This document specifies the derivation of biological equivalence (BEQ) concentrations for results of in vitro bioassays which are based on measuring effects on a biological process such as enzyme induction or cellular growth. The concept described here can be used for any biological assay after the proof of its applicability.
To derive BEQ concentrations, the effect on a biological process caused by a sample – i.e. the activity of the sample – is expressed in terms of a concentration of a reference compound which results in an equivalent effect on the process. The term "sample" used in this document addresses environmental samples as well as defined mixtures and pure compounds used as test item in a bioassay. BEQ concentrations can be derived for environmental water samples, extracts of environmental water samples including tap water or solutions of pure chemicals or mixtures of chemicals.

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This document describes a test method for the determination of radon-222 (222Rn) activity concentration in non-saline waters by extraction and liquid scintillation counting.
The 222Rn activity concentrations, which can be measured by this test method utilizing currently available instruments, are above 0,5 Bq·l−1 which is the typical detection limit for a 10 ml test sample and a measuring time of 1 h.
It is the responsibility of the laboratory to ensure the validity of this test method for water samples of untested matrices.
Annex A gives indication on the necessary counting conditions to meet the required detection limits for drinking water monitoring.

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This document specifies general requirements, performance requirements and conformity test procedures for automatic sampling devices (samplers) for water and waste water that:
—   sample water and waste water from non-pressurized (i.e. open to atmosphere) channels or vessels;
—   sample over extended periods to collect discrete or composite samples based on time, event or flow proportional sampling.
It does not include sampling systems built into online and in-line analysers.
The general requirements include functional facilities that samplers need to meet users’ applications and information that needs to be included in associated documents.
The test procedures specify uniform methods to be used when determining key performance characteristics of samplers at one or more set sample volume. It is for the sampler manufacturer and/or user to decide on the required set sample volume(s). All of the test procedures are to be carried out under laboratory conditions. It is recognized that for some samplers, certain test procedures are not applicable.
Statistical procedures are specified for evaluation of the test data. Some example calculations are provided.
Specific sample integrity requirements are specified for samplers to be used for the collection of samples of final effluent or influent for the purpose of monitoring the performance of urban waste water treatment works. Samplers to be used for other industrial applications do not need to be assessed against these specific sample integrity requirements.
This document does not cover the installation and on-going use of samplers.

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This European Standard specifies general requirements and performance test procedures for portable and fixed position measuring devices (MDs) that are used in an in-line or online operating position to measure physical and chemical determinands in water. It excludes at-line devices, such as chemical test kits, and off-line devices, such as laboratory analysers.
The general requirements include functional facilities that MDs need to meet users’ applications and information that need to be included in associated documents.
The test procedures specify uniform methods to be used when determining key performance characteristics of MDs. The performance tests comprise testing carried out under laboratory and field conditions.
Statistical procedures are defined for evaluation of the test data. It is recognized that for some devices certain test procedures are not applicable.
Example values for performance characteristics for a selection of MDs for monitoring waste water effluents and receiving waters are detailed in Annex A for guidance.
This European Standard requires the manufacturer of a MD to provide more technical data for verification than does EN ISO 15839:2006 [5]. Consequently, EN ISO 15839 will be of greater assistance to manufacturers wishing to characterize a new device whereas this European Standard is more focussed on user requirements for the verification of manufacturer’s claims.

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This document sets out the general principles for, and provides guidance on, the design of sampling programmes and sampling techniques for all aspects of sampling of water (including waste waters, sludges, effluents, suspended solids and sediments).
This document does not include detailed instructions for specific sampling situations, which are covered in various other parts of the ISO 5667 series and in ISO 19458.

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This document specifies procedures for sampling, capture and preservation of environmental DNA (eDNA) in aquatic environments, stemming from organisms that are or have recently been present in a waterbody, have visited it or whose DNA has been introduced to the waterbody through some mechanism. This document also covers procedures for avoiding sample contamination and ensuring DNA quality, key properties of the filtering procedure and equipment and reporting standards.
This document does not include the collection of eDNA from biofilms, sediments or similar sample types and does not cover sampling designs.

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This document specifies the requirements for the performance testing of membrane filters used for the retention followed by direct enumeration of microorganisms by culture methods.
This document is applicable to membrane filters which are used for retention followed by direct enumeration of specific microorganisms on solid media or on other devices containing media, like absorbent pads[19].
This document is not applicable for membrane filters used for concentration and elution or for qualitative methods.
These tests are applicable to the membrane filters intended for the microbiological analysis of different types of water, such as:
—    drinking water, bottled water and other types of water with expected low numbers of microorganisms;
—    water with expected higher numbers of microorganisms, for example, surface water and process water.
These tests are intended to demonstrate the suitability of the whole system (membrane filter together with the culture medium including the filtration step) required for the specific tests described in References [3], [6], [8], [10], [12] and [13].
This document applies to:
—    manufacturers producing membrane filters;
—    microbiological laboratories using membrane filters for their own testing or providing these to other end users.

