Safety of toys - Replies to requests for interpretation of EN 71-1, EN 71-2, and EN 71-8

The purpose of this Technical Report is to provide replies to requests for interpretations of EN 71-1:2011, Safety of toys – Part 1: Mechanical and physical properties, EN 71-2:2011, Safety of toys – Part 2: Flammability and EN 71-8:2003, Safety of toys – Part 8: Activity toys for domestic use.

Sicherheit von Spielzeug - Antworten auf Anfragen zur Interpretation von EN 71-1, EN 71-2 und EN 71-8

Der Zweck dieses Technischen Berichtes ist, Antworten auf Anfragen zur Interpretation von EN 71 1:2011, Sicherheit von Spielzeug — Teil 1: Mechanische und physikalische Eigenschaften, EN 71 2:2011, Sicherheit von Spielzeug — Teil 2: Entflammbarkeit und EN 71 8:2011, Sicherheit von Spielzeug — Teil 8: Aktivitätsspielzeug für den häuslichen Gebrauch bereitzustellen.

Sécurité des jouets - Réponses aux demandes d'interprétation de l'EN 71-1, l'EN 71-2 et l'EN 71-8

Varnost igrač - Odgovori na zahteve po interpretaciji standardov EN 71-1, EN 71-2 in EN 71-8

Namen tega tehničnega poročila je zagotoviti odgovore na zahteve po interpretaciji standarda EN 71-1:2011, Varnost igrač – 1. del: Mehanske in fizikalne lastnosti, EN 71-2:2011, Varnost igrač – 2. del: Vnetljivost in EN 71-8:2003, Varnost igrač – 8. del: Igrače za prostočasne aktivnosti za domačo uporabo.

General Information

Status
Withdrawn
Publication Date
12-Feb-2013
Withdrawal Date
06-May-2014
Technical Committee
Drafting Committee
Current Stage
9960 - Withdrawal effective - Withdrawal
Start Date
07-May-2014
Completion Date
07-May-2014

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST-TP CEN/TR 15371:2013
01-april-2013
1DGRPHãþD
SIST-TP CEN/TR 15371:2009

9DUQRVWLJUDþ2GJRYRULQD]DKWHYHSRLQWHUSUHWDFLMLVWDQGDUGRY(1(1

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Safety of toys - Replies to requests for interpretation of EN 71-1, EN 71-2, and EN 71-8

Sicherheit von Spielzeug - Antworten auf Anfragen zur Interpretation von EN 71-1, EN 71

-2 und EN 71-8

Sécurité des jouets - Réponses aux demandes d'interprétation de l'EN 71-1, l'EN 71-2 et

l'EN 71-8
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: CEN/TR 15371:2013
ICS:
97.200.50 ,JUDþH Toys
SIST-TP CEN/TR 15371:2013 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST-TP CEN/TR 15371:2013
TECHNICAL REPORT
CEN/TR 15371
RAPPORT TECHNIQUE
TECHNISCHER BERICHT
February 2013
ICS 97.200.50 Supersedes CEN/TR 15371:2009
English Version
Safety of toys - Replies to requests for interpretation of EN 71-1,
EN 71-2, and EN 71-8

Sécurité des jouets - Réponses aux demandes Sicherheit von Spielzeug - Antworten auf Anfragen zur

d'interprétation de l'EN 71-1, l'EN 71-2 et l'EN 71-8 Interpretation von EN 71-1, EN 71-2 und EN 71-8

This Technical Report was approved by CEN on 13 August 2012. It has been drawn up by the Technical Committee CEN/TC 52.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,

Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and United

Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Brussels

© 2013 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. CEN/TR 15371:2013: E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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CEN/TR 15371:2013 (E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..............................................................................................................................................................4

0 Introduction ............................................................................................................................................5

0.1 Interpretations and no-action decisions .............................................................................................5

0.2 Requests for interpretation ...................................................................................................................5

0.3 Answers to requests for interpretations .............................................................................................5

1 Scope ......................................................................................................................................................6

