This standard specifies requirements for the durability testing of coatings most commonly used for space applications, i.e.:
-   Thin film optical coatings
-   Thermo-optical and thermal control coatings (the majority are paints, metallic deposits and coatings for stray light reduction)
-   Metallic coatings for other applications (RF, electrical, corrosion protection)
This standard covers testing for both ground and in-orbit phases of a space mission, mainly for satellite applications.
This standard applies to coatings within off the shelf items
This standard specifies the types of test to be performed for each class of coating, covering the different phases of a space project (evaluation, qualification and acceptance)
This standard does not cover:
-   The particular qualification requirements for a specific mission
-   Specific applications of coatings for launchers (e.g. high temperature coatings)
-   Specific functional testing requirements for the different coating classes
-   Test requirements for long term storage
-   Solar cell cover glass coatings
-   Surface treatments and conformal coatings applied on EEE parts

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This Standard specifies the physical interconnection media and data communication protocols to enable the reliable sending of data at high­speed (between 2 Mb/s and 400 Mb/s) from one unit to another. SpaceWire links are full­duplex, point­to­point, serial data communication links.
The scope of this Standard is the physical connectors and cables, electrical properties, and logical protocols that comprise the SpaceWire data link. SpaceWire provides a means of sending packets of information from a source node to a specified destination node. SpaceWire does not specify the contents of the packets of information.
This Standard covers the following protocol levels:
•   Physical level: Defines connectors, cables, cable assemblies and printed circuit board tracks.
•   Signal level: Defines signal encoding, voltage levels, noise margins, and data signalling rates.
•   Character level: Defines the data and control characters used to manage the flow of data across a link.
•   Exchange level: Defines the protocol for link initialization, flow control, link error detection and link error recovery.
•   Packet level: Defines how data for transmission over a SpaceWire link is split up into packets.
•   Network level: Defines the structure of a SpaceWire network and the way in which packets are transferred from a source node to a destination node across a network. It also defines how link errors and network level errors are handled.
This Standard may be tailored for the specific characteristics and constraints of a space project in conformance with ECSS-S-ST-00.

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This Standard defines the requirements for the control of nonconformances.
This Standard applies to all deliverable products and supplies, at all levels, which fail to conform to project requirements.
This Standard is applicable throughout the whole project lifecycle as defined in ECSS-M-ST-10.
This standard may be tailored for the specific characteristics and constrains of a space project in conformance with ECSS-S-ST-00.

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This European Standard defines Technology Readiness Levels (TRLs). It is applicable primarily to space system hardware, although the definitions could be used in a wider domain in many cases.
The definition of the TRLs provides the conditions to be met at each level, enabling accurate TRL assessment.

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This standard addresses the qualification and procurement of printed circuit boards, which are necessary for all type of space projects.

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This Standard specifies the requirements applicable to the concept definition, design, analysis, development, production, test verification and in­orbit operation of space mechanisms on spacecraft and payloads in order to meet the mission performance requirements.
This version of the standard has not been produced with the objective to cover also the requirements for mechanisms on launchers. Applicability of the requirements contained in this current version of the standard to launcher mechanisms is a decision left to the individual launcher project.
Requirements in this Standard are defined in terms of what shall be accomplished, rather than in terms of how to organise and perform the necessary work. This allows existing organizational structures and methods to be applied where they are effective, and for the structures and methods to evolve as necessary without rewriting the standards. Complementary non-ECSS handbooks and guidelines exist to support mechanism design.
This standard may be tailored for the specific characteristic and constrains of a space project in conformance with ECSS-S-ST-00.

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This Standard defines the technical requirements and quality assurance provisions for the manufacture and verification of high-reliability electronic circuits based on surface mounted device (SMD) and mixed technology.
The Standard defines acceptance and rejection criteria for high-reliability manufacture of surface-mount and mixed-technology circuit assemblies intended to withstand normal terrestrial conditions and the vibrational g loads and environment imposed by space flight.
The proper tools, correct materials, design and workmanship are covered by this document. Workmanship standards are included to permit discrimination between proper and improper work.
The assembly of leaded devices to through-hole terminations and general soldering principles are covered in ECSS-Q-ST-70-08.
Requirements related to printed circuit boards are contained in ECSS-Q-ST-70 10, ECSS-Q-ST-70-11 and ECSS-Q-ST-70-12 . The mounting and supporting of devices, terminals and conductors prescribed herein applies to assemblies at PCB level designed to continuously operate over the mission within the temperature limits of -55 C to +85 C.
For temperatures outside this normal range, special design, verification and qualification testing is performed to ensure the necessary environmental survival capability.
Special thermal heat sinks are applied to devices having high thermal dissipation (e.g. junction temperatures of 110 C, power transistors) in order to ensure that solder joints do not exceed 85 C.
Verification of SMD assembly processes is made on test vehicles (surface mount verification samples). Temperature cycling ensures the operational lifetime for spacecraft. However, mechanical testing only indicates SMD reliability as it is unlikely that the test vehicle represents every flight configuration.
This Standard does not cover the qualification and acceptance of the EQM and FM equipment with surface-mount and mixed-technology.
The qualification and acceptance tests of equipment manufactured in accordance with this Standard are covered by ECSS-E-ST-10-03.
This standard may be tailored for the specific characteristics and constraints of a space project, in accordance with ECSS-S-ST-00.