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This document specifies a test method to determine radium-226 (226Ra) activity concentration in all types of water by emanometry.
The test method specified is suitable for the determination of the soluble, suspended and total 226Ra activity concentration in all types of water with soluble 226Ra activity concentrations greater than 0,02 Bq l−1.
The decay chains of 238U and 232Th are given in Annex A. Figure A.1 shows the 238U and its decay chain.

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This document specifies a method for the determination of the dissolved anions chlorate, chloride and chlorite in water with low contamination (e.g. drinking water, raw water or swimming pool water).
The diversity of the appropriate and suitable assemblies and the procedural steps depending on them permit a general description only.
For further information on the analytical technique, see Bibliography.

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This document specifies a method for the measurement of 210Pb in all types of waters by liquid scintillation counting (LSC).
The method is applicable to test samples of supply/drinking water, rainwater, surface and ground water, as well as cooling water, industrial water, domestic, and industrial wastewater after proper sampling and handling, and test sample preparation. Filtration of the test sample is necessary. Lead‑210 activity concentration in the environment can vary and usually ranges from 2 mBq l-1 to 300 mBq l-1 [27][28].
Using currently available liquid scintillation counters, the limit of detection of this method for 210Pb is generally of the order of 20 mBq l-1 to 50 mBq l-1, which is lower than the WHO criteria for safe consumption of drinking water (100 mBq l−1).[4][6] These values can be achieved with a counting time between 180 min and 720 min for a sample volume from 0,5 l to 1,5 l. Higher activity concentrations can be measured by either diluting the sample or using smaller sample aliquots or both. The method presented in this document is not intended for the determination of an ultra-trace amount of 210Pb.
The range of application depends on the amount of dissolved material in the water and on the performance characteristics of the measurement equipment (background count rate and counting efficiency).
The method described in this document is applicable to an emergency situation.
The analysis of Pb adsorbed to suspended matter is not covered by this method.
It is the user’s responsibility to ensure the validity of this test method for the water samples tested.

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This document specifies a method for the determination of certain cyclic volatile methylsiloxanes (cVMS) in environmental water samples with low density polyethylene (LDPE) as a preservative and subsequent liquid-liquid extraction with hexane containing 13C-labeled cVMS as internal standards. The extract is then analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS).
NOTE       Using the 13C-labeled, chemically identical substances as internal standards with the same properties as the corresponding analytes, minimizes possible substance-specific discrimination in calibrations. Since these substances are least soluble in water, they are introduced via the extraction solvent hexane into the system.

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This document specifies a method for the determination of the estrogenic potential of water and waste water by means of a reporter gene assay with a genetically modified yeast strain Arxula adeninivorans. This reporter gene assay is based on the activation of the human estrogen receptor alpha.
Arxula adeninivorans is a highly robust and salt- and temperature-tolerant test organism and is especially suitable for the analysis of samples with high salinity (conductivity up to 70 mS/cm). The test organism can be cultivated in medium with sodium chloride content up to 20 %.
This method is applicable to:
—          fresh water;
—          waste water;
—          sea water;
—          brackish water;
—          aqueous extracts and leachates;
—          eluates of sediments (fresh water);
—          pore water;
—          aqueous solutions of single substances or of chemical mixtures;
—          drinking water.
The limit of quantification (LOQ) of this method for the direct analysis of water samples is between 1,5 ng/l and 3 ng/l 17β-estradiol equivalents (EEQ). The upper threshold of the dynamic range for this test is between 25 ng/l and 40 ng/l 17β-estradiol equivalents (EEQ). Samples showing estrogenic potencies above this threshold have to be diluted for a valid quantification. Extraction and pre-concentration of water samples can prove necessary, if their estrogenic potential is below the given LOQ.
An international interlaboratory trial for the validation of this document has been carried out. The results are summarized in Annex F.
NOTE       Extraction and pre-concentration of water samples can prove necessary.

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This document specifies a method for the determination of the estrogenic potential of water and waste water by means of a reporter gene assay with genetically modified yeast strains Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This reporter gene assay is based on the activation of the human estrogen receptor alpha.
This method is applicable to:
—          fresh water;
—          waste water;
—          aqueous extracts and leachates;
—          eluates of sediments (fresh water);
—          pore water;
—          aqueous solutions of single substances or of chemical mixtures;
—          drinking water.
The limit of quantification (LOQ) of this method for the direct analysis of water samples is between 8 ng/l and 15 ng/l 17β-estradiol equivalents (EEQ) based on the results of the international interlaboratory trial (see Annex F). The upper threshold of the dynamic range for this test is between 120 ng/l and 160 ng/l 17β-estradiol equivalents (EEQ). Samples showing estrogenic potencies above this threshold have to be diluted for a valid quantification. Extraction and pre-concentration of water samples can prove necessary, if their estrogenic potential is below the given LOQ.

