Water quality - Guidance standard on monitoring freshwater pearl mussel (Margaritifera margaritifera) populations and their environment

This European Standard provides guidance on methods for monitoring freshwater pearl mussel populations and the environmental characteristics important for maintaining populations in favourable condition. The standard is based on best practice developed and used by Margaritifera experts in Europe, and describes approaches that individual countries have adopted for survey, data analysis and condition assessment. While it is recommended that the causes for pearl mussel decline should be urgently investigated, standard methods for restoring populations are beyond the scope of this document.

Wasserbeschaffenheit - Anleitung für das Monitoring von Populationen der Flussperlmuschel (Margaritifera Margaritifera) und ihrer Umwelt

Diese Norm enthält Anleitungen zu Verfahren für das Monitoring von Populationen der Flussperlmuschel und der Umgebungsbedingungen, die für die Erhaltung von Populationen im günstigen Zustand wichtig sind. Die Norm beruht auf der von Experten für Margaritifera in Europa entwickelten und angewendeten bewährten Vorgehensweise und beschreibt Herangehensweisen, die einzelne Länder zur Erhebung, Datenauswertung und Zustandsbeurteilung festgelegt haben. Obwohl empfohlen wird, die Ursachen für den Rückgang der Perlmuschel dringend zu untersuchen, fallen genormte Verfahren zur Wiederherstellung von Populationen nicht in den Anwendungsbereich dieses Dokuments.

Qualité de l'eau - Norme guide sur le suivi des populations de moules perlières d'eau douce (Margaritifera margaritifera) et de leur environnement

La présente norme fournit des préconisations concernant les méthodes de suivi des populations de moules perlières d'eau douce et présente les caractéristiques environnementales importantes pour le maintien des populations dans des conditions favorables. La présente norme est basée sur les meilleures pratiques développées et utilisées par les experts de la Margaritifera en Europe, et décrit les approches que les différents pays ont adoptées pour le recensement, l'analyse des données et l'évaluation de la situation. Même s'il est recommandé de rechercher de toute urgence les causes du déclin de la moule perlière, les méthodes standardisées visant à restaurer les populations dépassent la portée du présent document.

Kakovost vode - Navodilo za spremljanje (monitoring) populacij sladkovodnih školjk potočnih bisernic (Margaritifera margaritifera) in njihovega okolja

Ta standard podaja navodilo za metode spremljanja populacije sladkovodnih školjk potočnih bisernic in okoljske značilnosti, ki so pomembne za vzdrževanje populacije v ugodnih pogojih. Standard temelji na najboljši praksi, ki so jo razvili in jo uporabljajo evropski strokovnjaki za bisernice, ter opisuje pristope, ki jih posamezne države uporabljajo za pregled, analizo podatkov in oceno pogojev. Med tem ko je priporočljivo, da naj bi se vzroke za znižanje populacije potočnih bisernic nujno raziskalo, ta dokument ne zajema standardnih metod za obnovo populacije.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
14-Feb-2017
Current Stage
6060 - Definitive text made available (DAV) - Publishing
Due Date
15-Feb-2017
Completion Date
15-Feb-2017

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN 16859:2017
01-junij-2017
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ãNROMNSRWRþQLKELVHUQLF 0DUJDULWLIHUDPDUJDULWLIHUD LQQMLKRYHJDRNROMD

Water quality - Guidance standard on monitoring freshwater pearl mussel (Margaritifera

margaritifera) populations and their environment
Wasserbeschaffenheit - Anleitung für das Monitoring von Populationen der
Flussperlmuschel (Margaritifera Margaritifera) und ihrer Umwelt

Qualité de l'eau - Norme guide sur le suivi des populations de moules perlières d'eau

douce (Margaritifera margaritifera) et de leur environnement
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN 16859:2017
ICS:
13.060.70 Preiskava bioloških lastnosti Examination of biological
vode properties of water
SIST EN 16859:2017 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN 16859:2017
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SIST EN 16859:2017
EN 16859
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
February 2017
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 13.060.70
English Version
Water quality - Guidance standard on monitoring
freshwater pearl mussel (Margaritifera margaritifera)
populations and their environment

Qualité de l'eau - Norme guide sur le suivi des Wasserbeschaffenheit - Anleitung für das Monitoring

populations de moules perlières d'eau douce von Populationen der Flussperlmuschel (Margaritifera

(Margaritifera margaritifera) et de leur environnement Margaritifera) und ihrer Umwelt

This European Standard was approved by CEN on 4 December 2016.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,

Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Brussels

© 2017 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN 16859:2017 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN 16859:2017
EN 16859:2017 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 5

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................... 6

1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................................... 7

2 Normative references .................................................................................................................................... 7

3 Terms and definitions ................................................................................................................................... 7

