Water quality - Guidance standard on assessing the hydromorphological features of lakes

This European Standard is applicable to lakes, which are water bodies occupying one or more basins with surface areas greater than 1 ha (0,01 km2) and maximum depths (at mean water level) greater than 1 m. All types of permanent lakes, including natural, modified and artificial, fresh water and brackish, except for those systems which regularly connect to the sea, are included in this European Standard, though canals are excluded.
Based on these criteria, it can be estimated that there are at least 500 000 natural lakes across Europe, most of which are located in the glaciated landscapes in northern and western provinces and in Scandinavia. Lakeland districts also occur locally in areas such as the Danubian plain and around the Alps. Elsewhere, naturally occurring lakes are relatively sparse and in such areas reservoirs or pits are more common.
This European Standard is designed to:
a)   support environmental and conservation agencies in meeting the monitoring requirements of the WFD (Article 8, Annex II and Annex V);
b)   generate data sets appropriate for monitoring and reporting of Natura 2000 sites designated under the Habitats Directive and the Birds Directive;
c)   provide information supporting other environmental reporting requirements (e.g. in relation to biodiversity or environmental impact assessment);
d)   support lake management and restoration initiatives.
This European Standard:
a)   defines the key term of ‘hydromorphology’ and other terms relating to the physical characteristics of lakes and their hydrological regimes;
b)   details essential features and processes of lakes that should be characterised as part of a hydromorphological survey and for determining the hydromorphological condition of a lake;
c)   identifies and defines the key pressures affecting European lakes;
d)   provides guidance on strategies for collecting hydromorphological data depending on resources available and the anticipated use of the assessment; a hierarchy of approaches is recognised from the ‘overview method’ utilising existing databases, maps and remote sensing data through to recognised field-based survey techniques such as Lake Habitat Survey (LHS);
e)   offers guidance on data presentation;
f)   establishes guidance on data quality assurance issues.
This European Standard does not deal with biological assessments in lakes such as the presence or absence of individual species or community composition, nor does it attempt to link specific hydromorphological features with their associated biological communities or to create a classification based on such links. However, it is relevant where plants or other organisms form significant structural elements of the habitat (e.g. a gradation from riparian to littoral vegetation).
With respect to the WFD, the hydromorphological condition of a lake only contributes to its status classification at high ecological status (HES). Hydromorphological conditions are not defined for good and moderate status but shall be sufficient to support the biological elements.

Wasserbeschaffenheit - Anleitung zur Beurteilung hydromorphologischer Eigenschaften von Standgewässern