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ISO 20595:2018 specifies a method for the determination of selected volatile organic compounds in water (see Table 1). This comprises among others volatile halogenated hydrocarbons as well as gasoline components (BTXE, TAME, MTBE and ETBE).
The method is applicable to the determination of volatile organic compounds (see Table 1) in drinking water, groundwater, surface water and treated waste water in mass concentrations >0,1 µg/l. The lower application range depends on the individual compound, the amount of the blank value and the matrix.

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This document specifies a method for the determination of the estrogenic potential of water and waste water by means of a reporter gene assay utilizing stably transfected human cells. This reporter gene assay is based on the activation of the human estrogen receptor alpha.
This method is applicable to:
—          fresh water;
—          waste water;
—          aqueous extracts and leachates;
—          eluates of sediments (fresh water);
—          pore water;
—          aqueous solutions of single substances or of chemical mixtures;
—          drinking water;
—          the limit of quantification (LOQ) of this method for the direct analysis of water samples is between 0,3 ng/l and 1 ng/l 17β-estradiol equivalents (EEQ) based on the results of the international interlaboratory trial (see Annex F). The upper working range was evaluated [based on the results of the international interlaboratory trial (see Table F.3)] up to a level of 75 ng EEQ/l. Samples showing estrogenic potencies above this threshold have to be diluted for a valid quantification. Extraction and pre concentration of water samples can prove necessary if their estrogenic potential is below the given LOQ.

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This document specifies a method for the enumeration of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in water. The method is based on the growth of target organisms in a liquid medium and calculation of the most probable number (MPN) of organisms by reference to MPN tables.
This document is applicable to a range of types of water. For example, hospital waters, drinking water and non‑carbonated bottled waters intended for human consumption, groundwater, swimming pool and spa pool waters including those containing high background counts of heterotrophic bacteria.
This document does not apply to carbonated bottled waters, flavoured bottle waters, cooling tower waters or marine waters, for which the method has not been validated. These waters are, therefore, outside the scope of this document. Laboratories can employ the method presented in this document for these matrices by undertaking appropriate validation of performance of this method prior to use.
The test is based on a bacterial enzyme detection technology that signals the presence of P. aeruginosa through the hydrolysis of a 7‑amino‑4‑methylcoumarin aminopeptidase substrate present in a special reagent. P. aeruginosa cells rapidly grow and reproduce using the rich supply of amino acids, vitamins and other nutrients present in the reagent. Actively growing strains of P. aeruginosa have an enzyme that cleaves the 7‑amido‑coumarin aminopeptidase substrate releasing a product which fluoresces under ultraviolet (UV) light. The test described in this document provides a confirmed result within 24 h with no requirement for further confirmation of positive wells.

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This document specifies a method for the determination of total organic carbon (TOC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), total bound nitrogen (TNb) and dissolved bound nitrogen (DNb) in the form of free ammonia, ammonium, nitrite, nitrate and organic compounds capable of conversion to nitrogen oxides under the conditions described. The procedure is carried out instrumentally.
NOTE       Generally the method can be applied for the determination of total carbon (TC) and total inorganic carbon (TIC), see Annex A.
The method is applicable to water samples (e.g. drinking water, raw water, ground water, surface water, sea water, waste water, leachates).
The method allows a determination of TOC and DOC ≥ 1 mg/l and TNb and DNb ≥ 1 mg/l. The upper working range is restricted by instrument-dependent conditions (e.g. injection volume). Higher concentrations can be determined after appropriate dilution of the sample.
For samples containing volatile organic compounds (e.g. industrial waste water), the difference method is used, see Annex A.
Cyanide, cyanate and particles of elemental carbon (soot), when present in the sample, can be determined together with the organic carbon.
The method is not appropriate for the determination of volatile, or purgeable, organic carbon under the conditions described by this method.
Dissolved nitrogen gas (N2) is not determined.

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This document specifies a method for determining the toxicity of environmental samples on growth, fertility and reproduction of Caenorhabditis elegans. The method applies to contaminated whole freshwater sediment (maximum salinity 5 g/l), soil and waste, as well as to pore water, elutriates and aqueous extracts that were obtained from contaminated sediment, soil and waste.