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This Standard defines the requirements for the use of explosives on all spacecraft and other space products including launch vehicles. It addresses the aspects of design, analysis, verification, manufacturing, operations and safety.
This standard may be tailored for the specific characteristics and constraints of a space project in conformance with ECSS-S-ST-00.

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The purpose of this NWIP is to produce an ECSS standard for the Exchange of Thermal Model Data for Space Applications. The standard will be based on a draft standard resulting from an activity performed by ESA only in 2013/2014 called "Standard for Exchange of Thermal Model Data for Space Applications".
The content of the standard is already defined in draft form under the name "STEP-TAS" ("STEP-based draft application protocol for Thermal Analysis for Space"). This protocol has been implemented in a number of thermal analysis tools and is successfully used in both ESA and non-ESA space projects. The maturity of the protocol is therefore well-established.
The global objective of this document is to define and describe the standard protocol for Exchange of Thermal Model Data for Space Applications, previously known as STEP-TAS protocol.

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This ECSS Standard describes the procedures to be used to clean to a level of cleanliness beyond the scope of the ECSS-Q-ST-70-01, and to control the cleanliness level of flight hardware prior to and following a posteriori to the application of the ultracleaning process. The intended objective of the ultracleaning process is to remove all surface contamination (particulates, biologic material cell debris and chemical molecular contamination) on flight hardware, with no specific limit in geometric dimension or contamination levels. This includes removal of biological material for avoidance of false positive results during investigation of extra-terrestrial samples or environments.

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This Standard specifies:
•   Requirements for the following crimping wire terminations intended for high reliability electrical connections for use on customer
spacecraft and associated equipment operating under high vacuum, thermal cycling and launch vibration:
•   removable contacts, single wires
•   removable contacts, multiple wires
•   coaxial connectors, ferrules
•   lugs and splices.
NOTE    These are the most common used crimping wire termination and are represented in Figure 1 1.
•   The general conditions to be met for the approval of terminations other than the above mentioned ones.
NOTE    Additional forms of crimps, not covered in this standard, are listed (not exhaustively) in the informative Annex A.
•   Product assurance provisions for both the specific and the generic terminations mentioned above.
•   Training and certification requirements for operators and inspectors (clause 5.5.2), additional to those specified in ECSS Q ST-20.
This standard may be tailored for the specific characteristics and constraints of a space project, in conformance with ECSS-S-ST-00.

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The purpose of the proposed Standard is to summarise the (general) corrosion protection requirements applicable to the materials, surface treatments, finishing and manufacturing processes used for space flight hardware.
It contains the minimum requirements necessary to guarantee and verify the suitability of materials, coatings systems and processes for corrosion control of space rated products.
The Standard classifies the corrosion environments and requires the issuing of a Corrosion Prevention and Control Plan based on the identified environmental classes. Testing and acceptance criteria are specified for each environmental class.
The scope of the document would include all flight parts and components used for space missions including Ground Support Equipment (GSE), where the materials and processes used in interfacing ground support equipment, test equipment, hardware processing equipment, hardware packaging and hardware shipment are to be controlled in order to prevent damage to or contamination of flight hardware.

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This Standard defines a set of software product assurance requirements to be used for the development and maintenance of software for space systems. Space systems include manned and unmanned spacecraft, launchers, payloads, experiments and their associated ground equipment and facilities. Software includes the software component of firmware.
This Standard also applies to the development or reuse of non­deliverable software which affects the quality of the deliverable product or service provided by a space system, if the service is implemented by software.
ECSS-Q-ST-80 interfaces with space engineering and management, which are addressed in the Engineering (-E) and Management (-M) branches of the ECSS System, and explains how they relate to the software product assurance processes.
This standard may be tailored for the specific characteristic and constraints of a space project in conformance with ECSS-S-ST-00.
Tailoring of this Standard to a specific business agreement or project, when software product assurance requirements are prepared, is also addressed in clause 4.3.