Diese Europäische Norm ist auf Standgewässer anwendbar, die als Wasserkörper ein oder mehrere Becken aufweisen können und deren Oberfläche größer als 1 ha (0,01 km2) und deren maximale Wassertiefe (bei Mittelwasser) größer als 1 m ist. In dieser Europäischen Norm sind sämtliche Typen permanenter Standgewässer eingeschlossen, einschließlich natürlicher, veränderter und künstlicher, alle Süßwasser  und Brackwasser Bereiche, mit Ausnahme solcher Systeme, die regelmäßig Anschluss zum Meer haben und der Kanäle.
Nach diesen Kriterien gibt es schätzungsweise mindestens 500 000 natürliche Standgewässer in Europa, die meisten liegen in den eiszeitlich geprägten Landschaften in den nördlichen und westlichen Gebieten sowie in Skandinavien. Seenlandschaften treten auch örtlich in Gebieten wie der Tiefebene der Donau und im Alpenraum auf. In anderen Landschaftsräumen finden sich natürliche Standgewässer vergleichsweise selten, hier sind Stauseen und Abgrabungsgewässer häufiger.
Diese Europäische Norm ist vorgesehen zur:
a)   Unterstützung von Umwelt  und Naturschutz Behörden bei den Anforderungen der Überwachung nach WRRL (Artikel 8, Anhang II und Anhang V);
b)   Erstellung geeigneten Datenmaterials für die Überwachung und die Berichtspflicht der Natura 2000-Gebiete nach der Habitat Richtlinie und der Vogelschutz Richtlinie;
c)   Bereitstellung von Informationen zur Unterstützung anderer Umweltberichtspflichten (z. B. im Zusammenhang mit Biodiversitäts  oder Umweltverträglichkeitsprüfungen);
d)   Unterstützung bei Vorhaben der Gewässerbewirtschaftung und Renaturierung.
Diese Europäische Norm:
e)   definiert den Schlüsselbegriff „Hydromorphologie“ sowie andere Fachbegriffe, die sich auf die physika-lischen Eigenschaften der Standgewässer und deren hydrologisches Regime beziehen;
f)   konkretisiert die wichtigsten Eigenschaften und Prozesse der Standgewässer, die als Bestandteil der hydromorphologischen Aufnahme und der Beurteilung des hydromorphologischen Zustandes von Standgewässern dienen können;
g)   identifiziert und definiert die Hauptbelastungen, die europäische Standgewässer beeinträchtigen;
h)   gibt eine Anleitung zur Erstellung von Verfahren bei der Erhebung hydromorphologischer Daten in Abhängigkeit von den zur Verfügung stehenden Möglichkeiten und dem zu erwartenden Nutzen der Beurteilung. Eine Hierarchie der Vorgehensweisen von Übersichtsverfahren auf der Grundlage vorliegender Datenbestände, Karten und Fernerkundungsdaten bis hin zu Geländeuntersuchungen wie zum Beispiel der Standgewässer Habitat Untersuchung (en: LHS  Lake Habitat Survey) wird zugrunde gelegt;
i)   bietet Unterstützung bei der Daten Präsentation;
j)   legt Anleitungen bei Fragenstellungen zur Daten Qualitätssicherung fest.
Diese Europäische Norm beschäftigt sich weder mit biologischen Bewertungen der Standgewässer wie dem Vorkommen oder Fehlen einzelner Arten oder der Artenzusammensetzung, noch versucht sie, bestimmte hydromorphologische Eigenschaften mit den zugehörigen Lebensgemeinschaften zu verknüpfen oder eine Klassifizierung aufzustellen, die auf diesen Verknüpfungen aufbaut. Von Bedeutung hingegen ist es, ob Pflanzen oder andere Organismen signifikante Strukturmerkmale darstellen (z. B. eine Übergangszone im Litoralbereich).
In Bezug auf die WRRL trägt der hydromorphologische Zustand nur im Falle eines sehr guten ökologischen Zustandes (SGÖZ) zu einer Einstufung bei. Die hydromorphologischen Bedingungen für einen guten oder mäßigen ökologischen Zustand sind nicht definiert, müssen aber hinreichend sein, die biologischen Elemente zu unterstützen.

Qualité de l'eau - Guide pour l'évaluation des caractéristiques hydromorphologiques des lacs

Le présent document s'applique aux lacs d'une superficie supérieure à 1 ha (0,01 km2) et d'une profondeur
maximale (au niveau d'eau moyen) supérieure à 1 m. Tous les types de lacs permanents, qui comprennent
les lacs naturels, modifiés et artificiels, d'eau douce et d'eau saumâtre, à l'exception des systèmes
régulièrement en connexion avec la mer, sont inclus dans la présente Norme européenne, les canaux étant
toutefois exclus.
Sur la base de ces critères, on peut estimer que l'Europe compte au moins 500 000 lacs naturels, situés pour
la plupart dans les paysages glaciaires des régions nord et ouest et en Scandinavie. Des districts de zones
lacustres apparaissent aussi localement dans des zones telles que la plaine du Danube et autour des Alpes.
Ailleurs, les lacs naturels sont relativement clairsemés et, dans ces zones, les réservoirs ou les fosses sont
plus courants.
La présente Norme européenne est destinée à :
a) aider les organismes pour la protection et la conservation de l'environnement à satisfaire aux exigences
de surveillance de la DCE (Article 8, Annexe II et Annexe V) ;
b) générer des ensembles de données appropriés pour surveiller et rendre compte des sites Natura 2000
désignés dans le cadre de la Directive Habitats et de la Directive Oiseaux ;
c) fournir des informations permettant de satisfaire aux exigences de rapportage sur d'autres aspects
environnementaux (par exemple en relation avec la biodiversité ou l'évaluation de l'impact sur
l'environnement) ;
d) soutenir les initiatives de gestion et de restauration des lacs.
La présente Norme européenne
a) définit le terme clé « hydromorphologie » ainsi que d'autres termes associés aux caractéristiques
physiques des lacs et à leurs régimes hydrologiques ;
b) décrit de manière détaillée les caractéristiques et processus essentiels des lacs qu'il convient de
caractériser dans le cadre d'un suivi hydromorphologique et pour déterminer la condition
hydromorphologique d'un lac ; (...)