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This document specifies a method for the determination of the dissolved fraction of selected active pharmaceutical ingredients and transformation products, as well as other organic substances (see Table 1) in drinking water, ground water, surface water and treated waste water.
The lower application range of this method can vary depending on the sensitivity of the equipment used and the matrix of the sample. For most compounds to which this document applies, the range is ≥ 0,025 µg/l for drinking water, ground water and surface water, and ≥ 0,050 µg/l for treated waste water.
The method can be used to determine further organic substances or in other types of water (e.g. process water) provided that accuracy has been tested and verified for each case, and that storage conditions of both samples and reference solutions have been validated. Table 1 shows the substances for which a determination was tested in accordance with the method. Table E.1 provides examples of the determination of other organic substances.

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This document specifies conditions for the determination of 90Sr and 89Sr activity concentration in samples of environmental water using liquid scintillation counting (LSC) or proportional counting (PC).
The method is applicable to test samples of drinking water, rainwater, surface and ground water, marine water, as well as cooling water, industrial water, domestic, and industrial wastewater after proper sampling and handling, and test sample preparation. Filtration of the test sample and a chemical separation are required to separate and purify strontium from a test portion of the sample.
The detection limit depends on the sample volume, the instrument used, the sample count time, the background count rate, the detection efficiency and the chemical yield. The method described in this document, using currently available LSC counters, has a detection limit of approximately 10 mBq l−1 and 2 mBq l−1 for 89Sr and 90Sr, respectively, which is lower than the WHO criteria for safe consumption of drinking water (100 Bq·l−1 for 89Sr and 10 Bq·l−1 for 90Sr)[3]. These values can be achieved with a counting time of 1 000 min for a sample volume of 2 l.
The methods described in this document are applicable in the event of an emergency situation. When fallout occurs following a nuclear accident, the contribution of 89Sr to the total amount of radioactive strontium is not negligible. This document provides test methods to determine the activity concentration of 90Sr in presence of 89Sr.
The analysis of 90Sr and 89Sr adsorbed to suspended matter is not covered by this method.
It is the user’s responsibility to ensure the validity of this test method selected for the water samples tested.

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This document specifies a method for the physical pre-treatment and conditioning of water samples and the determination of the activity concentration of various radionuclides emitting gamma-rays with energies between 40 keV and 2 MeV, by gamma‑ray spectrometry according to the generic test method described in ISO 20042.
The method is applicable to test samples of drinking water, rainwater, surface and ground water as well as cooling water, industrial water, domestic and industrial wastewater after proper sampling, sample handling, and test sample preparation (filtration when necessary and taking into account the amount of dissolved material in the water). This method is only applicable to homogeneous samples or samples which are homogeneous via timely filtration.
The lowest limit that can be measured without concentration of the sample or by using only passive shield of the detection system is about 5·10-2 Bq/l for e.g. 137Cs.1 The upper limit of the activity corresponds to a dead time of 10 %. Higher dead times may be used but evidence of the accuracy of the dead-time correction is required.
Depending on different factors, such as the energy of the gamma-rays, the emission probability per nuclear disintegration, the size and geometry of the sample and the detector, the shielding, the counting time and other experimental parameters, the sample may require to be concentrated by evaporation if activities below 5·10-2 Bq/l need to be measured. However, volatile radionuclides (e.g. radon and radioiodine) can be lost during the source preparation.
This method is suitable for application in emergency situations.
1The sample geometry: 3l Marinelli beaker; detector: GE HP N relative efficiency 55 % ; counting time: 18h.

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This document specifies a method for the measurement of 14C activity concentration in all types of water samples by liquid scintillation counting (LSC) either directly on the test sample or following a chemical separation.
The method is applicable to test samples of supply/drinking water, rainwater, surface and ground water, marine water, as well as cooling water, industrial water, domestic, and industrial wastewater.
The detection limit depends on the sample volume, the instrument used, the sample counting time, the background count rate, the detection efficiency and the chemical recovery. The method described in this document, using currently available liquid scintillation counters and suitable technical conditions, has a detection limit as low as 1 Bq∙l−1, which is lower than the WHO criteria for safe consumption of drinking water (100 Bq·l-1). 14C activity concentrations can be measured up to 106 Bq∙l-1 without any sample dilution.
It is the user’s responsibility to ensure the validity of this test method for the water samples tested.

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This document specifies a test method for the determination of iron-55 (55Fe) activity concentration in samples of all types of water using liquid scintillation counting (LSC). Using currently available liquid scintillation counters, this test method can measure the 55Fe activity concentrations in the range from the limit of detection up to 120 mBq l-1. These values can be achieved with a counting time between 7 200 s and 10 800 s for a sample volume from 0,5 l to 1,5 l. Higher activity concentrations can be measured by either diluting the sample or using smaller sample aliquots or both.
NOTE      These performance indicators are wholly dependent on the measurement regimes in individual laboratories; in particular, the detection limits are influenced by amount of stable iron present.
The range of application depends on the amount of dissolved material in the water and on the performance characteristics of the measurement equipment (background count rate and counting efficiency).
It is the laboratory’s responsibility to ensure the suitability of this test method for the water samples tested.

