Energy efficiency of Industrial trucks - Test methods - Part 1: General

This European Standard specifies general test criteria and requirements to measure the energy consumption for self-propelled industrial trucks (hereafter referred to as trucks) during operation. For electric trucks, the efficiency of the battery and the battery charger is included.
This part of the EN 16796 series is intended to be used in conjunction with the corresponding EN 16796-2 to -5.
The truck specific requirements in EN 16796-2 to -5 take precedence over the respective requirements of EN 16796 1.
Of the product life cycle, EN 16796 is applicable to the in-use phase.
It applies to the following truck types according to ISO 5053 1:
-   counterbalance lift truck;
-   articulated counterbalance lift truck;
-   lorry-mounted truck;
-   reach truck (with retractable mast or fork arm carriage);
-   straddle truck;
-   pallet-stacking truck;
-   pallet truck;
-   platform and stillage truck;
-   pallet truck end controlled;
-   order-picking truck;
-   centre-controlled order-picking truck;
-   towing, pushing tractor and  burden carrier;
-   towing and stacking tractor;
-   side-loading truck (one side only);
-   rough-terrain truck;
-   rough-terrain variable-reach truck;
-   slewing rough-terrain variable-reach truck;
-   variable-reach container handler;
-   counterbalance container handler;
-   lateral-stacking truck (both sides);
-   lateral-stacking truck (three sides);
-   non-stacking low-lift straddle carrier;
-   multi-directional lift truck.

Energieeffizienz von Flurförderzeugen - Testmethoden - Teil 1: Allgemeines

In diesem Teil der EN 16796 sind die allgemeinen Prüfkriterien und die Anforderungen zum Messen des Energieverbrauchs bei selbstangetriebenen Flurförderzeugen (im Folgenden als Flurförderzeuge bezeichnet) im Betrieb angegeben. Für elektrische Flurförderzeuge sind die Effizienz der Batterie und des Batterieladegeräts mit eingeschlossen.
Dieser Teil der EN 16796-Reihe soll in Verbindung mit dem jeweils entsprechenden EN 16796 Teil 2 bis 5 verwendet werden.
Die für das jeweilige Flurförderzeug spezifischen Anforderungen in EN 16796 Teil 2 bis 5 haben Vorrang gegenüber den Anforderungen der EN 16796-1.
EN 16796 ist in der Nutzungsphase der Lebensdauer des Produkts anwendbar.
Entsprechend ISO 5053-1 findet sie für die folgenden Flurförderzeugtypen Anwendung:
-   Gegengewichtsstapler
-   Gelenk-Gegengewichtsstapler
-   Lastkraftwagen-Flurföderzeuge
-   Schubstapler (mit einfahrbarem Mast oder Gabelzinkenträger)
-   Spreizenstapler
-   Gabelhochhubwagen
-   Gabelhubwagen
-   Plattform- und Gestellhubwagen
-   Niederhubwagen mit Stellteil
-   Kommissionierstapler
-   Kommissionierstapler mit Zentralsteuerung
-   Schlepper, Schubschlepper und Lastentransportfahrzeuge
-   Schlepper und Stapelschlepper
-   Seitenlader (nur eine Seite)
-   Geländegängige Flurförderzeuge
-   Geländegängige Flurförderzeuge mit veränderlicher Reichweite
-   Geländegängige Schwenk-Flurförderzeuge mit veränderlicher Reichweite
-   Container-Stapler
-   Container-Stapler mit Ausgleichssystem
-   Seitenstapler (beide Seiten)
-   Seitenstapler (drei Seiten)
-   Portalwagen
-   Mehrwege-Stapler

Efficacité énergétique des chariots de manutention - Méthodes d'essai - Partie 1 : Généralités

