Space engineering - Calculation of radiation and its effects and margin policy handbook

This handbook is a part of the System Engineering branch and covers the methods for the calculation of radiation received and its effects, and a policy for design margins. Both natural and man-made sources of radiation (e.g.
radioisotope thermoelectric generators, or RTGs) are considered in the handbook.
This handbook can be applied to the evaluation of radiation effects on all space systems.
This handbook can be applied to all product types w hich exist or operate in space, as w ell as to crew s of on manned space missions.
This handbook complements to EN 16603-10-12 "Methods for the calculation of radiation received and its effects and a policy for the design margin".

Raumfahrttechnik - Handbuch zur Berechnung von Strahlung, Strahlungseffekten und Marginregeln

Ingénierie spatiale - Manuel de calcul du transport des radiations et de leurs effets, et politique des marges

Vesoljska tehnika - Priročnik za izračun sevanja in njegovih učinkov ter za politiko pri načrtovanju mejnih vrednosti

General Information

Status
Published
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - Definitive text made available (DAV) - Publishing
Due Date
29-Sep-2021
Completion Date
29-Sep-2021

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
kSIST-TP FprCEN/CLC/TR 17603-10-12:2021
01-februar-2021

Vesoljska tehnika - Priročnik za izračun sevanja in njegovih učinkov ter za politiko

pri načrtovanju mejnih vrednosti

Space engineering - Calculation of radiation and its effects and margin policy handbook

Raumfahrttechnik - Berechnung der Strahlung und ihrer Auswirkungen sowie Handbuch

zur Margenpolitik

Ingénierie spatiale - Manuel de calcul du rayonnement et de ses effets, et politique de

marge
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: FprCEN/CLC/TR 17603-10-12
ICS:
49.140 Vesoljski sistemi in operacije Space systems and
operations
kSIST-TP FprCEN/CLC/TR 17603-10- en,fr,de
12:2021

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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kSIST-TP FprCEN/CLC/TR 17603-10-12:2021
TECHNICAL REPORT
FINAL DRAFT
FprCEN/CLC/TR 17603-
RAPPORT TECHNIQUE
10-12
TECHNISCHER BERICHT
November 2020
ICS
English version
Space engineering - Calculation of radiation and its effects
and margin policy handbook

Ingénierie spatiale - Manuel de calcul du rayonnement Raumfahrttechnik - Berechnung der Strahlung und

et de ses effets, et politique de marge ihrer Auswirkungen sowie Handbuch zur
Margenpolitik

This draft Technical Report is submitted to CEN members for Vote. It has been drawn up by the Technical Committee

CEN/CLC/JTC 5.

CEN and CENELEC members are the national standards bodies and national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium,

Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy,

Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia,

Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and United Kingdom.

Recipients of this draft are invited to submit, with their comments, notification of any relevant patent rights of which they are

aware and to provide supporting documentation.

Warning : This document is not a Technical Report. It is distributed for review and comments. It is subject to change without

notice and shall not be referred to as a Technical Report.
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre:
Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2020 CEN/CENELEC All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means Ref. No. FprCEN/CLC/TR 17603-10-12:2020 E

reserved worldwide for CEN national Members and for
CENELEC Members.
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Table of contents

European Foreword .................................................................................................... 9

1 Scope ...................................................................................................................... 10

2 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms ............................................................ 11

2.1 Terms from other documents ......................................................................... 11

2.2 Terms specific to the present handbook ........................................................ 11

2.3 Abbreviated terms.......................................................................................... 11

3 Compendium of radiation effects .......................................................................... 12

3.1 Purpose ......................................................................................................... 12

3.2 Effects on electronic and electrical systems ................................................... 14

3.2.1 Total ionising dose ............................................................................... 14

3.2.2 Displacement damage ......................................................................... 14

3.2.3 Single event effects .............................................................................. 15

3.3 Effects on materials ....................................................................................... 16

3.4 Payload-specific radiation effects ................................................................... 16

3.5 Biological effects ............................................................................................ 16

3.6 Spacecraft charging ....................................................................................... 17

3.7 References .................................................................................................... 17

4 Margin ..................................................................................................................... 19

4.1 Introduction .................................................................................................... 19

4.1.1 Application of margins .......................................................................... 19

4.2 Environment uncertainty ................................................................................ 20

4.3 Effects parameters’ uncertainty...................................................................... 21

4.3.1 Overview .............................................................................................. 21

4.3.2 Shielding .............................................................................................. 21

4.3.3 Ionising dose calculation ...................................................................... 22

4.3.4 Non-ionising dose (NIEL, displacement damage) ................................. 22

4.3.5 Single event effects .............................................................................. 22

4.3.6 Effects on sensors................................................................................ 23

4.4 Testing-related uncertainties .......................................................................... 23

4.4.1 Overview .............................................................................................. 23

4.4.2 Beam characteristics ............................................................................ 23

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4.4.3 Radioactive sources ............................................................................. 23