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This Standard specifies the processing and quality assurance requirements for the different types of metallic welding (manual, automatic, semi-automatic and machine) for space flight applications. This standard can also be used for weld activities on space related ground equipment and development models for flight hardware. The Standard covers all welding processes used for joining metallic materials for space applications. This includes, but is not limited to:
-   Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) / Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG), (process 14)
-   Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) / Metal Inert Gas (MIG) (process 13)
-   Plasma Arc Welding (PAW) / Plasma of Transferred Arc (PTA), (process 15)
-   Electron beam welding (EBW), (process 51)
-   Laser beam welding (LBW), (process 52)
-   Friction Stir welding (process 43)
-   Magnetic Pulse welding (process 442)
-   Linear friction welding (process 42)
-   Rotary friction welding (process 42)
The specific process numbers mentioned above are listed according to the standard ISO 4063:2009.
This Standard does not detail the weld definition phase and welding pre-verification phase, including the derivation of design allowables.
This standard may be tailored for the specific characteristic and constraints of a space project in conformance with ECSS-S-ST-00.

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This Standard specifies gyros functions and performances as part of a space project. This Standard covers aspects of functional and performance requirements, including nomenclature, definitions, functions and performance metrics for the performance specification of spaceborne gyros.
The Standard focuses on functional and performance specifications with the exclusion of mass and power, TM/TC interface and data structures.
When viewed from the perspective of a specific project context, the requirements defined in this Standard can be tailored to match the genuine requirements of a particular profile and circumstances of a project.
The requirements verification by test can be performed at qualification level only or also at acceptance level. It is up to the Supplier, in agreement with the customer, to define the relevant verification approach in the frame of a specific procurement, in accordance with clause 5.2 of ECSS-E-ST-10-02.
The present standard does not cover gyro use for launch vehicles.
This standard can be tailored for the specific characteristics and constraints of a space project in conformance with ECSS-S-ST-00.

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This standard defines requirements for two-phase heat transportation equipment (TPHTE), for use in spacecraft thermal control.
This standard is applicable to new hardware qualification activities.
Requirements for mechanical pump driven loops (MPDL) are not included in the present version of this Standard.
This standard includes definitions, requirements and DRDs from ECSS-E-ST-10-02, ECSS-E-ST-10-03, and ECSS-E-ST-10-06 applicable to TPHTE qualification. Therefore, these three standards are not applicable to the qualification of TPHTE.
This standard also includes definitions and part of the requirements of ECSS-E-ST-32-02 applicable to TPHTE qualification.
ECSS-E-ST-32-02 is therefore applicable to the qualification of TPHTE.
This standard does not include requirements for acceptance of TPHTE.
This standard may be tailored for the specific characteristic and constrains of a space project in conformance with ECSS-S-ST-00.

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The target applications covered by this standard are all missions traditionally provided with power distribution and protection by LCLs/RLCLs (science, earth observation, navigation) with exclusion of telecom applications which are traditionally provided with power distribution and protection by fuses.
The present standard applies to power distribution by LCLs/RLCLs for power systems, and in general for satellites, required to be Single Point Failure Free.
The present standard document applies exclusively to the main bus power distribution by LCLs/RLCLs to external satellite loads.
Internal power system protections of LCLs/RLCLs are not covered.
Paralleling of LCLs to increase power supply line reliability is not covered by the present standard, since this choice does not appreciably change the reliability of the overall function (i.e. LCL plus load).
In fact, a typical reliability figure of the LCL (limited to the loss of its switch ON capability) is 20 FIT or less.
If the load to be connected to the LCL line has a substantial higher failure rate than this, it is not necessary to duplicate the LCL to supply that load.

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This Standard defines the dependability assurance programme and the dependability requirements for space systems.
Dependability assurance is a continuous and iterative process throughout the project life cycle.
The ECSS dependability policy for space projects is applied by implementing a dependability assurance programme, which comprises:
-   identification of all technical risks with respect to functional needs which can lead to non-compliance with dependability requirements,
-   application of analysis and design methods to ensure that dependability targets are met,
-   optimization of the overall cost and schedule by making sure that:
-   design rules, dependability analyses and risk reducing actions are tailored with respect to an appropriate severity categorisation,
-   risks reducing actions are implemented continuously since the early phase of a project and especially during the design phase.
-   inputs to serial production activities.
The dependability requirements for functions implemented in software, and the interaction between hardware and software, are identified in this Standard.
NOTE 1   The requirements for the product assurance of software are defined in ECSS-Q-ST-80.
NOTE 2   The dependability assurance programme supports the project risk management process as described in ECSS-M-ST-80
This Standard applies to all European space projects. The provisions of this document apply to all project phases.
Depending of the product category, the application of this standard needs to be checked and if needed tailored. The pre-tailoring table in clause 8 contains the applicability of the requirements of this document and its annexes according to product type.
This standard may be tailored for the specific characteristics and constraints of a space project in conformance with ECSS-S-ST-00.

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This Standard defines the safety programme and the safety technical requirements aiming to protect flight and ground personnel, the launch vehicle, associated payloads, ground support equipment, the general public, public and private property, the space system and associated segments and the environment from hazards associated with European space systems.
This Standard is applicable to all European space projects.
This standard may be tailored for the specific characteristic and constraints of a space project in conformance with ECSS-S-ST-00.