Kakovost vode - Navodilo za ocenjevanje hidromorfoloških značilnosti jezer

Ta evropski standard se uporablja za jezera, tj. vodna telesa v enem ali več bazenih s površino, večjo od 1 ha (0,01 km2), ki so globlja (pri povprečnem nivoju vode) od 1 m. V ta evropski standard so vključene vse vrste stalnih jezer, vključno z naravnimi, spremenjenimi in umetnimi, sladkovodnimi in polslanimi, razen sistemov, ki so trajno povezani z morjem. Kanali so izključeni. Na podlagi teh meril je v Evropi najmanj 500 000 naravnih jezer, večinoma v ledeniških predelih severnih in zahodnih pokrajin ter v Skandinaviji. Jezerska območja se pojavljajo tudi lokalno, na primer v Donavski nižini in v bližini Alp. Drugod so naravna jezera precej redka, bolj pogosta pa so zajezitvena ali premogovniška jezera. Ta evropski standard je namenjen za: a) podporo okoljskim agencijam in agencijam za ohranjanje narave pri izpolnjevanju zahtev za spremljanje iz okvirne direktive o vodah (člen 8, Priloga II in Priloga V); b) pripravo ustreznih podatkovnih nizov za spremljanje območij Natura 2000, določenih na podlagi direktive o habitatih in direktive o pticah, in poročanje o teh območjih; c) zagotavljanje informacij za podporo drugih okoljskih zahtev za poročanje (npr. na področju biotske raznovrstnosti ali ocene vplivov na okolje); d) podporo pobudam za upravljanje in obnovo jezer. Ta evropski standard: e) opredeljuje ključni pojem »hidromorfologija« in druge pojme, povezane z fizikalnimi značilnostmi jezer in njihovih hidroloških režimov; f) podrobno opisuje bistvene značilnosti jezer in procese v njih, ki naj bi bili opisani kot del hidromorfološke raziskave in za določitev hidormorfološkega stanja jezera; g) prepoznava in opredeljuje ključne dejavnike, ki vplivajo na evropska jezera; h) podaja napotke o strategijah za zbiranje hidromorfoloških podatkov glede na razpoložljive vire in pričakovano uporabo ocene; hierarhija pristopov je priznana od »metode pregleda« in uporablja obstoječe podatkovne baze, zemljevide in podatke iz oddaljenega zaznavanja do priznanih terenskih tehnik za raziskave, kot je raziskava jezerskega habitata (LHS); i) ponuja navodila za predstavitev podatkov; j) vzpostavlja navodila za vprašanja na področju zagotavljanja kakovosti podatkov. Ta evropski standard ne obravnava bioloških ocen v jezerih, kot je ocena prisotnosti ali odsotnosti posameznih vrst ali ocena sestave združb, in si ne prizadeva za povezavo posameznih hidromorfoloških značilnosti z ustreznimi življenjskimi združbami ali za oblikovanje klasifikacije na podlagi takih povezav. Vendar velja v primerih, ko rastline ali drugi organizmi tvorijo znatne strukturne elemente habitata (npr. postopen prehod iz obrežne na litoralno vegetacijo). V zvezi z okvirno direktivo o vodah hidromorfološko stanje jezera na razred stanja vpliva samo pri zelo dobrem ekološkem stanju (HES). Hidromorfološki pogoji za dobro in zmerno stanje niso opredeljeni, vendar zadostujejo za podporo bioloških elementov.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
13-Sep-2011
Current Stage
9020 - Submission to 2 Year Review Enquiry - Review Enquiry
Due Date
15-Oct-2016
Completion Date
15-Oct-2016