La présente Norme européenne spécifie les critères d'essai généraux et les prescriptions pour mesurer la consommation d'énergie des chariots de manutention automoteurs (ci-après dénommés chariots) pendant le fonctionnement. Pour les chariots électriques, l'efficacité de la batterie et du chargeur de batterie est comprise.
La présente partie de la série EN 16796 est destinée à être utilisée conjointement avec la partie correspondante des EN 16796-2 à -5.
Les prescriptions spécifiques au chariot des EN 16796-2 à -5 prennent le pas sur les prescriptions correspondantes de l'EN 16796 1.
Pendant le cycle de vie du produit, l'EN 16796 est applicable à la phase d'utilisation. Elle s'applique aux types suivants de chariots conformes à l'ISO 5053 1 :
-   chariot élévateur en porte-à-faux ;
-   chariot élévateur articulé en porte-à-faux ;
-   chariot embarqué sur porteur routier ;
-   chariot rétract (à mât rétractable ou à tablier porte-fourche) ;
-   chariot à fourche entre longerons ;
-   chariot à fourche recouvrante ;
-   transpalette ;
-   chariot à plateforme ;
-   transpalette à poste de conduite à l’extrémité ;
-   préparateur de commande ;
-   préparateur de commande à poste de conduite au centre ;
-   tracteur, pousseur et transporteur de charges ;
-   tracteur-gerbeur ;
-   chariot à prise latérale (d’un seul côté) ;
-   chariot tout-terrain ;
-   chariot tout-terrain à portée variable ;
-   chariot tout-terrain rotatif à portée variable ;
-   chariot porte conteneur à portée variable ;
-   chariot porte conteneur en porte-à-faux ;
-   chariot à prise latérale (des deux côtés) ;
-   chariot à prise latérale (de trois côtés) ;
-   chariot cavalier élévateur non gerbeur ;
-   chariot élévateur multidirectionnel.

Vozila za talni transport - Energijska učinkovitost - Preskusne metode - 1. del: Splošno

Ta evropski standard določa splošna preskusna merila in zahteve za merjenje porabe energije vozil za talni transport z lastnim pogonom (v nadaljevanju »vozila«) med njihovim delovanjem. V zvezi z električnimi vozili je vključena učinkovitost akumulatorja in polnilnik akumulatorja.
Ta del skupine standardov EN 16796 je treba uporabljati v povezavi z ustreznim standardom EN 16796-2 do -5.
Posebne zahteve za vozila iz standarda EN 16796-2 do -5 imajo prednost pred ustreznimi zahtevami iz standarda EN 16796-1.
V zvezi z življenjsko dobo izdelka se standard EN 16796 uporablja za čas obratovanja.
Uporablja se za naslednje vrste vozil v skladu s standardom ISO 5053-1:
– viličar s protiutežjo;
– zgibni viličar s protiutežjo;
– vozilo z dvigalom;
– vozilo z dosegom (z zložljivim stebrom ali nosilcem vilic);
– nakladalno vozilo;
– vozilo za zlaganje palet;
– paletno vozilo;
– vozilo s ploščadjo;
– paletno vozilo z upravljanjem zadaj;
– vozilo za prevzem blaga;
– vozilo za prevzem blaga s centralnim upravljanjem;
– vlečno, potisno vozilo in vozilo za prevoz bremen;
– vlačilec in zlagalnik;
– bočno nakladalno vozilo (samo ena stran);
– terensko vozilo;
– terensko vozilo s spremenljivim dosegom;
– terensko vozilo z vrtljivim mehanizmom za dvigovanje s spremenljivim dosegom;
– vozilo za delo z zabojniki s spremenljivim dosegom;
– vozilo za delo z zabojniki s protiutežjo;
– bočno nakladalno vozilo (obe strani);
– bočno nakladalno vozilo (tri strani);
– nakladalnik za nizko dvigovanje brez zlaganja;
– večstranski viličar.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
01-Nov-2016
Current Stage
6060 - Definitive text made available (DAV) - Publishing
Due Date
02-Nov-2016
Completion Date
02-Nov-2016

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN 16796-1:2017
01-marec-2017
9R]LOD]DWDOQLWUDQVSRUW(QHUJLMVNDXþLQNRYLWRVW3UHVNXVQHPHWRGHGHO
6SORãQR
Energy efficiency of industrial trucks - Test methods - Part 1 : General
Energieeffizienz von Flurförderzeugen - Testmethoden - Teil 1: Generelles

Efficacité énergétique des chariots de manutention - Méthodes d'essai - Partie 1 :

Généralités
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN 16796-1:2016
ICS:
27.015 (QHUJLMVNDXþLQNRYLWRVW Energy efficiency. Energy
2KUDQMDQMHHQHUJLMHQD conservation in general
VSORãQR
53.060 Industrijski tovornjaki Industrial trucks
SIST EN 16796-1:2017 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN 16796-1:2017
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SIST EN 16796-1:2017
EN 16796-1
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
November 2016
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 53.060
English Version
Energy efficiency of Industrial trucks - Test methods - Part
1: General