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This document specifies standardized methods for assessing the efficiency and related metrics of fish passage solutions using telemetry techniques that allow individual fish approaching an impediment to be monitored.
It covers studies using fish that have been electronically tagged with acoustic, passive integrated transponder or radio tags in order to provide a variety of defined passage efficiency metrics and includes both upstream and downstream passage of fish.
It provides recommendations and requirements for equipment, study design, data analysis and reporting. Selected literature with references in support of this document is given in the Bibliography.

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This document provides guidelines for testing laboratories wanting to use rapid test methods on water samples that may be contaminated following a nuclear or radiological emergency incident. In an emergency situation, consideration should be given to:
—     taking into account the specific context for the tests to be performed, e.g. a potentially high level of contamination;
—     using or adjusting, when possible, radioactivity test methods implemented during routine situations to obtain a result rapidly or, for tests not performed routinely, applying specific rapid test methods previously validated by the laboratory, e.g. for 89Sr determination;
—     preparing the test laboratory to measure a large number of potentially contaminated samples.
The aim of this document is to ensure decision makers have reliable results needed to take actions quickly and minimize the radiation dose to the public.
Measurements are performed in order to minimize the risk to the public by checking the quality of water supplies. For emergency situations, test results are often compared to operational intervention levels.
NOTE    Operational intervention levels (OILs) are derived from IAEA Safety Standards[8] or national authorities[9].
A key element of rapid analysis can be the use of routine methods but with a reduced turnaround time. The goal of these rapid measurements is often to check for unusual radioactivity levels in the test sample, to identify the radionuclides present and their activity concentration levels and to establish compliance of the water with intervention levels[10][11][12]. It should be noted that in such circumstances, validation parameters evaluated for routine use (e.g. reproducibility, precision, etc.) may not be applicable to the modified rapid method. However, due to the circumstances arising after an emergency, the modified method may still be fit-for-purpose although uncertainties associated with the test results need to be evaluated and may increase from routine analyses.
The first steps of the analytical approach are usually screening methods based on gross alpha and gross beta test methods (adaptation of ISO 10704 and ISO 11704) and gamma spectrometry (adaptation of ISO 20042, ISO 10703 and ISO 19581). Then, if required[13], test method standards for specific radionuclides (see Clause 2) are adapted and applied (for example, 90Sr measurement according to ISO 13160) as proposed in Annex A.
This document refers to published ISO documents. When appropriate, this document also refers to national standards or other publicly available documents.
Screening techniques that can be carried out directly in the field are not part of this document.

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This document is focused on the structural features of rivers, on geomorphological and hydrological processes, and on river continuity. This document is focused on the structural features of rivers, on geomorphological and hydrological processes, and on river continuity. It provides guidance on the features and processes to be taken into account when characterizing and assessing the hydromorphology of rivers. The word ‘river’ is used as a generic term to describe flowing watercourses of all sizes, with the exception of artificial water bodies such as canals. The document is based on methods developed, tested, and compared in Europe, including the pan-European REFORM project (https://reformrivers.eu/). Its main aim is to improve the comparability of hydromorphological assessment methods, data processing and interpretation. It provides broad recommendations for the types of parameters that should be assessed, and the methods for doing this, within a framework that offers the flexibility to plan programmes of work that are affordable. Although this document does not constitute CIS guidance for the WFD, relevant references provided by the CIS expert group on hydromorphology have been included in the Bibliography.
Although it has particular importance for the WFD by providing guidance on assessing hydromorphological quality, this document has considerably wider scope for other applications. It does not attempt either to describe methods for defining high status for hydromorphology under the WFD, or to link broadscale hydromorphological classification to assessments of ecological status. In addition, while recognizing the important influence of hydromorphology on plant and animal ecology, no attempt is made to provide guidance in this area, but where the biota have an important influence on hydromorphology, these influences are included.
NOTE   A case study illustrating the application of this document is given in Gurnell and Grabowski[1].