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2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.Wasserbeschaffenheit - Anleitung zur Beurteilung hydromorphologischer Eigenschaften von SeenQualité de l'eau - Guide pour l'évaluation des caractéristiques hydromorphologiques des lacsWater quality - Guidance standard on assessing the hydromorphological features of lakes13.060.10Voda iz naravnih virovWater of natural resourcesICS:Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z:EN 16039:2011SIST EN 16039:2012en,fr,de01-februar-2012SIST EN 16039:2012SLOVENSKI

STANDARD
SIST EN 16039:2012
EUROPEAN STANDARD NORME EUROPÉENNE EUROPÄISCHE NORM
EN 16039
September 2011 ICS 13.060.10 English Version

Water quality - Guidance standard on assessing the hydromorphological features of lakes

Qualité de l'eau - Guide pour l'évaluation des caractéristiques hydromorphologiques des lacs

Wasserbeschaffenheit - Anleitung zur Beurteilung hydromorphologischer Eigenschaften von StandgewässernThis European Standard was approved by CEN on 6 August 2011.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.

EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
Management Centre:
Avenue Marnix 17,

B-1000 Brussels © 2011 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CEN national Members. Ref. No. EN 16039:2011: ESIST EN 16039:2012

EN 16039:2011 (E) 2 Contents Page Foreword ..............................................................................................................................................................4Introduction .........................................................................................................................................................51Scope ......................................................................................................................................................62Normative references ............................................................................................................................73Terms and definitions ...........................................................................................................................74Principle ............................................................................................................................................... 125Survey requirements .......................................................................................................................... 125.1Lake ‘types’ ......................................................................................................................................... 125.2Scale ..................................................................................................................................................... 155.2.1General ................................................................................................................................................. 155.2.2Dividing the lake system into zones for hydromorphological assessment ................................. 155.2.3Catchment scale ................................................................................................................................. 155.3Reference conditions ......................................................................................................................... 155.3.1General ................................................................................................................................................. 155.3.2Lake water balance and hydrological regime .................................................................................. 165.3.3Lake morphometry.............................................................................................................................. 165.3.4Shore and lake bed character ............................................................................................................ 165.3.5Hydromorphological connectivity and biological continuity ......................................................... 165.3.6Terrestrial and aquatic vegetation .................................................................................................... 166Features for survey and assessment ............................................................................................... 176.1Features and attributes ...................................................................................................................... 176.2Feature recording related to purpose and method of data gathering ........................................... 176.3A framework for acquiring lake hydromorphology data................................................................. 176.4Hydromorphological pressure assessment ..................................................................................... 206.4.1General ................................................................................................................................................. 206.4.2Classes of engineering and activity pressures ............................................................................... 206.5Timing and frequency of hydromorphological assessments ........................................................ 236.6Lake characterisation ......................................................................................................................... 236.6.1General ................................................................................................................................................. 236.6.2Field sampling ..................................................................................................................................... 236.6.3Bathymetry .......................................................................................................................................... 236.6.4Water column and lake bed characterisation at an Index Site ....................................................... 236.6.5Shore zone assessments ................................................................................................................... 246.6.6Lake site activities/pressures ............................................................................................................ 246.6.7Hydrology ............................................................................................................................................ 246.6.8Sedimentology .................................................................................................................................... 257Reporting hydromorphological assessment and classification .................................................... 257.1General ................................................................................................................................................. 257.2Data presentation................................................................................................................................ 258Training and quality assurance for survey and assessment ......................................................... 268.1General ................................................................................................................................................. 268.2Training manuals ................................................................................................................................ 278.3Data entry and validation ................................................................................................................... 27Annex A (informative)

Common European lake types defined by mode of formation ............................. 28Annex B (informative)

Lake shore and bottom natural and artificial substrates ....................................... 29Annex C (informative)