4 Monitoring and assessing the condition of a Margaritifera population................................... 12

4.1 Requirements for a sustainable Margaritifera population........................................................... 12

4.1.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 12

4.1.2 Monitoring ...................................................................................................................................................... 12

Table 1 — Checklist of monitoring recommended on mussel attributes in rivers with

Margaritifera ................................................................................................................................................. 13

4.2 Training and quality assurance for pearl mussel survey and assessment.............................. 14

4.2.1 Pearl mussel survey .................................................................................................................................... 14

4.2.2 Training manuals ......................................................................................................................................... 15

4.2.3 Data entry and validation .......................................................................................................................... 15

4.2.4 Licences ........................................................................................................................................................... 15

5 Monitoring the environmental conditions needed to support Margaritifera

margaritifera populations ........................................................................................................................ 15

5.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 15

5.2 Fish hosts ......................................................................................................................................................... 16

5.2.1 Fish host species ........................................................................................................................................... 16

Table 2 — Checklist of monitoring recommended on fish hosts in rivers with Margaritifera ...... 16

5.2.2 Barriers to fish migration ......................................................................................................................... 17

5.2.3 Host suitability .............................................................................................................................................. 17

5.3 Water quality ................................................................................................................................................. 17

5.3.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 17

5.3.2 Phosphorus..................................................................................................................................................... 17

5.3.3 Nitrogen, including ammonia .................................................................................................................. 17

5.3.4 BOD / dissolved oxygen ............................................................................................................................ 18

5.3.5 pH ....................................................................................................................................................................... 18

5.3.6 Calcium............................................................................................................................................................. 18

5.3.7 Alkalinity ......................................................................................................................................................... 18

5.3.8 Electrical conductivity ................................................................................................................................ 18

5.3.9 Temperature .................................................................................................................................................. 18

5.3.10 Contaminants ................................................................................................................................................. 19

5.3.11 Turbidity, suspended solids ..................................................................................................................... 19

Table 3 — Checklist of monitoring recommended on water quality parameters in rivers

with Margaritifera ....................................................................................................................................... 19

5.3.12 Biotic indicators of water quality ........................................................................................................... 20

Table 4 — Checklist of monitoring recommended on biotic indicators in rivers with

Margaritifera ................................................................................................................................................. 21

5.4 Hydromorphology........................................................................................................................................ 21

5.4.1 Monitoring requirements ......................................................................................................................... 21

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EN 16859:2017 (E)
Table 5 — Checklist of monitoring recommended on flow and physical environmental

parameters in rivers with Margaritifera.............................................................................................. 21

5.4.2 Flow ................................................................................................................................................................... 22

5.4.3 Physical habitat structure ......................................................................................................................... 23

Table 6 — Clast sizes relevant to Margaritifera habitat (according to EN ISO 14688-1:2002,

Table 1) ............................................................................................................................................................ 24

5.4.4 Substrate quality ........................................................................................................................................... 24

5.4.5 Substrate stability ........................................................................................................................................ 25

5.4.6 Trees and wood ............................................................................................................................................. 25

5.4.7 Instream modifications .............................................................................................................................. 25

6 Monitoring environmental pressures ................................................................................................... 25

Table 7 — Checklist of environmental pressures recommended for risk-based monitoring

in rivers with Margaritifera ...................................................................................................................... 26

7 Information needed to assess plans or projects on rivers with Margaritifera ...................... 27

Table 8 — Checklist of questions that should be addressed to ensure that plans or projects

do not damage Margaritifera populations .......................................................................................... 27

Annex A (informative) Background information on the environmental characteristics

important for maintaining populations of Margaritifera margaritifera .................................. 29

A.1 Fish hosts ......................................................................................................................................................... 29

A.1.1 Fish host species ........................................................................................................................................... 29

A.1.2 Barriers to fish migration .......................................................................................................................... 29

A.1.3 Host suitability and stocking practices ................................................................................................. 29

A.2 Water quality .................................................................................................................................................. 30

A.2.1 Phosphorus ..................................................................................................................................................... 30

A.2.2 Nitrogen, including ammonia ................................................................................................................... 30

A.2.3 BOD /dissolved oxygen .............................................................................................................................. 30

A.2.4 pH ....................................................................................................................................................................... 30

A.2.5 Calcium ............................................................................................................................................................. 31

A.2.6 Alkalinity ......................................................................................................................................................... 31

A.2.7 Electrical conductivity ................................................................................................................................ 31

A.2.8 Temperature .................................................................................................................................................. 32

A.2.9 Contaminants ................................................................................................................................................. 32

A.2.10 Turbidity, suspended solids ..................................................................................................................... 32

A.3 Biotic indicators of water quality ........................................................................................................... 33