4.4.4 Packaging ............................................................................................ 24

4.4.5 Penetration .......................................................................................... 24

4.4.6 Representativeness ............................................................................. 24

4.5 Procurement processes and device reproducibility ........................................ 24

4.6 Project management decisions ...................................................................... 24

4.7 Relationship with derating .............................................................................. 25

4.8 Typical design margins .................................................................................. 25

4.9 References .................................................................................................... 25

5 Radiation shielding ................................................................................................ 26

5.1 Introduction .................................................................................................... 26

5.2 Radiation transport processes ....................................................................... 26

5.2.1 Overview .............................................................................................. 26

5.2.2 Electrons .............................................................................................. 26

5.2.3 Protons and other heavy particles ........................................................ 28

5.2.4 Electromagnetic radiation – bremsstrahlung......................................... 31

5.3 Ionising dose enhancement ........................................................................... 32

5.4 Material selection ........................................................................................... 32

5.5 Equipment design practice ............................................................................. 33

5.5.1 Overview .............................................................................................. 33

5.5.2 The importance of layout ...................................................................... 33

5.5.3 Add-on shielding .................................................................................. 34

5.6 Shielding calculation methods and tools – Decision on using deterministic
radiation calculations, detailed Monte Carlo simulations, or sector shielding

analysis ......................................................................................................... 35

5.7 Example detailed radiation transport and shielding codes .............................. 44

5.8 Uncertainties .................................................................................................. 44

5.9 References .................................................................................................... 44

6 Total ionising dose ................................................................................................. 47

6.1 Introduction .................................................................................................... 47

6.2 Definition ....................................................................................................... 47

6.3 Technologies sensitive to total ionising dose ................................................. 47

6.4 Total ionising dose calculation ....................................................................... 48

6.5 Uncertainties .................................................................................................. 49

7 Displacement damage ............................................................................................ 50

7.1 Introduction .................................................................................................... 50

7.2 Definition ....................................................................................................... 50

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7.3 Physical processes and modelling ................................................................. 50

7.4 Technologies susceptible to displacement damage ....................................... 54

7.4.1 Overview .............................................................................................. 54

7.4.2 Bipolar .................................................................................................. 55

7.4.3 Charge-coupled devices (CCD)............................................................ 55

7.4.4 Active pixel sensors (APS) ................................................................... 56

7.4.5 Photodiodes ......................................................................................... 56

7.4.6 Laser diodes ........................................................................................ 57

7.4.7 Light emitting diode (LED) .................................................................... 57

7.4.8 Optocouplers ........................................................................................ 57

7.4.9 Solar cells ............................................................................................ 57

7.4.10 Germanium detectors ........................................................................... 58

7.4.11 Glasses and optical components .......................................................... 58

7.5 Radiation damage assessment ...................................................................... 58

7.5.1 Equivalent fluence calculation .............................................................. 58

7.5.2 Calculation approach ........................................................................... 59

7.5.3 3-D Monte Carlo analysis ..................................................................... 59

7.5.4 Displacement damage testing .............................................................. 59

7.6 NIEL rates for different particles and materials .............................................. 59

7.7 Uncertainties .................................................................................................. 67

7.8 References .................................................................................................... 67

8 Single event effects ................................................................................................ 69

8.1 Introduction .................................................................................................... 69

8.2 Modelling ....................................................................................................... 70

8.2.1 Overview .............................................................................................. 70

8.2.2 Notion of LET (for heavy ions) .............................................................. 70

8.2.3 Concept of cross section ...................................................................... 70

8.2.4 Concept of sensitive volume, critical charge and effective LET ............ 71

8.3 Technologies susceptible to single event effects ........................................... 71

8.4 Test methods ................................................................................................. 72

8.4.1 Overview .............................................................................................. 72

8.4.2 Heavy ion beam testing ........................................................................ 72

8.4.3 Proton and neutron beam testing ......................................................... 73

8.4.4 Experimental measurement of SEE sensitivity ..................................... 73

8.4.5 Influence of testing conditions .............................................................. 74

8.5 Hardness assurance ...................................................................................... 75

8.5.1 Rate prediction ..................................................................................... 75

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8.5.2 Prediction of SEE rates for ions............................................................ 75