2 EN 71-1:2011 - Safety of toys – Part 1: Mechanical and physical properties ..................................6

2.1 3.41 and 3.42 Projectile toys (no action decision) .............................................................................6

2.2 3.41, 3.42 and 7.7 Projectile toys (no action decision) ......................................................................6

2.3 4.3 Flexible plastic sheeting (no action decision) ..............................................................................8

2.4 4.4 Toy bags (no action decision) ........................................................................................................9

2.5 4.5 Glass (no action decision) .............................................................................................................9

2.6 4.10.1 c) folding and sliding mechanisms (no action decision) .......................................................9

2.7 4.14.2 Masks and helmets (no action decision) .............................................................................. 10

2.8 4.15.1.4 Stability (interpretation) ...................................................................................................... 11

2.9 4.15.1.4; 8.23.1 Stability (interpretation) ......................................................................................... 11

2.10 4.15.1.6 c) Transmission and wheel arrangement (no action decision)....................................... 14

2.11 4.15.1.6 d) Transmission and wheel arrangement (no action decision) ...................................... 15

2.12 4.17 Projectiles (no action decision)................................................................................................ 16

2.13 4.19 Percussion caps (no action decision) ..................................................................................... 18

2.14 4.20 Acoustics (Re: Squeeze toys) (no action decision) ............................................................... 18

2.15 5 Toys intended for children under 36 months (re: inflatable toys) (interpretation) .................. 19

2.16 5.1 General requirements (re: small parts) (interpretation) ........................................................... 19

2.17 5.1 General requirements (re: small parts) (interpretation) ........................................................... 19

2.18 5.1 General requirements (re: fuzz) (no action decision) .............................................................. 19

2.19 5.1 General requirements (re: plastic whiskers) (interpretation) .................................................. 20

2.20 5.1 General requirements (no action decision) .............................................................................. 20

2.21 5.1 e) General requirements (re: glued wooden toys) (no action decision) ................................. 21

2.22 5.1 e) General requirements (re: paper, varnish) (interpretation) .................................................. 21

REQ 092-09 (PKN - Poland) ............................................................................................................................. 22

2.23 5.7 Glass and porcelain (interpretation) ........................................................................................ 22

2.24 5.8 Shape and size of certain toys (re: accessibility) (interpretation) .......................................... 22

2.25 5.8 Shape and size of certain toys (interpretation) ........................................................................ 23

2.26 5.8 Shape and size of certain toys (re: squeeze toys) (no action decision) ................................ 23

2.27 5.10 Small balls (no action decision) ............................................................................................... 23

2.28 6 Packaging (no action decision) ..................................................................................................... 27

2.29 ................ 7.2 Toys not intended for children under 36 months & 7.3 latex balloons (re: warning)

(no action decision) ......................................................................................................................................... 27

2.30 8.4.2.2 Seams and materials (interpretation) .................................................................................. 28

2.31 8.13 Flexibility of metallic wires (no action decision) .................................................................... 28

2.32 8.23.1 Stability – Toys intended to bear the mass of a child (no action decision) ..................... 29

2.33 8.25.1.1 Plastic sheeting - apparatus (interpretation) .................................................................... 29

2.34 8.28.1.3 Mounting (re: acoustics) (no action decision) .................................................................. 31

2.35 8.28.1.4 Operating conditions (re: acoustics) (interpretation) ...................................................... 31

2.36 8.28.2.4.3 Measurement results (re: acoustics) (interpretation) ................................................... 31

3 EN 71-2:2011 - Safety of toys – Part 2: Flammability ..................................................................... 32

3.1 Applicability of clauses 4.1 to 4.2.5 (supporting document to the revised version of EN 71-

2: 2011) ................................................................................................................................................. 32

3.2 4.2.2 Beards, moustaches, wigs etc., ... (interpretation) ............................................................... 37

3.3 4.2.5 Flowing elements of toys ... and 4.3 Toy disguise costumes ... (interpretation) .............. 37