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This document specifies a method for the measurement of 210Po in all types of waters by alpha spectrometry.
The method is applicable to test samples of supply/drinking water, rainwater, surface and ground water, marine water, as well as cooling water, industrial water, domestic, and industrial wastewater after proper sampling and handling, and test sample preparation. Filtration of the test sample may be required.
The detection limit depends on the sample volume, the instrument used, the counting time, the background count rate, the detection efficiency and the chemical yield. The method described in this document, using currently available alpha spectrometry apparatus, has a detection limit of approximately 5 mBq l−1, which is lower than the WHO criteria for safe consumption of drinking water (100 mBq l−1). This value can be achieved with a counting time of 24 h for a sample volume of 500 ml.
The method described in this document is also applicable in an emergency situation.
The analysis of 210Po adsorbed to suspended matter in the sample is not covered by this method.
If suspended material has to be removed or analysed, filtration using a 0,45 μm filter is recommended. The analysis of the insoluble fraction requires a mineralization step that is not covered by this document [13]. In this case, the measurement is made on the different phases obtained. The final activity is the sum of all the measured activity concentrations.
It is the user's responsibility to ensure the validity of this test method for the water samples tested.

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ISO 13164-1:2013 gives general guidelines for sampling, packaging, and transporting of all kinds of water samples, for the measurement of the activity concentration of radon-222.
The test methods fall into two categories: a) direct measurement of the water sample without any transfer of phase (see ISO 13164‑2); b) indirect measurement involving the transfer of the radon-222 from the aqueous phase to another phase (see ISO 13164‑3).
The test methods can be applied either in the laboratory or on site.
The laboratory is responsible for ensuring the suitability of the test method for the water samples tested.

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ISO 13164-2:2013 specifies a test method for the determination of radon-222 activity concentration in a sample of water following the measurement of its short-lived decay products by direct gamma-spectrometry of the water sample.
The radon-222 activity concentrations, which can be measured by this test method utilizing currently available gamma-ray instruments, range from a few becquerels per litre to several hundred thousand becquerels per litre for a 1 l test sample.
This test method can be used successfully with drinking water samples. The laboratory is responsible for ensuring the validity of this test method for water samples of untested matrices.
An annex gives indications on the necessary counting conditions to meet the required sensitivity for drinking water monitoring.

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ISO 13164-3:2013 specifies a test method for the determination of radon-222 activity concentration in a sample of water following its transfer from the aqueous phase to the air phase by degassing and its detection. It gives recommendations for rapid measurements performed within less than 1 h.
The radon-222 activity concentrations, which can be measured by this test method utilizing currently available instruments, range from 0,1 Bq l−1 to several hundred thousand becquerels per litre for a 100 ml test sample.
This test method is used successfully with drinking water samples. The laboratory is responsible for ensuring the validity of this test method for water samples of untested matrices.
This test method can be applied on field sites or in the laboratory.
Annexes A and B give indications on the necessary counting conditions to meet the required sensitivity for drinking water monitoring

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ISO 13165-3:2016 specifies the determination of radium-226 (226Ra) activity concentration in all types of water by coprecipitation followed by gamma-spectrometry (see ISO 18589‑3).
The method described is suitable for determination of soluble 226Ra activity concentrations greater than 0,02 Bq l−1 using a sample volume of 1 l to 100 l of any water type.
For water samples smaller than a volume of 1 l, direct gamma-spectrometry can be performed following ISO 10703 with a higher detection limit.
NOTE          This test method also allows other isotopes of radium, 223Ra, 224Ra, and 228Ra, to be determined.

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ISO 13165-1:2013 specifies the determination of radium-226 (226Ra) activity concentration in non-saline water samples by extraction of its daughter radon-222 (222Rn) and its measurement using liquid scintillation counting.
Radium-226 activity concentrations which can be measured by this test method utilizing currently available liquid scintillation counters goes down to 50 mBq l−1. This method is not applicable to the measurement of other radium isotopes.

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This document specifies the determination of radium-226 (226Ra) and radium-228 (228Ra) activity concentrations in drinking water samples by chemical separation of radium and its measurement using liquid scintillation counting.
Massic activity concentrations of 226Ra and 228Ra which can be measured by this test method utilizing currently available liquid scintillation counters go down to 0,01 Bq/kg for 226Ra and 0,06 Bq/kg for 228Ra for a 0,5 kg sample mass and a 1 h counting time in a low background liquid scintillation counter[8].
The test method can be used for the fast detection of contamination of drinking water by radium in emergency situations.

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This document specifies a method for the measurement of 99Tc in all types of water by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS).
The method is applicable to test samples of supply/drinking water, rainwater, surface and ground water, as well as cooling water, industrial water, domestic, and industrial wastewater after proper sampling and handling and test sample preparation. A filtration of the test sample is necessary.
The detection limit depends on the sample volume and the instrument used. The method described in this document, using currently available ICP-MS, has a detection limit of approximately 0,2 ng·kg−1 to 0,5 ng·kg−1 (0,1 Bq·kg−1 to 0,3 Bq·kg−1), which is much lower than the WHO criteria for safe consumption of drinking water (100 Bq·l−1)[3]. The method presented in this document is not intended for the determination of ultra-trace amount of 99Tc.
The mass concentration values in this document are expressed by sample mass unit instead of sample volume unit as it is usually the case in similar standards. The reason is that 99Tc is measured in various matrix types such as fresh water or sea water, which have significant differences in density. The mass concentration values can be easily converted to sample volume unit by measuring the sample volume. However, it increases the uncertainty on the mass concentration result.
The method described in this document is applicable in the event of an emergency situation, but not if 99mTc is present at quantities that could cause interference.
The analysis of Tc adsorbed to suspended matter is not covered by this method.
It is the user's responsibility to ensure the validity of this test method for the water samples tested.