Definitions and formulae for lake morphometric parameters ............................... 30SIST EN 16039:2012

EN 16039:2011 (E) 3 Annex D (informative)

Equipment required for a field-based hydromorphological survey ...................... 32Annex E (informative)

Checklist of factors relevant to assessing hydrological regime ........................... 33Annex F (informative)

Explanatory account of the Lake Habitat Survey (LHS) method............................ 34Annex G (informative)

Remote sensing and GIS for lake hydromorphology data capture ....................... 36Bibliography ...................................................................................................................................................... 37 SIST EN 16039:2012

EN 16039:2011 (E) 4 Foreword This document (EN 16039:2011) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 230 “Water analysis”, the secretariat of which is held by DIN. This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by March 2012, and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn at the latest by March 2012. Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent rights. CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. WARNING — Working in or around water is inherently dangerous. Surveyors should conform to EU and national health and safety legislation, and any additional guidelines appropriate for working in or near lakes.

According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom.

SIST EN 16039:2012

EN 16039:2011 (E) 5 Introduction This European Standard contains lists of lake features and guidance on how to record, analyse and interpret the data obtained from desk-top, remote sensing and field surveys. In this document the word ‘lake’ is used as a generic term for standing waters including natural and modified lakes, reservoirs and excavated pits. The physical character of a lake is defined by its morphometry (size and shape) and by its hydrological regime, both of which are contingent on the landscape setting of the lake-catchment system and its environmental history. Ensuring that the key features and associated physical processes operating within lakes are consistently recognised enables legitimate comparisons to be made among different lake types. This is required for a range of purposes, including the EC Water Framework Directive (WFD), the EC Habitats Directive, and lake management and restoration. The WFD requires physical features of surface waters to be considered when assessing ’ecological status’ and refers to these features as hydromorphological. Annex V of the WFD lists two categories of hydromorphological ‘quality elements’ for assessing lakes – ‘hydrological regime’ and ‘morphological conditions’ – each sub-divided into a number of specified ‘quality elements’. Those in the hydrological category comprise the quantity and dynamics of flow, level, residence time and connection to groundwaters, whilst those in the morphological category are lake depth variation, quantity and structure of the substrate and the structure and condition of the lake shore zone. The Habitats Directive applies to a wide range of terrestrial, freshwater and marine habitats and species. The Directive requires Member States to maintain or restore these to ‘favourable conservation status’, partly by designating Special Areas of Conservation (SACs). For lakes, the process of selection and monitoring SACs involves recording and regularly assessing a suite of physical, chemical and biological features. A standard approach to hydromorphological assessment, while not specifically required by the Directive, thus enables the contribution of physical structure and hydrology to favourable conservation status to be assessed, and allows comparisons to be made between Member States. NOTE In this document, ‘assessment’ is used as a broad term referring to the general description and characterization of lake features and the pressures that impinge upon them. It is not used to imply particular levels of ‘quality’ or ‘value’, whether related to ecological status under the WFD or more generally. SIST EN 16039:2012

EN 16039:2011 (E) 6 1 Scope This European Standard is applicable to lakes, which are water bodies occupying one or more basins with surface areas greater than 1 ha (0,01 km2) and maximum depths (at mean water level) greater than 1 m. All types of permanent lakes, including natural, modified and artificial, freshwater and brackish, except for those systems which regularly connect to the sea, are included in this European Standard, though canals are excluded. Based on these criteria, it can be estimated that there are at least 500 000 natural lakes across Europe, most of which are located in the glaciated landscapes in northern and western provinces and in Scandinavia. Lakeland districts also occur locally in areas such as the Danubian plain and around the Alps. Elsewhere, naturally occurring lakes are relatively sparse and in such areas reservoirs or pits are more common.