Efficacité énergétique des chariots de manutention - Energieeffizienz von Flurförderzeugen - Testmethoden

Méthodes d'essai - Partie 1 : Généralités - Teil 1: Generelles
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 13 August 2016.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,

Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Brussels

© 2016 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN 16796-1:2016 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN 16796-1:2017
EN 16796-1:2016 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 4

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................... 5

1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................................... 6

2 Normative references .................................................................................................................................... 7

3 Terms and definitions ................................................................................................................................... 8

4 Test conditions ................................................................................................................................................. 9

4.1 General ................................................................................................................................................................ 9

4.2 Test equipment ................................................................................................................................................ 9

4.2.1 Test area ............................................................................................................................................................. 9

4.2.2 Test track ........................................................................................................................................................... 9

4.2.3 Test load and/or towing capacity.............................................................................................................. 9

4.3 Truck conditions ............................................................................................................................................. 9

4.4 Environmental conditions ........................................................................................................................ 10

4.5 Truck maintenance...................................................................................................................................... 10

4.6 Battery condition ......................................................................................................................................... 10

5 Measurement procedure ........................................................................................................................... 11

5.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 11

5.2 Operating sequence ..................................................................................................................................... 11

5.3 Electrical trucks ............................................................................................................................................ 11

5.3.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 11

5.3.2 Truck measurement .................................................................................................................................... 11

5.3.3 Battery efficiency ......................................................................................................................................... 12

5.3.4 Charger efficiency ........................................................................................................................................ 12

5.4 IC-trucks .......................................................................................................................................................... 13

5.5 Hybrid trucks ................................................................................................................................................. 13

5.6 Measurement accuracy .............................................................................................................................. 13

5.7 Calculation ...................................................................................................................................................... 14

6 Documentation .............................................................................................................................................. 14

6.1 Test report ...................................................................................................................................................... 14

6.2 Declaration ..................................................................................................................................................... 15

6.2.1 Industrial truck energy consumption ................................................................................................... 15

6.2.2 Battery efficiency ......................................................................................................................................... 15

6.2.3 Charger efficiency ........................................................................................................................................ 15

Annex A (normative) Determination of battery efficiency by using the synthetic discharge

cycle................................................................................................................................................................... 16

A.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 16

A.2 Definition of the synthetic discharge cycle ......................................................................................... 16

A.3 Testing according to the synthetic cycle .............................................................................................. 17

A.3.1 Preconditions ................................................................................................................................................ 17

A.3.2 Power value .................................................................................................................................................... 18

A.3.3 Test procedure and measurements....................................................................................................... 19

Annex B (normative) Simplified procedure to calculate the battery and charging efficiency

for lead-acid batteries ................................................................................................................................ 21

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B.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 21

B.2 Formula ............................................................................................................................................................ 21

B.2.1 Battery efficiency during discharging based on measurement with constant

discharge current ......................................................................................................................................... 21

B.2.2 Estimation of the battery efficiency based on generally accepted empirical values ........... 21

B.2.3 Charger efficiency ......................................................................................................................................... 22

Annex C (informative) Calculation of the Carbon dioxide equivalent ...................................................... 23

C.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 23

C.2 Calculation of CO equivalent for electric trucks .............................................................................. 23

C.3 Calculation of CO equivalent for Diesel powered combustion engine trucks ....................... 23

C.4 Calculation of CO equivalent for liquid petroleum gas (LPG) powered combustion

engine trucks .................................................................................................................................................. 24

C.5 Calculation of CO equivalent for natural gas (CNG) powered combustion engine

trucks ................................................................................................................................................................ 24

Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................. 25

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SIST EN 16796-1:2017
EN 16796-1:2016 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN 16796-1:2016) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 150 “Industrial

Trucks - Safety”, the secretariat of which is held by BSI.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by May 2017, and conflicting national standards shall be

withdrawn at the latest by May 2017.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

EN 16796 consists of the following parts, under the general title Energy efficiency of Industrial trucks —

Test methods:
— Part 1: General;

— Part 2: Operator controlled self-propelled trucks, towing tractors and burden-carrier trucks;

— Part 3: Container handling lift trucks.
The following parts are under preparation:
— Part 4: Rough-terrain trucks;

— Part 5: Trucks with elevating operator position and trucks specifically designed to travel with elevated

loads.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organisations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia,

France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta,

Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and the United Kingdom.
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SIST EN 16796-1:2017
EN 16796-1:2016 (E)
Introduction

The EN 16796 series deals with the energy efficiency of industrial trucks and aligns with the New

Approach Ecodesign Directive 2009/125/EC (ErP).