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3.4 4.3 Toys disguise costumes and toys intended to be worn by a child in play

(interpretation) ..................................................................................................................................... 37

3.5 4.4 Toys intended to be entered by a child (interpretation) ........................................................... 38

3.6 5.4.1 Preparation of test sample (no action decision) .................................................................... 39

3.7 5.4.1 Preparation of test sample (interpretation) ............................................................................ 40

3.8 5.4.1 Preparation of test sample (interpretation) ............................................................................ 41

4 EN 71-8:2011 - Safety of toys – Part 8: Activity toys for domestic use ........................................ 41

4.1 4.2.1 Barriers and handrails preventing the child from falling down (no action decision) ........ 41

4.2 4.3.1 Head and neck entrapment ...................................................................................................... 42

4.3 4.3.1 a) Head and neck entrapment (no action decision) ............................................................... 42

4.4 4.3.2 Entrapment of clothing and hair (no action decision) ........................................................... 42

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Foreword

This document (CEN/TR 15371:2013) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 52 “Safety of

toys”, the secretariat of which is held by DS.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document supersedes CEN/TR 15371:2009.
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0 Introduction
0.1 Interpretations and no-action decisions

This Technical Report contains replies to requests for interpretations concerning the understanding of clauses

in EN 71-1:2011, EN 71-2:2011 and EN 71-8:2011. The replies concern those requests that have resulted in

an interpretation or a decision that no action is required as the standard is sufficiently clear.

An interpretation does not have the same status as the text of the standard, nor can it overrule the text of the

standard. However, following an interpretation should give assurance that the relevant clause of the standard

has been correctly applied. An interpretation should only be regarded as a clarification of the meaning of the

standard.
Disclaimer

The interpretations have been derived by expert groups of CEN/TC 52. The information contained

herein is for guidance only and does not reflect the formal approval by CEN or CEN member bodies. It

should be noted that the interpretations are neither part of any standard nor have been referenced in

the Official Journal of the European Union.
0.2 Requests for interpretation

Requests for interpretations may be submitted by a CEN member body through its national committee or by a

CEN/TC 52 liaison (but not directly by an individual or a company) - in accordance with the interpretation

protocols agreed by CEN/TC 52. The requests are then channelled to the relevant TC 52 working party, which

will then deal with the request.
A request for an interpretation may lead to
a) An interpretation of the standard

This should reflect a reasonable interpretation of how the standard should be used, taking into account

 the wording of the standard
 the rationale of the standard
 the history of the standard
b) A no-action decision

This is applicable when it is agreed that the standard appropriately specifies how a toy shall be assessed.

c) A proposal for an amendment of the standard
This is applicable when it is agreed that the standard is deficient in some way.

NOTE Interpretation and no-action decisions are published in CEN/TR 15371, which will be updated on a regular

basis.

Proposals for amendments will be progressed as new work item proposals in accordance with CEN rules.

0.3 Answers to requests for interpretations

Since requests for interpretations are submitted through a CEN member body, it is assumed that the member

body will keep itself informed about decisions concerning the request and its progress and will itself inform the

originator of the request as appropriate.
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1 Scope

The purpose of this Technical Report is to provide replies to requests for interpretations of EN 71-1:2011,

Safety of toys – Part 1: Mechanical and physical properties, EN 71-2:2011, Safety of toys – Part 2:

Flammability and EN 71-8:2003, Safety of toys – Part 8: Activity toys for domestic use.

2 EN 71-1:2011 – Safety of toys – Part 1: Mechanical and physical properties
2.1 3.41 and 3.42 Projectile toys (no action decision)
Question
EN 71-1 has the below definitions of projectiles with or without stored energy:
3.41
projectile toy with stored energy

toy with a projectile propelled by means of a discharge mechanism capable of storing and releasing energy

3.42
projectile toy without stored energy
toy with a projectile discharged by the energy imparted by a child

An example - a toy where the energy is imparted by e.g. a spring or an elastic band and the launching is

entirely controlled by the child, as the toy has no mechanism for holding back the projectile and storing the

energy for a prolonged time. Such a toy could be interpreted not to be included in 3.42. However, the toy is

obviously also not within 3.41 because we interpret 3.41 so that the toy must be capable to accumulate and

store the energy for a prolonged period of time without involvement of a child.