This European Standard is designed to: a) support environmental and conservation agencies in meeting the monitoring requirements of the WFD (Article 8, Annex II and Annex V); b) generate data sets appropriate for monitoring and reporting of Natura 2000 sites designated under the Habitats Directive and the Birds Directive; c) provide information supporting other environmental reporting requirements (e.g. in relation to biodiversity or environmental impact assessment); d) support lake management and restoration initiatives. This European Standard: e) defines the key term of ‘hydromorphology’ and other terms relating to the physical characteristics of lakes and their hydrological regimes; f) details essential features and processes of lakes that should be characterised as part of a hydromorphological survey and for determining the hydromorphological condition of a lake; g) identifies and defines the key pressures affecting European lakes; h) provides guidance on strategies for collecting hydromorphological data depending on resources available and the anticipated use of the assessment; a hierarchy of approaches is recognised from the ‘overview method’ utilising existing databases, maps and remote sensing data through to recognised field-based survey techniques such as Lake Habitat Survey (LHS); i) offers guidance on data presentation; j) establishes guidance on data quality assurance issues. This European Standard does not deal with biological assessments in lakes such as the presence or absence of individual species or community composition, nor does it attempt to link specific hydromorphological features with their associated biological communities or to create a classification based on such links. However, it is relevant where plants or other organisms form significant structural elements of the habitat (e.g. a gradation from riparian to littoral vegetation). With respect to the WFD, the hydromorphological condition of a lake only contributes to its status classification at high ecological status (HES). Hydromorphological conditions are not defined for good and moderate status but shall be sufficient to support the biological elements. SIST EN 16039:2012

EN 16039:2011 (E) 7 2 Normative references EN 14614, Water Quality — Guidance standard for assessing the hydromorphological features of rivers 3 Terms and definitions For the purpose of this document, the following terms and definitions apply. 3.1 aquatic macrophyte larger plant of fresh water which is easily seen with the naked eye, including all aquatic vascular plants, bryophytes, stoneworts (Characeae) and macro-algal growths NOTE This definition includes plants associated with open water or wetlands with shallow water. 3.2 attribute specific recorded elements of a hydromorphological feature EXAMPLE ‘Silt’ and ‘boulders’ are natural substrate texture attributes, ‘sheet piling’ and ‘gabions’ are attributes of engineered banks. 3.3 bank physical edge of the lake shore, or of the island(s) within NOTE Generally defined by a wave-cut break in slope at or near the water’s edge of the lake, but can also be defined as the line along which riparian (terrestrial or land) conditions change to littoral in-lake conditions. 3.4 basin defined hollows which are permanently or temporarily filled with water NOTE Basin size and shape (morphometry) strongly control the fluxes of substances in lakes and the structure and function of lake food webs. 3.5 bathymetry systematic survey of size, shape and water depth distribution in a lake NOTE Bathymetry is the basis of deriving morphometric parameters and to predict thermal stratification, residence time and sediment redistribution processes. 3.6 bay indent of the lake shore which can span from metres to many kilometres in size NOTE Bays are normally protected by a promontory (or headland) projecting from the shore which reduces exposure. Bays often contain beach deposits. 3.7 bedform patterns topography of the lake bed may be simple or complex depending on the size and shape of the system and the nature of local sediment transport processes NOTE Deposition produces bedforms such as sand and gravel bars, whilst erosion results in scour features such as troughs. SIST EN 16039:2012

EN 16039:2011 (E) 8 3.8 bedrock in situ naturally consolidated rock either underlying drift deposits such as glacial till or exposed by past or current erosion processes 3.9 beach sub-zone of the exposed shore above the water line of a lake defined by the accumulation of sediment (texturally will range in grain size from clays and silts through to boulders) depending on the energetics of the wave environment and the geomorphological history of the site 3.10 catchment

drainage basin contributing water and sediment into a lake NOTE Also recognised as drainage area. 3.11 continuity uninterrupted movement of water, sediment and organisms into, out of and within a lake system 3.12 delta deposits sediment deposits formed where an inflowing stream enters the lake NOTE The size and style of the deposits depends on upstream catchment characteristics and reworking of the sediments by wave and current action in the lake. At least some of the delta sediments are expected to be above water. 3.13 direction of the main axis compass bearing along the axis of the maximum length of a lake, e.g. NW-SE 3.14 ecological potential set out in Annex V of the WFD the environmental objective of heavily modified water bodies (HMWBs) or artificial water bodies (AWBs) is to achieve good ecological potential, rather than good ecological status NOTE This means that the system is managed to optimise biological quality accepting its altered hydromorphological condition that cannot be mitigated without significant adverse effect on specified uses. 3.15 ecological status expression of the quality of the structure and functioning of aquatic ecosystems, by comparing the prevailing conditions with reference conditions NOTE As classified in accordance with Annex V of the EC Water Framework Directive. 3.16 epilimnion warm upper layer of lake water column vertically mixed by wind driven forces in a thermally stratified lake