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This document specifies a method for the measurement of 99Tc in all types of waters by liquid scintillation counting (LSC).
The method is applicable to test samples of supply/drinking water, rainwater, surface and ground water, as well as cooling water, industrial water, domestic, and industrial wastewater after proper sampling and handling, and test sample preparation. A filtration of the test sample is necessary.
The detection limit depends on the sample volume and the instrument used. The method described in this document, using currently available LSC instruments, has a detection limit of approximately 5 Bq·kg−1 to 20 Bq·kg−1, which is lower than the WHO criteria for safe consumption of drinking water (100 Bq l−1)[3]. These values can be achieved with a counting time of 30 min for a sample volume varying between 14 ml to 40 ml. The method presented in this document is not intended for the determination of ultra-trace amount of 99Tc.
The activity concentration values in this document are expressed by sample mass unit instead of sample volume unit as it is usually the case in similar standards. The reason is that 99Tc is measured in various matrix types such as fresh water or sea water, which have significant differences in density. The activity concentration values can be easily converted to sample volume unit by measuring the sample volume. However, it increases the uncertainty on the activity concentration result.
The method described in this document is applicable in the event of an emergency situation, but not if 99mTc is present at quantities that could cause interference and not if 99mTc is used as a recovery tracer.
The analysis of Tc adsorbed to suspended matter is not covered by this method.
It is the user's responsibility to ensure the validity of this test method for the water samples tested.

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This document specifies the criteria for mass spectrometric identification of target compounds in water samples and is applicable to environmental samples in general. This document is intended to be used in conjunction with standards developed for the determination of specific compounds. If a standard method for analysing specific compounds includes criteria for identification, those criteria are followed.

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This document specifies the criteria for developing an in-house mass spectrometry-based method for quantitative analysis of multiple subgroups of organic substances in the scope of physical-chemical analysis of water.
This document supplements ISO/TS 13530 which provides guidance on the initial characterization of the measurement performances, by providing details to select the test matrix and internal standards and criteria for analyte and internal standard recoveries.
This document is not intended as a substitute for the currently applicable analytical standards dedicated to organic compounds but as a resource bringing additional characterization elements.

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This document specifies the determination of the biochemical oxygen demand of waters by dilution and seeding with suppression of nitrification after 5 d or 7 d incubation time.
It is applicable to all waters having biochemical oxygen demands usually between 1 mg/l and 6 000 mg/l. It applies particularly to waste waters but also suits for the analysis of natural waters. For biochemical oxygen demands greater than 6 000 mg/l of oxygen, the method is still applicable, but special care is needed taking into consideration the representativeness of subsampling for preparation of the dilution steps. The results obtained are the product of a combination of biochemical and chemical reactions in presence of living matter which behaves only with occasional reproducibility. The results do not have the rigorous and unambiguous character of those resulting from, for example, a single, well‑defined, chemical process. Nevertheless, the results provide an indication from which the quality of waters can be estimated.

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This document provides guidance for survey design, equipment specification, survey methods, sampling and data handling of macroalgae and marine angiosperms such as Zostera in the intertidal soft bottom environment. It does not include polyeuryhaline terrestrial angiosperms that are found in saltmarshes. Ruppia is a genus of angiosperms that can be found in brackish water. This document can also be applied to the study of Ruppia in these environments.
The document comprises:
-   development of a mapping and sampling programme;
-   requirements for mapping and sampling equipment;
-   procedures for remote sensing data collection;
-   procedures for direct mapping and sampling in the field;
-   recommendations for taxon identification and biomass determination;
-   data handling.

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This document specifies a test method for the determination of gross beta activity concentration in non-saline waters. The method covers non-volatile radionuclides with maximum beta energies of approximately 0,3 MeV or higher. Measurement of low energy beta emitters (e.g. 3H, 228Ra, 210Pb, 14C, 35S and 241Pu) and some gaseous or volatile radionuclides (e.g. radon and radioiodine) might not be included in the gross beta quantification using the test method described in this document.
This test method is applicable to the analysis of raw and drinking waters. The range of application depends on the amount of total soluble salts in the water and on the performance characteristics (background count rate and counting efficiency) of the counter used.
It is the laboratory's responsibility to ensure the suitability of this method for the water samples tested.