A.3.1 Macroinvertebrates ..................................................................................................................................... 33

A.3.2 Diatoms ............................................................................................................................................................ 33

A.3.3 Filamentous algae ......................................................................................................................................... 33

A.3.4 Macrophytes ................................................................................................................................................... 33

A.4 Hydromorphology ........................................................................................................................................ 34

A.4.1 Flow ................................................................................................................................................................... 34

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SIST EN 16859:2017
EN 16859:2017 (E)

A.4.2 Physical habitat structure ......................................................................................................................... 34

A.4.3 Substrate quality .......................................................................................................................................... 35

A.4.4 Substrate stability ........................................................................................................................................ 36

A.4.5 Trees and wood ............................................................................................................................................. 36

A.4.6 Instream modifications .............................................................................................................................. 36

A.5 Biotic factors and other interactions .................................................................................................... 37

A.5.1 Pressures and interferences .................................................................................................................... 37

A.5.2 Human interference .................................................................................................................................... 37

A.5.3 Invasive non-native species ..................................................................................................................... 37

A.5.4 Non-native fish .............................................................................................................................................. 37

A.5.5 Non-native molluscs .................................................................................................................................... 37

A.5.6 Non-native crayfish ..................................................................................................................................... 38

A.5.7 Non-native plants ......................................................................................................................................... 38

A.5.8 Non-native mammals .................................................................................................................................. 38

Annex B (informative) Targets for assessing whether Margaritifera populations are in

favourable condition ................................................................................................................................... 39

Table B.1 — Criterions and targets to achieve sustainable Margaritifera populations ................... 39

Annex C (informative) Range of environmental conditions supporting sustainable

populations of Margaritifera ................................................................................................................... 40

Table C.1 — Range of environmental conditions supporting sustainable populations of

Margaritifera (with referenced work on which levels are based) ............................................. 40

Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................. 44

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SIST EN 16859:2017
EN 16859:2017 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN 16859:2017) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 230 “Water

analysis”, the secretariat of which is held by DIN.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by August 2017, and conflicting national standards shall

be withdrawn at the latest by August 2017.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organisations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia,

France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta,

Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and the United Kingdom.
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SIST EN 16859:2017
EN 16859:2017 (E)
Introduction

This European Standard provides guidance on monitoring populations of freshwater pearl mussel

Margaritifera margaritifera and the environmental features on which this species depends. Pearl

mussels are endangered throughout their Holarctic range as a result of intensive land-use, pollution,

river engineering, abstraction, declining populations of host fish, and exploitation by pearl fishers [1],

[2], [3]. Throughout this document, use of the term Margaritifera refers only to the species

Margaritifera margaritifera (Linnaeus, 1758). Within the EU, Margaritifera is protected under national

legislation as well as by the EC Habitats Directive (Council Directive 92/43/EEC) which requires Special

Areas of Conservation to be designated to safeguard this species. The presence of a population of

Margaritifera with full juvenile recruitment is the sign of a healthy functioning river [4].

Margaritifera has a well-documented but complicated life history, with a larval glochidial stage

dependent on a salmonid host. The larvae encyst within the host fish gills following release of glochidia

in summer or early autumn. There they overwinter and grow before dropping off in the following

spring or early summer. The few that survive initially remain buried in the river-bed substrate for

several years where they interact with interstitial water. Older mussels typically have their siphons

exposed to filter within the open water. The glochidial and juvenile stages are more demanding of a

high-quality environment than adult mussels, emphasizing the importance of defining and maintaining

appropriate ecological conditions for the young stages [5].

Margaritifera lives for an unusually long time – over 100 years in much of its range – but life spans can

be much shorter at the southern extreme of its range and much longer at the northern extreme. A lack

of recruitment of young mussels leads to populations becoming unsustainable, but these problems can

be masked by the continued survival of older mussels for many years long after successful recruitment

has ended. The requirement for a host salmonid fish to carry the mussel larval stage presents an added

challenge in maintaining the condition of freshwater pearl mussel populations.

Although Margaritifera is highly demanding in river substrate and water quality, it occurs in a wide

range of catchments from small, siliceous, oligotrophic rivers, often with a lake upstream, to large

lowland mineral systems. This standard strives to encompass the range of latitudinal and geological

factors that affect Margaritifera across its range. It is essential to take into consideration the unique

pressures on each individual population when setting priorities for monitoring.

NOTE A limited number of key references are given in the Bibliography. A comprehensive list can be

consulted by using the following link to the website of the Freshwater Biological Association –

http://www.fba.org.uk/cen-pearl-mussel-standard-development-reference-list

The applications of the standard include the provision of site-level data that will contribute to reporting

under the Habitats Directive, Article 17, undertaking environmental impact assessment, and restoring

pearl mussel populations.