Part 1 contains the procedures to determine the efficiency of trucks, traction batteries and battery

chargers. The other parts provide a specific test cycle for different truck types.

NOTE The test cycles are based on the VDI 2198 guideline. This guideline is widely accepted by industry and

is used to measure the energy consumption of electric industrial trucks and internal combustion industrial trucks.

The guideline is in place since 1996 and it is used broadly. This approach allows the evaluation of the energy

efficiency of trucks by comparison.

The content of this document is of relevance for the following stakeholder groups:

— machine manufacturers (small, medium and large enterprises);
— market surveillance authorities;
— machine users (small, medium and large enterprises);
— service providers, e.g. for consulting activities.

The abovementioned stakeholder groups have been given the opportunity to participate at the drafting

process of this document. The machines concerned are indicated in the Scope of this document.

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SIST EN 16796-1:2017
EN 16796-1:2016 (E)
1 Scope

This European Standard specifies general test criteria and requirements to measure the energy

consumption for self-propelled industrial trucks (hereafter referred to as trucks) during operation. For

electric trucks, the efficiency of the battery and the battery charger is included.

This part of the EN 16796 series is intended to be used in conjunction with the corresponding

EN 16796-2 to -5.

The truck specific requirements in EN 16796-2 to -5 take precedence over the respective requirements

of EN 16796-1.
Of the product life cycle, EN 16796 is applicable to the in-use phase.
It applies to the following truck types according to ISO 5053-1:
— counterbalance lift truck;
— articulated counterbalance lift truck;
— lorry-mounted truck;
— reach truck (with retractable mast or fork arm carriage);
— straddle truck;
— pallet-stacking truck;
— pallet truck;
— platform and stillage truck;
— pallet truck end controlled;
— order-picking truck;
— centre-controlled order-picking truck;
— towing, pushing tractor and burden carrier;
— towing and stacking tractor;
— side-loading truck (one side only);
— rough-terrain truck;
— rough-terrain variable-reach truck;
— slewing rough-terrain variable-reach truck;
— variable-reach container handler;
— counterbalance container handler;
— lateral-stacking truck (both sides);
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SIST EN 16796-1:2017
EN 16796-1:2016 (E)
— lateral-stacking truck (three sides);
— non-stacking low-lift straddle carrier;
— multi-directional lift truck.
2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

EN 589, Automotive fuels — LPG — Requirements and test methods
EN 590, Automotive fuels - Diesel - Requirements and test methods

prEN 1459-1, Rough terrain trucks — Safety requirements and verification — Part 1: Variable-reach

trucks

EN 1459-2, Rough-terrain trucks - Safety requirements and verification - Part 2: Slewing variable-reach

trucks
EN 16796 (all parts), Energy efficiency of Industrial trucks — Test methods

EN 60254-1, Lead acid traction batteries - Part 1: General requirements and methods of tests (IEC 60254-

EN ISO 3691-1:2015, Industrial trucks - Safety requirements and verification - Part 1: Self-propelled

industrial trucks, other than driverless trucks, variable-reach trucks and burden-carrier trucks (ISO 3691-

1:2011, including Cor 1:2013)

EN ISO 3691-2, Industrial trucks - Safety requirements and verification - Part 2: Self-propelled variable-

reach trucks (ISO 3691-2)

EN ISO 3691-6, Industrial trucks - Safety requirements and verification - Part 6: Burden and personnel

carriers (ISO 3691-6)

ISO 5053-1:2015, Industrial trucks — Terminology and classification — Part 1: Types of industrial trucks

ISO 15500-1, Road vehicles — Compressed natural gas (CNG) fuel system components — Part 1: General

requirements and definitions
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EN 16796-1:2016 (E)
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 5053-1 and the following

apply.
3.1
battery

electrical power source consisting of battery cells, connectors of cells, battery controller (if applicable,

e.g. controller for Li-Ion batteries) and battery enclosure that is ready to use in an industrial truck

3.2
battery state of charge

measured capacity (in Ampere hours [Ah]) of the battery divided by the maximum rated capacity [Ah],

expressed as a percentage
3.3
carbon dioxide equivalent
CDE

quantity that describes, for a given mixture and amount of greenhouse gas, the amount of CO that

would have the same global warming potential (GWP)
3.4
charging factor

ratio between amount of Ah recharged into the battery and the prior discharged amount of Ah from the

battery

Note 1 to entry: Typically the charge factor for lead acid batteries is in the range of 1,02 to 1,25.