We would like to have a confirmation that a projectile toy, which cannot accumulate and store energy is within

3.42 even if a spring is used in launching the projectile.
We suggest rewording 3.42 to make this clear.
Reply

Standard is clear. In this case, the energy is not stored and released by a discharge mechanism but the

energy is imparted by the user. In consequence, this toy is regarded as a “projectile toy without stored energy”

REQ 064-06 (DS, Denmark)
2.2 3.41, 3.42 and 7.7 Projectile toys (no action decision)
Question
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Even if we are aware of the ongoing discussion about the revision on projectiles requirements, we ask to give

an official interpretation of the following issue to interpret correctly the current version of the standard.

1) EN 71-1 defines as projectile an “object intended to be launched into free flight or a trajectory in the air”

a) does this include toys like boomerang or frisbee?

b) does this include small toys designed in such a way that hitting their base, they make a little jump,

rotating on themselves? (to figure them think about a spoon on a table: hitting its extremity you can

have it make this kind of jump)
c) does it include objects launched by catapult toys?

2) If a toy has a spring or an elastic band, but no mechanism to hold the projectile in the “charged” condition

(this means that as soon as you release the projectile, it is launched, like in a bow), is it considered “projectile

toy with stored energy” (the spring and elastic are considered as discharge mechanisms) or as a “projectile

toy without stored energy” (the energy of the projectile depend upon how much the child put the projectile into

the toy, like a bow, even if, differently form bows, in this case usually there is an “end of stroke” and the

maximum projectile energy is defined)?

3) 7.7 defines two warnings: not to use different projectiles from the supplied ones and not to aim at eyes or

face.

We consider the first one applicable to all the projectile toys from which a generic projectile may be launched

(for example projectile toy with stored energy or bows), but not applicable for toys without stored energy like

catapults (4.17.2 does not give any reference to 7.7).

Instead we consider the second warning (“Aim at face”) applicable only to projectiles toys with stored energy

or bows with a kinetic energy greater than 0.08J.
Is it correct?
Reply
NO ACTION DECISION
1a) Standard is clear those toys enter into the projectiles definition.
1b) Standard is clear those toys enter into the projectiles definition.

1c) Standard is clear those toys enter into the projectiles definition (provided those “catapults” do not enter

into the exclusion list as outlined into EN71-1 scope).

2) Standard is clear this is a “projectile toy without stored energy” (see 3.42 definition) provided the described

item is not regarded as a catapult and therefore enters into the exclusion list as outlined into EN 71-1 scope.

3) Standard is clear for projectile toys with stored energy in 4.17.3 c). If a discharge mechanism is able to

discharge an object other than that provided with the toy, then labelling according to 7.7.1 is required. If a toy

is capable of discharging a projectile with a kinetic energy greater than 0,08 J, labelling according to 7.7.2 is

required. If a toy meets both conditions then the two labelling are required

Bows and arrows shall only bear “Warning. Do not aim at eyes or face” under the conditions outlined in 4.17.4

REQ 076-07 Part 1 (UNI, Italy)
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2.3 4.3 Flexible plastic sheeting (no action decision)
Question 1

Clause 4.3 applies only to plastic sheeting having dimensions greater than 100 mm X 100 mm.

If a plastic bag has a dimension of 100 mm X 80 mm, as it is, does the requirement apply?

Question 2

If we consider the plastic bag, its dimension is less than 100 mm X 100 mm, but if we consider the plastic

sheeting, cutting the plastic bag along two edges, we can get a 100 mm X 160 mm (80 mm X 2).

But, especially if the toy is intended only for children over 36 months of age, it is not required to apply any

cutting.