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This document specifies a method by liquid scintillation counting for the determination of tritium activity concentration in samples of marine waters, surface waters, ground waters, rain waters, drinking waters or of tritiated water ([3H]H2O) in effluents.
The method is not directly applicable to the analysis of organically bound tritium; its determination requires additional chemical processing of the sample (such as chemical oxidation or combustion).
With suitable technical conditions, the detection limit may be as low as 1 Bq·l−1. Tritium activity concentrations below 106 Bq·l−1 can be determined without any sample dilution.

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This document specifies procedures for sampling of mesozooplankton using nets and continuous ribbon-sampling devices in marine and brackish waters for the purpose of water quality assessment and determination of ecological status of ecosystems.
Guidance on sampling procedures and the subsequent steps of preservation and storage are given. The sampling procedures allow estimates of species occurrence and their abundance (relative or absolute), including spatial distribution and seasonal and long-term temporal trends, for a given body of water.
The described methods are restricted to the sampling of mesozooplankton that inhabit marine and brackish waters and exclude the shallow littoral zones which require a different type of sampling (e.g. zooplankton in salt marshes).

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This document specifies a method for the quantitative determination of the sum of short-chain polychlorinated n-alkanes also known as short-chain polychlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) in the carbon bond range n-C10 to n-C13 inclusive, in mixtures with chlorine mass fractions ("contents") between 50 % and 67 %, including approximately 6 000 of approximately 8 000 congeners.
This method is applicable to the determination of the sum of SCCPs in unfiltered surface water, ground water, drinking water and waste water using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with electron capture negative ionization (GC-ECNI-MS).
Depending on the capability of the GC-ECNI-MS instrument, the concentration range of the method is from 0,1 µg/l or lower to 10 µg/l. Depending on the waste water matrix, the lowest detectable concentration is estimated to be > 0,1 µg/l. The data of the interlaboratory trial concerning this method are given in Annex I.

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This document specifies a procedure for analysing mesozooplankton in marine and brackish waters. The procedure comprises how to identify and enumerate mesozooplankton to estimate quantitative information on diversity, abundance and biomass with regard to spatial distribution and long-term temporal trends for a given body of water.

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This document specifies a method for the determination of gross alpha and gross beta activity concentration for alpha- and beta-emitting radionuclides. Gross alpha and gross beta activity measurement is not intended to give an absolute determination of the activity concentration of all alpha and beta emitting radionuclides in a test sample, but is a screening analysis to ensure particular reference levels of specific alpha and beta emitters have not been exceeded. This type of determination is also known as gross alpha and gross beta index. Gross alpha and gross beta analysis is not expected to be as accurate nor as precise as specific radionuclide analysis after radiochemical separations.
Maximum beta energies of approximately 0,1 MeV or higher are well measured. It is possible that low energy beta emitters can not detected (e.g. 3H, 55Fe, 241Pu) or can only be partially detected (e.g. 14C, 35S, 63Ni, 210Pb, 228Ra).
The method covers non-volatile radionuclides, since some gaseous or volatile radionuclides (e.g. radon and radioiodine) can be lost during the source preparation.
The method is applicable to test samples of drinking water, rainwater, surface and ground water as well as cooling water, industrial water, domestic and industrial wastewater after proper sampling, sample handling, and test sample preparation (filtration when necessary and taking into account the amount of dissolved material in the water).
The method described in this document is applicable in the event of an emergency situation, because the results can be obtained in less than 1 h. Detection limits reached for gross alpha and gross beta are less than 10 Bq/l and 20 Bq/l respectively. The evaporation of 10 ml sample is carried out in 20 min followed by 10 min counting with window-proportional counters.
It is the laboratory's responsibility to ensure the suitability of this test method for the water samples tested.

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This document gives guidance on the quantitative estimation of abundance and identification of macroinvertebrates in samples taken from inland waters. The procedure deals with pre-treatment (cleaning), sub-sampling, sorting, and final identification of organisms from preserved and unpreserved samples originating from natural habitats or artificial substrates and their transport to the laboratory. Specific guidance is given for preservation for DNA-analysis.

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This document specifies the following semi-quantitative methods for the assessment of transparency of waters:
a)    measurement of visual range using the transparency testing tube (applicable to transparent and slightly cloudy water),  see Clause 4;
b)    measurement of visual range in the upper water layers using the transparency testing disc (especially applicable to surface, bathing water, waste water and often used in marine monitoring), see 5.1;
c)    measurement of visibility by divers in a destined depth, see 5.2.
NOTE       The quantitative methods using optical turbidimeters or nephelometers are described in ISO 7027-1.

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