8.5.3 Improvements ...................................................................................... 78

8.5.4 Method synthesis ................................................................................. 79

8.5.5 Prediction of SEE rates of protons and neutrons .................................. 79

8.5.6 Method synthesis ................................................................................. 80

8.5.7 Calculation toolkit ................................................................................. 81

8.5.8 Applicable derating and mitigating techniques ...................................... 81

8.5.9 Analysis at system level ....................................................................... 81

8.6 Destructive SEE ............................................................................................ 82

8.6.1 Single event latch-up (SEL) and single event snapback (SESB) .......... 82
8.6.2 Single event gate rupture (SEGR) and single event dielectric rupture

(SEDR) ................................................................................................ 84

8.6.3 Single event burnout (SEB) .................................................................. 85

8.7 Non-destructive SEE ..................................................................................... 85

8.7.1 Single event upset (SEU) ..................................................................... 85

8.7.2 Multiple-cell upset (MCU) and single word multiple-bit upset (SMU)..... 86

8.7.3 Single event functional interrupt (SEFI) ................................................ 88

8.7.4 Single event hard error (SEHE) ............................................................ 88

8.7.5 Single event transient (SET) and single event disturb (SED) ................ 89

8.8 References .................................................................................................... 91

9 Radiation-induced sensor backgrounds .............................................................. 95

9.1 Introduction .................................................................................................... 95

9.2 Background in ultraviolet, optical and infrared imaging sensors ..................... 95

9.3 Background in charged particle detectors ...................................................... 99

9.4 Background in X-ray CCDs ............................................................................ 99

9.5 Radiation background in gamma-ray instruments ........................................ 100

9.6 Photomultipliers tubes and microchannel plates .......................................... 103

9.7 Radiation-induced noise in gravity-wave detectors ...................................... 104

9.8 Other problems common to detectors .......................................................... 104

9.9 References .................................................................................................. 104

10 Effects in biological material ............................................................................. 106

10.1 Introduction .................................................................................................. 106

10.2 Quantities used in radiation protection work................................................. 106

10.2.1 Overview ............................................................................................ 106

10.2.2 Protection quantities ........................................................................... 107

10.2.3 Operational quantities ........................................................................ 109

10.3 Radiation effects in biological systems ......................................................... 111

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10.3.1 Overview ............................................................................................ 111

10.3.2 Source of data .................................................................................... 112

10.3.3 Early effects ....................................................................................... 112

10.3.4 Late effects ........................................................................................ 112

10.4 Radiation protection limits in space .............................................................. 114

10.4.1 Overview ............................................................................................ 114

10.4.2 International agreements.................................................................... 115

10.4.3 Other considerations in calculating crew exposure ............................. 115

10.4.4 Radiation limits used by the space agencies of the partners of the

International Space Station (ISS) ....................................................... 116

10.5 Uncertainties ................................................................................................ 119

10.5.1 Overview ............................................................................................ 119

10.5.2 Spacecraft shielding interactions ........................................................ 119

10.5.3 The unique effects of heavy ions ........................................................ 119

10.5.4 Extrapolation from high-dose effects to low-dose effects .................... 120

10.5.5 Variability in composition, space and time .......................................... 120

10.5.6 Effects of depth-dose distribution ....................................................... 120

10.5.7 Influence of spaceflight environment .................................................. 121

10.5.8 Uncertainties summary ...................................................................... 122

10.6 References .................................................................................................. 122

Figures

Figure 1: CSDA range of electrons in example low- and high-Z materials as a function

of electron energy ..................................................................................... 27

Figure 2: Total stopping powers for electrons in example low- and high-Z materials ... 27

Figure 3: Intensity of mono-energetic protons in a beam as a function of integral

pathlength, ................................................................................................ 29

Figure 4: Projected range of protons in example low- and high-Z materials as a function

of proton energy. ....................................................................................... 29

Figure 5: Total stopping powers for protons in example low- and high-Z materials. ..... 30

Figure 6: Stopping power for electrons from collisions with atomic electrons and
bremsstrahlung production, and from bremsstrahlung production alone. ... 31
Figure 12: Five electric effects due to defects in the semiconductor band gap

[RDE.4] ..................................................................................................... 55

Figure 13: SEE initial mechanisms by direct ionisation (for heavy ions) and nuclear

interactions (for protons and neutrons). ..................................................... 69

Figure 22: ISOCAM images for quiet conditions (top) and during solar flare event of

November 1997. ........................................................................................ 97

Figure 23: Predicted and measured background spectra observed in OSSE instrument
on Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory 419 days after launch [RDG.10]. 101
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Figure 25: Relationship of quantities for radiological protection. ................................ 111

Tables

Table 1: Summary of radiation effects parameters, units and examples. ..................... 12

Table 2: Summary of radiation effects and cross-references to other chapters (part 1 of

2) .............................................................................................................. 13

Table 2: Summary of radiation effects and cross-references to other chapters (part 2 of

2) .............................................................................................................. 14