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This Standard addresses the utilization of telecommand packets and telemetry packets for the purposes of remote monitoring and control of spacecraft subsystems and payloads.
   This Standard does not address mission­specific payload data packets, but the rules contained herein can be extended to suit the requirements of any mission.
   This Standard does not address audio and video data as they are not contained within either telecommand or telemetry packets.
   This Standard defines a set of services that satisfy all the fundamental operational requirements for spacecraft monitoring and control during spacecraft integration, testing and flight operations, refer to ECSS-E-ST-70-11. It also specifies the structure and contents of the telecommand packets used to transport the requests and the telemetry packets used to transport the reports.
   This Standard can be used by any mission, no matter what its domain of application, orbit or ground station coverage characteristics. However, it is not the intention that the PUS should be applied in its entirety to a given mission. The services defined in this Standard cover a wide spectrum of operational scenarios and, for a given mission, only a subset of these services is likely to be appropriate.
   Choices are made early in the design phase of a new mission resulting in the need to tailor the PUS to suit the requirements of that mission. These choices include:
•   the on-board system design and architecture, in terms of the number of on-board application processes, their on-board implementation (e.g. the allocation to on-board processors) and their roles (i.e. which functions or subsystems or payloads they support);
•   which PUS services are supported by each application process.
   Each mission usually documents the results of this design and selection process in a "Space-to-Ground Interface Control Document".
   Some missions implement a centralized architecture with a small number of application processes, whilst others have a highly­distributed architecture within which a correspondingly larger number of application processes are distributed across several on-board processors.
   The specification of services in this Standard is adapted to the expectation that different missions require different levels of complexity and capability from a given service. To this end, all services are optional and a given service can be implemented at one of several distinct levels, corresponding to the inclusion of one or more capability sets. The minimum capability set corresponds to the simplest possible level that also remains sensible and coherent. At least this set is included in every implementation of a given service.
   The standardized PUS services fulfil the following criteria:
•   Commonality: each standard service corresponds to a group of capabilities applicable to many missions.
•   Coherence: the capabilities provided by each standard service are closely related and their scope is unambiguously specified. Each standard service covers all the activities for managing inter­related state information and all activities that use that state information.
•   Self-containment: each standard service has minimum and well-defined interactions with other services or on-board functions.
•   Implementation independence: the standard services neither assume nor exclude a particular spacecraft architecture (hardware or software).

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This standard specifies the requirements for the supplier and PCB manufacturer for PCB design.
This standard is applicable for all types of PCBs, including sequential, rigid and flexible PCBs, HDI and RF PCBs.
This standard can be made applicable for other products combining mechanical and electrical functionality using additive or reductive manufacturing processes, as used in PCB manufacturing. Examples of such products are slip rings and bus bars.
This standard may be tailored for the specific characteristics and constraints of a space project in conformance with ECSS-S-ST-00.

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This European Standard specifies the requirements and statements applicable to materials, mechanical parts and processes to satisfy the mission performance requirements.
This standard also specifies the documentation requirements and the procedures relevant to obtaining approval for the use of materials, mechanical parts and processes in the fabrication of space systems and associated equipment.
This standard covers the following:
-   management, including organization, reviews, acceptance status and documentation control;
-   selection criteria and rules;
-   evaluation, validation and qualification, or verification testing;
-   procurement and receiving inspection;
-   utilization criteria and rules.
The relationship between activities and programme phases is defined in Annex E.
The provisions of this standard apply to all actors involved at all levels in the production of space systems. These can include manned and unmanned spacecraft, launchers, satellites, payloads, experiments, electrical ground support equipment, mechanical ground support equipment, and their corresponding organizations.
This standard may be tailored for the specific characteristics and constraints of a space project in conformance with ECSS-S-ST-00.

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ECSS-E-ST-32-08 specifies the mechanical engineering requirements for materials. This Standard also encompasses the mechanical effects of the natural and induced environments to which materials used for space applications can be subjected.
This standard specifies requirements for the establishment of the mechanical and physical properties of the materials to be used for space applications, and the verification of these requirements.
Verification includes destructive and non-destructive test methods. Quality assurance requirements for materials (e.g. procurement and control) are covered by ECSS-Q-ST-70.
This standard may be tailored for the specific characteristics and constrains of a space project in conformance with ECSS-S-ST-00.

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This standard specifies quality assurance and safety assurance requirements for space test centres, applicable to the test process, test personnel (both, of the customer and the space test centre), test facilities, test environment and any operations related to the test specimen under responsibility of the space test centre as requested by the customer.
This standard may be tailored for the specific characteristic and constraints of a space project in conformance with ECSS-S-ST-00.

