulating a scenario. EXAMPLE The risk assessment team can start by asking whether there is any situation in which people can be exposed to any type of hazard, for instance mechanical, electrical, fire or chemical. 4.4.1.2 A hazard may be inherent in the functionality of the lift system. EXAMPLE A lift car and counterweight, when moving adjacent to an open f

...

Questions, Comments and Discussion

Ask us and Technical Secretary will try to provide an answer. You can facilitate discussion about the standard in here.