3.5
cycle time

amount of time it takes a machine to perform a repetitive segment of an operation, typically measured

as the time it takes a machine to return to the same position
3.6
power battery factor
PBF

factor that gives the ratio between the battery capacity and the electrical power taken from the battery

3.7
synthetic discharge cycle

typical battery discharge profile that mirrors the actual energy consumption of electric trucks during a

test cycle
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EN 16796-1:2016 (E)
4 Test conditions
4.1 General

The following test conditions ensure that the measurement of power consumption is performed in a

similar and comparable way.
4.2 Test equipment
4.2.1 Test area

The test area shall be a flat and smooth area with a hard, clean and dry surface made of concrete,

asphalt or equivalent. The test course shall have no more than 2 % slope in any direction of travel.

4.2.2 Test track

For truck type specific information for a different truck type see the respective part of EN 16796.

4.2.3 Test load and/or towing capacity

Unless it is otherwise stated in the specific part of EN 16796, the test load shall be equal to 70 % of the

rated load and standard load centre distance of the truck as defined in EN ISO 3691-1, EN ISO 3691-2,

EN 1459-1 or EN 1459-2.

Tractors shall tow with a force according 70 % of the rated drawbar pull as defined in

EN ISO 3691-1:2015, A.3.

Burden-carriers shall be laden with 70 % of the maximum load as defined in EN ISO 3691-6.

4.3 Truck conditions

The truck to be tested shall be a sample that is representative of series production. For all parts of the

truck, with effect to the energy consumption, a run-in time of up to 100 h is permissible. The run-in time

shall be documented.

The truck to be tested shall be in a safe and functional state. All equipment attached shall be in

accordance to the specification of the manufacturer of the truck.

The set-up of the truck (e.g. software parameters) shall be available as per the manufacturer's

specification. That requirement means that the truck performance as specified is achievable (e.g.

driving and lifting speed, acceleration) and all software settings are commercially available to the

customer.

NOTE For instance, the test driver can adapt the maximum driving speed to achieve the cycles / hour.

The test truck shall be fitted with new tyres (max. 10 % of tread wear) which shall comply with the

specifications of the manufacturer of the truck. Pneumatic tyres shall be inflated to their correct

pressure specified by the truck manufacturer or by default from the tire manufacturer.

The fuel tanks of internal combustion engine trucks shall be filled to the maximum specified level prior

to the warm up period. All other tanks shall be filled to their correct operating levels, if applicable.

If the test is to be performed on a sample that is representative for a range of trucks with the same rated

capacity but different lift heights, the test shall be carried out on the truck with the specification

according to EN ISO 3691-1:2015, A.2.1. For trucks covered by prEN 1459-1, EN 1459-2 and

EN ISO 3691-2 see the specific requirements of the applicable part of EN 16796.

For trucks covered by EN ISO 3691-1 the specified lift height shall be at least the standard lift height

according to EN ISO 3691-1:2015, A.2.2. The truck’s specified lift height shall allow the measurement

procedures as defined in the specific part of the EN 16796 series.
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EN 16796-1:2016 (E)

If the test is to be performed on a sample that is representative for a range of trucks with the same rated

capacity and the lift height is lower than the lift height that is specified in EN ISO 3691-1:2015, A.2.1 and

A.2.2, the test shall be carried out on the truck with the greatest lift height.

If the test is to be performed on a sample representative of a range of electrical trucks with the option of

different battery capacities the test shall be carried out on the truck with the standard battery/batteries

according to the data sheet of the manufacturer.
4.4 Environmental conditions

The measurement shall be carried out at an environmental temperature range between 10 °C and 30 °C.

The truck in test configuration shall be at operating temperature.

A minimum warm-up period of 10 min is required for the laden truck, before the test starts.

4.5 Truck maintenance

IC-trucks with emissions control systems that may require cleaning or regeneration of the emission

control device shall remain within manufacturer recommended parameters throughout the test. It is

allowed to block automatic regenerating of the emission control device during the test.

Machines with other emissions control systems utilizing additional reagents/materials shall remain

within manufacturers´ recommended parameters throughout the test.
4.6 Battery condition

Battery efficiencies are influenced by many factors e.g. cell technology, cell type, cell design and

geometry. Therefore, the battery efficiency as stated in 6.2.2 is representative for the tested battery

type / battery manufacturer.