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The standard specifies requirements to ensure safe handling, storage, transportation of space segment hardware, including associated items to avoid degradation from integration up to launch.
The standard is applicable to: Space systems, Space segments, Assembled Spacecraft, Space segment elements, Spacecraft Modules, space segment subsystems, space segment equipment, partly manufactured space segment equipment. Intended programs are all space programs and target users all space hardware suppliers and customers.
The standard does not cover obsolescence management issues.
This standard may be tailored for the specific characteristic and constrains of a space project in conformance with ECSS-S-ST-00.
NOTE    This standard is applicable to GSE, when mentioned in the different clauses of this standard.

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This Standard specifies the requirements applicable to materials, processes and their data selection to satisfy the mission performance requirements.
This Standard covers the following:
•   selection criteria and rules;
•   utilization criteria and rules.
The provisions of this Standard apply to all actors involved at all levels in the production of space systems. These can include manned and unmanned spacecraft, launchers, satellites, payloads, experiments, electrical ground support equipment, mechanical ground support equipment, and their corresponding organizations.
This standard may be tailored for the specific characteristics and constraints of a space project in conformance with ECSS-S-ST-00.

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Factors affecting the equilibrium temperature of a spacecraft surface are described in this Part 3 using simple geometrical configurations and basic assumptions.
Methods for conducting calculations on the affect of Solar, planetary and albedo radiation are given taking into consideration the internal and immediate environmental factors and incorporating the various configurations and dimensions of the constituent parts.
The Thermal design handbook is published in 16 Parts
TR 17603-31-01 Part 1
Thermal design handbook – Part 1: View factors
TR 17603-31-01 Part 2
Thermal design handbook – Part 2: Holes, Grooves and Cavities
TR 17603-31-01 Part 3
Thermal design handbook – Part 3: Spacecraft Surface Temperature
TR 17603-31-01 Part 4
Thermal design handbook – Part 4: Conductive Heat Transfer
TR 17603-31-01 Part 5
Thermal design handbook – Part 5: Structural Materials: Metallic and Composite
TR 17603-31-01 Part 6
Thermal design handbook – Part 6: Thermal Control Surfaces
TR 17603-31-01 Part 7
Thermal design handbook – Part 7: Insulations
TR 17603-31-01 Part 8
Thermal design handbook – Part 8: Heat Pipes
TR 17603-31-01 Part 9
Thermal design handbook – Part 9: Radiators
TR 17603-31-01 Part 10
Thermal design handbook – Part 10: Phase – Change Capacitors
TR 17603-31-01 Part 11
Thermal design handbook – Part 11: Electrical Heating
TR 17603-31-01 Part 12
Thermal design handbook – Part 12: Louvers
TR 17603-31-01 Part 13
Thermal design handbook – Part 13: Fluid Loops
TR 17603-31-01 Part 14
Thermal design handbook – Part 14: Cryogenic Cooling
TR 17603-31-01 Part 15
Thermal design handbook – Part 15: Existing Satellites
TR 17603-31-01 Part 16
Thermal design handbook – Part 16: Thermal Protection System

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This handbook defines methods for process assessment and improvement that may be used to meet the requirements on
process assessment and improvement of the EN16602-80 (equivalent to ECSS-Q-ST-80C) subclause 5.7. These methods constitute a clear and proven w ay of implementing those requirements. Alternative methods can be used provided that they meet the detailed instructions provided in this handbook for recognition of software process assessment schemes and results and process improvement.
This handbook provides a detailed method for the implementation of the requirements of the EN16602-80 for software process assessment and improvement. It also establishes detailed instructions for alternative methods intended to meet the same EN16602-80 requirements.
The process assessment and improvement scheme presented in this handbook is based on and conformant to the ISO/IEC 15504 International Standard. In designing this process assessment and improvement scheme the ISO/IEC 15504 exemplar process assessment model w as adopted and extended to address specific requirements.
The methods provided in this handbook can support organizations in meeting their business goals and in this context they can be tailored to suit their specific needs and requirements. How ever w hen used to claim compliance with relevant requirements in EN16602-80 only the steps and activities explicitly marked as recommended in this handbook may be omitted or modified.

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This handbook provides assessors with a number of instruments needed to perform software process capability assessments using the assessment method described in EN 17603-80-11 (equivalent to ECSS-Q-HB-80-02 Part 1). It also provides instruments that help assessors to carry out their activities when performing assessments and supporting the implementation of software process improvement initiatives using the method for process improvement described in Part 1.
The instruments provided are:
• The Process Assessment Model (PAM) required to perform assessments including process descriptions and process attribute indicators
• Conformance statement to the requirements in ISO/IEC 15504 Part 2
• A definition of the Process Reference Model (PRM) on which TR 17603-80-11 and TR 17603-80-12 (equivalent to ECSS-Q-HB-80-02 Part 1 and 2) PAM are based (defined in TR 17603-80-11)
• Detailed traces from base practices in the PAM to standard clauses and from work products to expected outputs.