Table 3: Description of physics models (part 1 of 4) .................................................... 37

Table 3: Description of physics models (part 2 of 4) .................................................... 38

Table 3: Description of physics models (part 3 of 4) .................................................... 39

Table 3: Description of physics models (part 4 of 4) .................................................... 40

Table 4: Example radiation transport simulation programs which are applicable to

shielding and effects analysis. ................................................................... 43

Table 5: NIEL rates for electrons incident on Si (from Summers et al based on Si

threshold of 21 eV [RDE.11]) ..................................................................... 60

Table 6: NIEL rates for protons incident on Si (part 1 of 2). This is a subset of NIEL

data from Huhtinen and Aarnio [RDE.12]. ................................................. 61

Table 6: NIEL rates for protons incident on Si (part 2 of 2). This is a subset of NIEL

data from Huhtinen and Aarnio [RDE.12]. ................................................. 62

Table 7: NIEL rates for neutrons incident on Si (part 1 of 2). This is a subset of NIEL

from Griffin et al [RDE.13]. ........................................................................ 63

Table 7: NIEL rates for neutrons incident on Si (part 2 of 3). These data are from

Konobeyev et al [RDE.14]. ........................................................................ 64

Table 7: NIEL rates for neutrons incident on Si (part 3 of 3). This is a subset of NIEL

from Huhtinen and Aarnio [RDE.12]. ......................................................... 65

Table 8: NIEL rates for electrons in Si and GaAs (Akkerman et al [RDE.15]) .............. 66

Table 9: NIEL rates for protons in Si ............................................................................ 66

Table 10: NIEL rates for protons in GaAs. ................................................................... 67

Table 11: Typical materials for UV, visible and IR sensors, with band-gap and electron-

hole production energies (e-h production energy for MCT is based on Klein

semi-empirical formula. ............................................................................. 96

Table 12: Lifetime mortality in a population of all ages from specific cancer after

exposure to low doses. ............................................................................ 113

Table 13: Estimates of the thresholds for deterministic effects in the adult human

testes, ovaries, lens and bone marrow. ................................................... 114

Table 14: CSA career ionising radiation exposure limits. ........................................... 116

Table 15: ESA ionising radiation exposure limits. ...................................................... 116

Table 16: NCRP-132 recommended RBEs. ............................................................... 117

Table 17: NCRP-132 Deterministic dose limits for all ages and genders (Gy-Eq.). .... 117

Table 18: NCRP-132 career ionising radiation exposure limits. ................................. 117

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Table 19: NCRP-132 career effective dose limits for age and gender specific ionising

radiation exposure for 10-year careers. ................................................... 117

Table 20: JAXA short-term ionising exposure limits ................................................... 118

Table 21: JAXA career ionising radiation exposure limits (Sv). .................................. 118

Table 22: JAXA current career exposure limits by age and gender ........................... 118

Table 23: RSA short-term ionising exposure limits. ................................................... 119

Table 24: Russian career ionising radiation exposure limits ...................................... 119

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European Foreword
This document (FprCEN/CLC/TR 17603-10-12:2020) has been prepared by Technical
Committee CEN/CLC/JTC 5 “Space”, the secretariat of which is held by DIN.
This document is currently submitted to the Vote on TR.

It is highlighted that this technical report does not contain any requirement but only

collection of data or descriptions and guidelines about how to organize and perform the

work in support of EN 16603-10-12.
This Technical report (FprCEN/CLC/TR 17603-10-12:2020) originates from ECSS-E-
HB-10-12A.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be

the subject of patent rights. CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall not be held responsible for

identifying any or all such patent rights.
This document has been prepared under a mandate given to CEN by the European
Commission and the European Free Trade Association.

This document has been developed to cover specifically space systems and has therefore

precedence over any TR covering the same scope but with a wider domain of applicability

(e.g.: aerospace).
This document is currently submitted to the CEN CONSULTATION.
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Scope

This handbook is a part of the System Engineering branch and covers the methods for the

calculation of radiation received and its effects, and a policy for design margins. Both

natural and man-made sources of radiation (e.g. radioisotope thermoelectric generators,

or RTGs) are considered in the handbook.

This handbook can be applied to the evaluation of radiation effects on all space systems.

This handbook can be applied to all product types which exist or operate in space, as well

as to crews of on manned space missions.
This handbook complements to EN 16603-10-12 “Methods for the calculation of
radiation received and its effects and a policy for the design margin”.
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Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms
2.1 Terms from other documents

For the purpose of this document, the terms and definitions from ECSS-S-ST-00-01 and

ECSS-E-ST-10-12C apply.
2.2 Terms specific to the present handbook
None.
2.3 Abbreviated terms
The abbrev
...

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