3.17 eulittoral zone area of the lake shore spanning the mean annual high and mean annual low water level 3.18 exposure measure of the energetics of a shoreline segment obtained from various fetch calculations SIST EN 16039:2012

EN 16039:2011 (E) 9 3.19 fetch distance of open water over which the wind can blow and generate wind-driven waves 3.20 headland promontory of land projecting into water 3.21 hydrological connectivity degree of coupling (natural or impeded) between the lake basin and surrounding/underlying groundwater and surface water bodies 3.22 hydromorphology physical and hydrological characteristics of lakes including the underlying physical processes from which they result 3.23 hypolimnion dense, bottom layer of water in a thermally stratified lake NOTE Being at depth, it is isolated from surface wind-mixing during summer. 3.24 hypsographic curve depth–area curve describing the form of the basin 3.25 ice phenology description of the duration and the timing (dates) of formation (freeze-up) and melting (break-up) of the ice cover 3.26 island landform protruding from the surface of the lake NOTE A useful size-based classification for island features is as follows:  Outcrop: < 0,001 km2;  Islet: 0,001 km2 to < 0,01 km2;  Island: 0,01 km2 to 1 km2;  Large island: > 1 km2. 3.27 lake altitude elevation of a reference height such as lake mean annual water surface level above reference sea level datum

3.28 lake hydrological type generalised scheme to describe the water balance of a lake water body according to factors such as the relative importance of surface water compared with groundwater, and flushing rates and seasonal characteristics (water level variability over annual time series) SIST EN 16039:2012

EN 16039:2011 (E) 10 3.29 lake perimeter equivalent to the shoreline length measured at a reference level such as the mean annual water level

3.30 lake stratification variations in water column structure with respect to temperature and density 3.31 lake surface area planimetric surface area of the lake water body 3.32 lake type group of lakes that can be broadly differentiated from other groups on the basis of their physical and chemical characteristics

3.33 littoral zone habitat extending from the water’s edge to the lakeward limit of rooted macrophytes or algae on the lake bed 3.34 longshore drift process of sediment transport along the lake shore (coast) driven by shore-wise currents and wave action 3.35 maximum effective length length of a straight line connecting the two most distant points on the perimeter of the lake over which winds and waves may act without interruptions from islands and land NOTE This is distinct from the maximum length which is any line connecting the two most distant points on the shoreline. It must not cross land, but can cross islands. In regular shaped basins, this will approximate to a straight line, but in irregular lakes (such as oxbows) the maximum length may be curved. 3.36 metalimnion medial region of the water temperature profile separating the epilimnion from the hypolimnion in a thermally stratified lake where the temperature declines at a rate of 1 °C or greater per metre of depth 3.37 morphometry basin shape, or form, which expresses how water depth varies with surface area (hypsographic curve) and includes both mean and maximum water depth NOTE Basis for deriving indices used for morphometric analysis of important lake functions. 3.38 near-shore sub-system includes all shore features typically associated with the littoral zone as well as islands and shallow water features such as sand bars or shoals 3.39 open water (off-shore) sub-system includes circulatory basins and major embayments extending to either the silt–sand sediment boundary or the attached plant boundary, typically linked to the pelagic zone SIST EN 16039:2012