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The scope of this Handbook is the software metrication as part of a space project, i.e. a space system, a subsystem including hardware and software, or ultimately a software product. It is intended to complement the EN 16602-80 (equivalent to ECSS-Q-ST-80) with specific guidelines related to use of different software metrics including their collection, analysis and reporting. Tailoring guidelines for the software metrication process are also provided to help to meet specific project requirements.
This Handbook provides recommendations, methods and procedures that can be used for the selection and application of appropriate metrics, but it does not include new requirements w ith respect to those provided by EN 16602-80 (equivalent to ECSS-ST-Q-80).
The scope of this Handbook covers the following topics:
• Specification of the goals and objectives for a metrication programme.
• Identification of criteria for selection of metrics in a specific project / environment (goal driven).
• Planning of metrication in the development life cycle.
• Interface of metrication with engineering processes.
• Data collection aspects (including use of tools).
• Approach to the analysis of the collected data.
• Feedback into the process and product based on the analysis results.
• Continuous improvement of measurement process.
• Use of metrics for process and product improvement.
This Handbook is applicable to all types of software of all major parts of a space system, including the space segment, the launch service segment and the ground segment software.

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The present handbook is provided to support the implementation of the requirements of ECSS-E-AS-11 to space projects.
With this purpose, this handbook provides guidelines on the w ay to assess the maturity of a technology of a product in a
given environment, to use the TRL assessment outcome in the product development framew ork, and to introduce some
further refinements for specific disciplines or products to w hich the TRL assessment methodology can be extended.
The concept of Manufacturing Readiness Level (MRL) is not addressed in this document, w hilst the concept of TRL can
be applied to the technology-related aspects of manufacturing.

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In this Part 1 of the spacecraft thermal control and design data handbooks, view factors of diffuse and specular thermal surfaces are discussed.
For diffuse surfaces, calculations are given for radiation emission and absorption between different configurations of planar, cylindrical, conical, spherical and ellipsoidal surfaces for finite and infinite surfaces.
For specular surfaces the affect of reflectance on calculations for view factors is included in the calculations. View factors for specular and diffuse surfaces are also included.
The Thermal design handbook is published in 16 Parts
TR 17603-31-01 Part 1
Thermal design handbook – Part 1: View factors
TR 17603-31-01 Part 2
Thermal design handbook – Part 2: Holes, Grooves and Cavities
TR 17603-31-01 Part 3
Thermal design handbook – Part 3: Spacecraft Surface Temperature
TR 17603-31-01 Part 4
Thermal design handbook – Part 4: Conductive Heat Transfer
TR 17603-31-01 Part 5
Thermal design handbook – Part 5: Structural Materials: Metallic and Composite
TR 17603-31-01 Part 6
Thermal design handbook – Part 6: Thermal Control Surfaces
TR 17603-31-01 Part 7
Thermal design handbook – Part 7: Insulations
TR 17603-31-01 Part 8
Thermal design handbook – Part 8: Heat Pipes
TR 17603-31-01 Part 9
Thermal design handbook – Part 9: Radiators
TR 17603-31-01 Part 10
Thermal design handbook – Part 10: Phase – Change Capacitors
TR 17603-31-01 Part 11
Thermal design handbook – Part 11: Electrical Heating
TR 17603-31-01 Part 12
Thermal design handbook – Part 12: Louvers
TR 17603-31-01 Part 13
Thermal design handbook – Part 13: Fluid Loops
TR 17603-31-01 Part 14
Thermal design handbook – Part 14: Cryogenic Cooling
TR 17603-31-01 Part 15
Thermal design handbook – Part 15: Existing Satellites
TR 17603-31-01 Part 16
Thermal design handbook – Part 16: Thermal Protection System

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The structural materials handbook, SMH, combines materials and design information on established polymer matrix composites with provisional information on the emerging groups of newer advanced materials and their composites. Design aspects are described, along with factors associated with joining and manufacturing. Where possible, these are illustrated by examples or case studies.
The Structural materials handbook contains 8 Parts.
A glossary of terms, definitions and abbreviated terms for these handbooks is contained in Part 8.
The parts are as follows:
Part 1 Overview and material properties and applications                    Clauses 1 ‐ 9
Part 2 Design calculation methods and general design aspects    Clauses 10 ‐ 22
Part 3 Load transfer and design of joints and design of structures    Clauses 23 ‐ 32
Part 4 Integrity control, verification guidelines and manufacturing    Clauses 33 ‐ 45
Part 5 New advanced materials, advanced metallic materials, general design aspects and load transfer and design of joints    Clauses 46 ‐ 63
Part 6 Fracture and material modelling, case studies and design and integrity control and inspection    Clauses 64 ‐ 81
Part 7 Thermal and environmental integrity, manufacturing aspects, in‐orbit and health monitoring, soft materials, hybrid materials and nanotechnoligies   Clauses 82 ‐ 107
Part 8 Glossary   
NOTE: The 8 parts will be numbered TR17603-32-01 to TR 17603-32-08