WARNING —Safety issues are paramount when surveying rivers. Surveyors should conform to

EU and national Health and Safety legislation, and any additional guidelines appropriate for

working in or near rivers.

IMPORTANT — Freshwater pearl mussel surveys are carried out under licence, and the methods

used should be fully compliant with any conditions imposed.
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SIST EN 16859:2017
EN 16859:2017 (E)
1 Scope

This European Standard provides guidance on methods for monitoring freshwater pearl mussel

(Margaritifera margaritifera) populations and the environmental characteristics important for

maintaining populations in favourable condition. The standard is based on best practice developed and

used by Margaritifera experts in Europe, and describes approaches that individual countries have

adopted for survey, data analysis and condition assessment. While it is recommended that the causes

for pearl mussel decline should be urgently investigated, standard methods for restoring populations

are beyond the scope of this document.
2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

EN ISO 14688-1:2002, Geotechnical investigation and testing - Identification and classification of soil -

Part 1: Identification and description (ISO 14688-1:2002)
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
3.1
acoustic doppler current profiler
ADCP

sonar device that produces a record of water current velocities for a range of depths

3.2
aquatic macrophyte

larger plant of fresh water which is easily seen with the naked eye, including all aquatic vascular plants,

bryophytes, stoneworts (Characeae) and macro-algal growths

Note 1 to entry: This definition includes plants associated with open water or wetlands with shallow water.

[SOURCE: EN 14614:2004, definition 2.1]
3.3
bankfull

maximum point on banks at which floods are held within the channel before spilling over onto the

floodplain
[SOURCE: EN 14614:2004, definition 2.5]
3.4
baseline survey

first survey of environmental or biological features by which progress towards rehabilitation or

continuing decline can be monitored by subsequent surveys
3.5
bathyscope

bucket with a transparent bottom used for viewing freshwater pearl mussels on the river bed

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SIST EN 16859:2017
EN 16859:2017 (E)
3.6
biochemical oxygen demand after 5 days
BOD

mass concentration of dissolved oxygen consumed under specified conditions by the biochemical

oxidation of organic and/or inorganic matter in water after 5 days

Note 1 to entry: For the purposes of this document, “biochemical oxidation” is taken to mean “biological

oxidation”.
[SOURCE: ISO 5815-1:2003, definition 3.1 modified]
3.7
brooding period
length of time that glochidia remain within the body of a gravid pearl mussel
3.8
colmation

blockage of stream-bed interstitial spaces by the ingress of fine sediments and organic material

3.9
compaction

consolidation of the river bed through physical, chemical or biological processes

[SOURCE: EN 14614:2004, definition 2.10]
3.10
concretion

hard, compact mass of sedimentary rock formed by the precipitation of mineral cement within the

spaces between the sediment grains
3.11
culvert

arched, enclosed or piped structure constructed to carry water under roads, railways and buildings

[SOURCE: EN 15843:2010, definition 3.8]
3.12
ecological quality ratio
EQR

ratio between the value of the observed biological parameter for a given surface water body and the

expected value under reference conditions
3.13
encystment

process in which pearl mussel glochidia attach to the gills of their salmonid hosts

3.14
eutrophication

process by which a body of water acquires an overabundance of nutrients, especially phosphates and

nitrates, leading to increased growth of algae and macrophytes
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EN 16859:2017 (E)
3.15
favourable condition

condition of a population compatible with contributing to 'favourable conservation status'

Note 1 to entry: As defined in Article 1 of the Habitats Directive”:- population dynamics data on the species

concerned indicate that it is maintaining itself on a long-term basis as a viable component of its natural habitats,

and- the natural range of the species is neither being reduced nor is likely to be reduced for the foreseeable future,

and- there is, and will probably continue to be, a sufficiently large habitat to maintain its populations on a long-

term basis.”
3.16
filter feeding

process by which pearl mussels feed by straining suspended matter and food particles from water,

typically passing the water over a specialized filtering structure
3.17
flow duration curve

graphical representation of a ranking of all the flows in a given period, from the lowest to the highest,

where the rank is the percentage of time the flow value is equalled or exceeded

Note 1 to entry: These curves may be derived for flows in any time interval, such as daily flows, monthly flows

or annual flows
3.18
fluvial audit

method for assessing the condition of a river and its associated human pressures, using information

from field survey, remote sensing, historical and recent maps, scientific literature and other sources

3.19
functionally extinct (not currently viable)

pearl mussel population that is incapable of sustaining itself owing to a lack of juvenile recruitment

3.20
glide

moderately-flowing water with undisturbed surface other than occasional swirls or eddies, and with

constant depth across part of the channel
[SOURCE: EN 14614:2004, definition 2.17]
3.21
glochidium (plural ‘glochidia’)
...

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