If the battery technology requires any energy consuming auxiliary device e.g. battery management

system, controller, cooling or heating, this shall be included in the test.

The battery shall be charged to the rated capacity prior to the respective test. When tests require

discharging to the rated minimum capacity of the battery, this shall be determined by one of the

following methods:
a) Lead-acid batteries voltage:

The battery is discharged if the voltage is less than or equal 1,6 V/cell (according to EN 60254-1 for

discharge current I1).
b) Lead-acid rated capacity:

The battery is discharged if 80 % of the rated capacity is taken from the battery during the test.

Recuperation may be considered by calculating with 75 % of the recuperated current over time.

c) Other technologies:

Discharge criteria are defined by the battery manufacturer. This criterion shall be consistent with

all other specification provided with the battery type e.g. identical life time and life cycle

characteristic based on endurance tests. Dependent on the technology a discharge value given in

energy (Wh) may be used.
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EN 16796-1:2016 (E)
5 Measurement procedure
5.1 General

The following clauses are describing the measurement procedure that is applicable for trucks in

general. For specific information for different truck types see the respective part of EN 16796.

5.2 Operating sequence

Trucks shall operate according to the manufacturers' instruction handbook and the test specification

defined in the specific part of EN 16796 with the load according to 4.2.3. Unless it is otherwise stated in

the specific part of the EN 16796 series, pick- and place-cycles may be simulated without depositing the

load.
NOTE The test load can be secured.

The speed shall be so adapted as to obtain the specified number of cycles per hour. Unless it is

otherwise stated in the specific part of EN 16796 simultaneous operations are not permissible, all load

handling and travelling functions shall be operated separately.

For truck types that are not covered exhaustively by a specific part of EN 16796, an appropriate

sequence of operations shall be selected depending on the design in accordance with the intended use

of the truck.
5.3 Electrical trucks
5.3.1 General

To determine the overall energy consumption of electric trucks the test shall consider:

— the overall efficiency of the truck, including motor, controller and electrical installation;

— the efficiency of the battery/batteries;
— the efficiency of the battery charger.

Because the equipment of trucks with batteries and battery chargers is versatile, it is typically

necessary to differ between these elements.

The following clauses are defining the procedure to determine the elements of the system efficiency.

5.3.2 Truck measurement

The battery of the truck shall be charged to the rated capacity prior to the warm-up period.

The measurement of the energy consumption shall start at the first test cycle. The warm-up period shall

be excluded from the measurement.

The energy consumption shall be given in terms of the electrical energy that is required for 1 h

performing the operating sequence, in kWh/h. This measurement can be done by continuous

measurement of voltage and current during the test.

The measurement of voltage and current shall be performed at the connector of the truck and the

traction battery.
E = U tf** *I t dt
( ) ( )
truck batt batt
where
E Energy taken from the battery during the test in Wh
truck
---------------------- Page: 13 ----------------------
SIST EN 16796-1:2017
EN 16796-1:2016 (E)
U Battery voltage in V
batt
I Battery current in A
batt
dt Differential (Measurement over time)
T Test duration
f = 1 for I ≥ 0; and
batt
f = 0,75 for I < 0
batt

NOTE 1 I < 0 represents recuperation. The factor f = 0,75 refers to the majority of traction batteries, namely

batt
lead-acid batteries.

NOTE 2 The factor f differs for other battery technologies, subject to future revisions of this standard.

If the power consumption is determined by measuring electric charge in Ah, the power consumption

shall be calculated by multiplication with the nominal battery voltage.

If the determination of the battery efficiency should be included in the truck measurement procedure,

the measurement cycle shall start with a battery charged to its rated capacity and shall continue until

the battery is discharged to the rated minimum capacity, see 4.6.
5.3.3 Battery efficiency
The battery efficiency consists of two elements that generate power loss:
— the energy flow to the truck (energy taken by the truck from the battery);

— the energy flow from the charger to the battery (energy for complete recharging of the discharged

battery).

NOTE The efficiency varies depending on the battery charging status, the current when discharging, the

current and method when charging, the battery temperature and the battery type.
The overall efficiency of the battery shall be determined by:

— Direct measurement of current and voltage during discharging the battery by performing the truck

measurement according to 5.3.2 until the battery is discharged to the rated minimum capacity, see

last paragraph of 5.3.2
...

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