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In this Part 11, the use of electrical heaters and electrical coolers in spacecraft systems are described.
Electrical thermal control is an efficient and reliable method for attaining and maintaining temperatures. Solid state systems provide for flexibility in control of thermal regulation, they are resistant to shock and vibration and can operate in extreme physical conditions such as high and zero gravity levels. They are also easy to integrate into spacecraft subsystems.
The Thermal design handbook is published in 16 Parts
TR 17603-31-01 Part 1
Thermal design handbook – Part 1: View factors
TR 17603-31-01 Part 2
Thermal design handbook – Part 2: Holes, Grooves and Cavities
TR 17603-31-01 Part 3
Thermal design handbook – Part 3: Spacecraft Surface Temperature
TR 17603-31-01 Part 4
Thermal design handbook – Part 4: Conductive Heat Transfer
TR 17603-31-01 Part 5
Thermal design handbook – Part 5: Structural Materials: Metallic and Composite
TR 17603-31-01 Part 6
Thermal design handbook – Part 6: Thermal Control Surfaces
TR 17603-31-01 Part 7
Thermal design handbook – Part 7: Insulations
TR 17603-31-01 Part 8
Thermal design handbook – Part 8: Heat Pipes
TR 17603-31-01 Part 9
Thermal design handbook – Part 9: Radiators
TR 17603-31-01 Part 10
Thermal design handbook – Part 10: Phase – Change Capacitors
TR 17603-31-01 Part 11
Thermal design handbook – Part 11: Electrical Heating
TR 17603-31-01 Part 12
Thermal design handbook – Part 12: Louvers
TR 17603-31-01 Part 13
Thermal design handbook – Part 13: Fluid Loops
TR 17603-31-01 Part 14
Thermal design handbook – Part 14: Cryogenic Cooling
TR 17603-31-01 Part 15
Thermal design handbook – Part 15: Existing Satellites
TR 17603-31-01 Part 16
Thermal design handbook – Part 16: Thermal Protection System

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This handbook is dedicated to the subject of thermal analysis for space applications. Thermal analysis is an important method of verification during the development of space systems. The purpose of this handbook is to provide thermal analysts with practical guidelines which support efficient and high quality thermal modelling and analysis.
Specifically, the handbook aims to improve:
1.the general comprehension of the context, drivers and constraints for thermal analysis campaigns;
2.the general quality of thermal models through the use of a consistent process for thermal modelling;
3.the credibility of thermal model predictions by rigorous verification of model results and outputs;
4.long term maintainability of thermal models via better model management, administration and documentation;
5.the efficiency of inter-organisation collaboration by setting out best practice for model transfer and conversion.
The intended users of the document are people, working in the domain of space systems, who use thermal analysis as part of their work. These users can be in industry, in (inter)national agencies, or in academia. Moreover, the guidelines are designed to be useful to users working on products at every level of a space project - that is to say at system level, sub-system level, unit level etc.
In some cases a guideline could not be globally applicable (for example not relevant for very high temperature applications). In these cases the limitations are explicitly given in the text of the handbook.

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In general terms, the scope of the consolidation of the electrical interface requirements for electrical (hold down and release or deployment) actuators in the present ECSS-E-ST-20-21 and the relevant explanation in the handbook ECSS-E-HB-20-21 is to allow a more recurrent approach both for actuator electronics (power source) and electrical actuators (power load) offered by the relevant manufacturers, at the benefit of the system integrators and of the Agency, thus ensuring:
- better quality,
- stability of performances, and
- independence of the products from specific mission targets.
A recurrent approach enables manufacturing companies to concentrate on products and a small step improvement approach that is the basis of a high quality industrial output.

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This Handbook provides advice, interpretations, elaborations and software engineering best practices for the implementation of the requirements specified in EN 16603-40 (based on ECSS-E-ST-40C). The handbook is intended to be applicable to both flight and ground. It has been produced to complement the EN 16603-40 Standard, in the area where space project experience has reported issues related to the applicability, the interpretation or the feasibility of the Standard. It should be read to clarify the spirit of the Standard, the intention of the authors or the industrial best practices when applying the Standard to a space project.
The Handbook is not a software engineering book addressing the technical description and respective merits of software engineering methods and tools.

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This Standard specifies star sensor performances as part of a space project. The Standard covers all aspects of performances, including nomenclature, definitions, and performance requirements for the performance specification of star sensors.
The Standard focuses on:
- performance specifications (including the impact of temperature, radiation and straylight environments);
- robustness (ability to maintain functionalities under non nominal environmental conditions).
Other specification types, for example mass and power, housekeeping data and data structures, are outside the scope of this Standard.
This Standard also proposes a standard core of functional interfaces defined by unit suppliers and avionics primes in the context of Space AVionics Open Interface aRchitecture (SAVOIR) initiative.
When viewed from the perspective of a specific project context, the requirements defined in this Standard should be tailored to match the genuine requirements of a particular profile and circumstances of a project.
This standard may be tailored for the specific characteristics and constraints of a space project in conformance with ECSS-S-ST-00.