EN 16039:2011 (E) 11 3.40 outflow condition character of the outflow which may be natural or modified by raising or lowering and which may involve engineering structures 3.41 pelagic zone open water zone extending from the littoral zone to the centre of a lake NOTE In the deeper parts of the pelagic zone (known as the profundal zone) light does not penetrate and there is no photosynthetic activity. 3.42 planform view of lake shape from above EXAMPLE Elongate, circular, etc., and also relevant in relation to the shoreline development index which expresses the degree of irregularity of a lake compared with a circular form of the same area. 3.43 reference conditions conditions which are totally, or nearly totally undisturbed by human activity 3.44 riparian vegetation structure physical character of the vegetation that creates habitat in the riparian zone 3.45 riparian zone area of land adjoining the lake capable of directly influencing the condition of the aquatic ecosystem (e.g. by shading and leaf litter input) 3.46 shoreline length length of the lake perimeter at mean annual water level NOTE In practice, lake perimeter is derived from a relevant scaled topographic map. 3.47 shore reinforcement work undertaken to prevent or mitigate erosion on the banks and shore of a lake NOTE Hard engineering uses materials such as concrete walls, gabion baskets and sheet piling, whilst soft engineering uses natural materials such as basket-work and planted vegetation such as willow saplings to stabilise banks. 3.48 shore zone comprises riparian, eulittoral and littoral zones around the perimeter of a lake 3.49 substrate (substratum) natural sediment or engineered surfaces comprising the shore and bed of a lake NOTE Natural sediments are generally characterised by texture and organic matter content, while artificial substrates are described by their construction materials (see Annex B). 3.50 water level regime range, frequency and timing of water level fluctuations

SIST EN 16039:2012

EN 16039:2011 (E) 12 3.51 wave base water depth to which wind-driven waves penetrate, thus separating areas of the lake bottom where wave action erodes and transports sediments from the zone below where sedimentation is continuous without resuspension 3.52 wetlands transitional zones between permanently inundated, and generally dry, environments, e.g. marshes (wet ground without peat), fens (groundwater fed peats) and bogs (rain-fed peat systems)

4 Principle This standard describes a protocol for recording the physical features of lake systems, including both their gross morphometry (size and shape of the lake basin and its upstream catchment relations) as well as characterising morphological and hydrological attributes which control the behaviour and functioning of the system. The range of features surveyed, and the methods used for the survey, may vary according to lake type and the objectives of the study. This European Standard provides a common framework recognising the strengths and limitations of different methods and provides guidance on selecting the most appropriate approaches depending on lake size and on the purpose of the exercise. Guidance is given on the hydromorphological features that should be used for characterising lake types and for subsequent assessment of morphological integrity through comparison with reference conditions.

5 Survey requirements 5.1 Lake ‘types’ Every lake is unique, each with a particular genesis, morphometry, catchment/landscape relationship, biogeography and environmental history. Lakes exist within a continuum of size, depth, form, altitude, geology, climate, hydrological regime and catchment characteristics. However, describing and identifying lake ’types’ enables the results of hydromorphological surveys from different types to be compared. In addition, defining ’high status’, type-specific, reference conditions in lakes is a requirement of the WFD, with the aim of comparing the quality of lakes in an equitable and ecologically meaningful way. Some hydromorphological assessment methods are not linked to lake types but can still provide useful information for better lake management; this European Standard therefore includes consideration of such methods. Information required to define lake types can often be derived from maps or catchment-wide databases. Types may be refined by using information gathered during field surveys, or through input from expert opinion. It is recommended that the following factors should be considered in the definition of lake types: Size: Surface area of the lake, catchment area; Depth: Maximum and mean depth, with the latter expressed as three categories - very shallow, shallow and deep (see Table 1); Basin form: Shape of basin (hypsographic form) represented by three categories - convex, concave or linear; Geology: A minimum of three lithological categories, preferably more – e.g. siliceous, calcareous, organic, (or mixed); this principally applies to the catchment because rock type strongly influences hydrological pathways e.g. contrasts surface water supplied versus groundwater fed systems, but also provides a surrogate for alkalinity; Geographical location: Latitude and longitude; SIST EN 16039:2012

EN 16039:2011 (E) 13 Altitude: Altitude of lake, altitude of source within the catchment; Hydrological regime: Quantity and dynamics of the flow expressed especially through water level variability (daily, season

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