And, if the toy is intended for children under 36 months of age, and we apply the tension test to the bag,

before to break it into a plastic sheet, it is foreseeable that the applied 90 N force will elongate the plastic

sheeting and thus will also make it having a thinner thickness.

Moreover, the test method of 8.25.1.2 reads ”For plastic bags, cut along the seams without stretching the bag

so that two single sheets are produced.”.

But this test method is referred both by 4.3 and by Clause 6 (which does not apply to toy bags which have a

play value in the toy).

In our opinion the need to cut the bag along the seams is referred to packaging bags, and not to plastic

sheeting addressed by 4.3. The reason for this interpretation is that in case of bags with an opening perimeter

greater than 380 mm (as required by Clause 6), the child can put his head inside the bag and so it can have

on his nose and mouth just one sheet of the twos forming the bag.

But if 4.3 is not applicable to plastic bags, but to plastic sheeting only, we can have plastic bags with an

opening perimeter less than 380 mm and with a thickness of less than 0,038 mm both for packaging and for

bags having a play value (4.4 does not require a minimum thickness and Clause 6 defines a minimum

thickness only for plastic bags with an opening perimeter greater than 380 mm).

The reason for this may be that bags (in which the child cannot put his head), having a double layer, are less

foreseeable to become attached to a child's face in such a way to cause asphyxiation, differently from single

layer plastic sheeting (this is just a supposition). Thus, one of the following should apply:

1) If the sheet is in a form of a plastic bag, its whole area shall be measured (not the area of the plastic bag,

and thus the area which is the sum of the two layers area). The measurements are performed before any

mechanical test.

2) For plastic bags only the area of the plastic bag (double layer) shall be taken into account. The

measurements are performed before any mechanical test.

3) The area and the thickness of the plastic bags shall be measured after the mechanical tests (which ones,

especially in the case of toys intended for children above 36 months of age?).
Which one is the correct one?
Reply
To question 1: The requirement does not apply
To question 2: Option 2 is the correct one
REQ 090-09 (UNI, Italy)
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2.4 4.4 Toy bags (no action decision)
Question

In EN 71-1 there is a specific requirement for toy bags (4.4), which applies to toy bags with an opening

perimeter greater than 380 mm and having a drawstring as means of closure.

But what shall be done if the bag has a perimeter smaller than 380 mm and it is made of a plastic sheet?

Reply
4.4 is not applicable and 4.3 should be considered.
REQ 089-09 (UNI, Italy)
2.5 4.5 Glass (no action decision)
Question

4.5 states that accessible glass may only be used for toys for children over 36 months where it is necessary

for the function of the toy (e.g. optical toys, glass light bulbs, glass in experimental sets).

Traditionally there are some creativity sets where glass is used, but where it is not clear whether the glass is

functional or not.
1 Should we consider the glass used in candle making set as functional?
2 What about a glass painting set intended to decorate glass objects?
Reply

The nature and use of this product (involving candles) means that EN 71-1 cannot address the safety. If this

product were sold as a toy, it would need to be EC Type examined.

The same may apply to glass painting sets but much would depend on the nature of each product.

REQ 057-05 (AFNOR, France)
2.6 4.10.1 c) folding and sliding mechanisms (no action decision)
Question

The below toy is an ironing board made of plastic material with a height of 25 cm. It is intended to be used on

a table (child is then standing up) or can also be placed on the ground (the child is sitting in front of the table).

The legs of the ironing board are folding ones and present a scissor like action.

Are the requirements from 4.10.1 c) required for this type of toy?
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Reply

Standard is clear, 4.10.1c applies since the legs of the ironing board are folding ones and present a scissor

like action.
REQ 085-08 (AFNOR, France)
2.7 4.14.2 Masks and helmets (no action decision)
Question
1) Subclause 4.14.2 of EN 71-1 states about masks the following:
“4.14.2 Masks and helmets
Mask and helmets shall conform to the following requirements:

a) Masks and helmets that fully enclose the head and which are made of impermeable material shall provide a

total ventilation area of 1300 mm or more through at least two holes at least 150 mm apart or through any

equivalent single ventilation area.”

We understand reading this point that the requirement apply to all types of masks.

Nevertheless, there are several types of masks in the market according to their design and their material:

Masks that fully enclose the head (generally the area of the face with polymeric flexible material and the rest

with textile material with or without hair). Masks that enclose the head but not fully (generally the area of the

face with polymeric flexible material and the rest with textile material with or without hair).

Masks that only enclose the face.

The last ones have several designs, ones fit in the form of the face and others are more or less flat and are

made of flexible material, polymeric half-rigid material and even cardboard.

Taking into account that establishing the safety requirements to address risks is the target of the standard (in

this specific case, the risk of asphyxia that could happen to the children when using the masks), we have a

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doubt regarding the below type of masks, which enclose only the face, because it is likely that not all the

mentioned masks could present the risk of asphyxia.

Therefore, there could be masks like the below ones that could not need to fulfil the requirements on 4.14.2 a)

2) Regarding the ventilation area required, we have a doubt about what has to be included in the mentioned

area, i.e. does the ventilation area only include the holes at the level of the nose and the mouth, or include the

holes at the level of the eyes too?
Reply

1) Requirements in 4.14.2 a) only apply to masks that fully enclose the head and which are made of

impermeable material therefore masks that cover the face and for which pictures are given are not covered by

this requirement.

2) All holes are to be taken into consideration whatever their position knowing that if only eye, nose and mouth

holes were considered the 150 mm requirement would conflict with the normal positioning of those holes for a

correct use and should never been fulfilled.
REQ 048-04 (AENOR, Spain)
2.8 4.15.1.4 Stability (interpretation)
Question

Is the lateral stability test applicable to a two wheels toy motorbike intended for children over 3 years of age,

for which removable stabilizers are provided, considering that the toy can be operated by the child when

stabilizers are removed?
Interpretation

This toy shall be considered as toy where the feet of the child can provide sideways stability and therefore

excluded from the 4.15.1.4 requirements.
REQ 046-04 (AENOR, Spain)
2.9 4.15.1.4; 8.23.1 Stability (interpretation)
Question (UNI, Italy))

EN 71-1 requires, for the stability test, to “load the toy in the most onerous position with a mass […] on its

standing or sitting surface”.

Our interpretation of this requirement is “Load the toy in the most onerous position on the standing or sitting

surface, in such a way the mass is perpendicular to the standing or sitting surface and that the vertical

projection of the base of the test mass is fully enclosed in the sitting surface. If the standing or sitting surface

is narrower than the test mass, the centre of the test mass shall be positioned along the axis of the seat.”

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Applying this interpretation, a correct position to place the test mass for the front stability is shown in the

following pictures (please, do not consider the position of the toy on the inclined plane, it is just an example).

If we do not apply this interpretation every laboratory can try to find any improbable sitting surface like in the

following examples:

We consider that all the above examples represent a not correct way to perform the test: in the first row

example, the mass is not perpendicular to the sitting surface, in the second and in the third rows, the mass

base is outside the sitting surface.

In the third row, someone can argue that the ring allows the placing of the mass without any external support,

but if we consider applying this interpretation, we will again have problems. Actually, EN 71-1 Figure 21 does

not define the sides of the test mass. Since the test mass does not need to be a perfect cylinder, also the test

mass for the dynamic test defined in Figure 23 may be used. Since the position of the test mass on ride on

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toys with armrest may be significantly influenced (if we agree with this interpretation) by the sides of the test

mass, we will have for sure different test results, depending on the kind of the test mass used.

We can also have even more improbable test conditions like the following:

According to our opinion, the correct interpretation is “load the toy in the most onerous position on the

standing or sitting surface, in such a way the mass is perpendicular to the standing or sitting surface and that

the vertical projection of the base of the test mass is fully enclosed in the sitting surface. If the standing or

sitting surface is narrower than the test mass, the centre of the test mass shall be positioned along the axis of

the seat". Thus between the two positions shown in the follow
...

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