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The structural materials handbook, SMH, combines materials and design information on established polymer matrix composites with provisional information on the emerging groups of newer advanced materials and their composites. Design aspects are described, along with factors associated with joining and manufacturing. Where possible, these are illustrated by examples or case studies.
The Structural materials handbook contains 8 Parts.
A glossary of terms, definitions and abbreviated terms for these handbooks is contained in Part 8.
The parts are as follows:
Part 1 Overview and material properties and applications                    Clauses 1 ‐ 9
Part 2 Design calculation methods and general design aspects    Clauses 10 ‐ 22
Part 3 Load transfer and design of joints and design of structures    Clauses 23 ‐ 32
Part 4 Integrity control, verification guidelines and manufacturing    Clauses 33 ‐ 45
Part 5 New advanced materials, advanced metallic materials, general design aspects and load transfer and design of joints    Clauses 46 ‐ 63
Part 6 Fracture and material modelling, case studies and design and integrity control and inspection    Clauses 64 ‐ 81
Part 7 Thermal and environmental integrity, manufacturing aspects, in‐orbit and health monitoring, soft materials, hybrid materials and nanotechnoligies   Clauses 82 ‐ 107
Part 8 Glossary   
NOTE: The 8 parts will be numbered TR17603-32-01 to TR 17603-32-08

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The structural materials handbook, SMH, combines materials and design information on established polymer matrix composites with provisional information on the emerging groups of newer advanced materials and their composites. Design aspects are described, along with factors associated with joining and manufacturing. Where possible, these are illustrated by examples or case studies.
The Structural materials handbook contains 8 Parts.
A glossary of terms, definitions and abbreviated terms for these handbooks is contained in Part 8.
The parts are as follows:
Part 1 Overview and material properties and applications                    Clauses 1 ‐ 9
Part 2 Design calculation methods and general design aspects    Clauses 10 ‐ 22
Part 3 Load transfer and design of joints and design of structures    Clauses 23 ‐ 32
Part 4 Integrity control, verification guidelines and manufacturing    Clauses 33 ‐ 45
Part 5 New advanced materials, advanced metallic materials, general design aspects and load transfer and design of joints    Clauses 46 ‐ 63
Part 6 Fracture and material modelling, case studies and design and integrity control and inspection    Clauses 64 ‐ 81
Part 7 Thermal and environmental integrity, manufacturing aspects, in‐orbit and health monitoring, soft materials, hybrid materials and nanotechnoligies   Clauses 82 ‐ 107
Part 8 Glossary   
NOTE: The 8 parts will be numbered TR17603-32-01 to TR 17603-32-08

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Fluid loops are used to control the temperature of sensitive components in spacecraft systems in order to ensure that they can function correctly.
While there are several methods for thermal control (such as passive thermal insulations, thermoelectric devices, phase change materials, heat pipes and short-term discharge systems), fluid loops have a specific application area.
This Part 13 provides a detailed description of fluid loop systems for use in spacecraft.
The Thermal design handbook is published in 16 Parts:
TR 17603-31-01-31-01 Part 1A    Thermal design handbook – Part 1: View factors
TR 17603-31-01-31-01 Part 2A    Thermal design handbook – Part 2: Holes, Grooves and Cavities
TR 17603-31-01-31-01 Part 3A    Thermal design handbook – Part 3: Spacecraft Surface Temperature
TR 17603-31-01-31-01 Part 4A    Thermal design handbook – Part 4: Conductive Heat Transfer
TR 17603-31-01-31-01 Part 5A    Thermal design handbook – Part 5: Structural Materials: Metallic and Composite
TR 17603-31-01-31-01 Part 6A    Thermal design handbook – Part 6: Thermal Control Surfaces
TR 17603-31-01-31-01 Part 7A    Thermal design handbook – Part 7: Insulations
TR 17603-31-01-31-01 Part 8A    Thermal design handbook – Part 8: Heat Pipes
TR 17603-31-01-31-01 Part 9A    Thermal design handbook – Part 9: Radiators
TR 17603-31-01-31-01 Part 10A    Thermal design handbook – Part 10: Phase – Change Capacitors
TR 17603-31-01-31-01 Part 11A    Thermal design handbook – Part 11: Electrical Heating
TR 17603-31-01-31-01 Part 12A    Thermal design handbook – Part 12: Louvers
TR 17603-31-01-31-01 Part 13A    Thermal design handbook – Part 13: Fluid Loops
TR 17603-31-01-31-01 Part 14A    Thermal design handbook – Part 14: Cryogenic Cooling
TR 17603-31-01-31-01 Part 15A    Thermal design handbook – Part 15: Existing Satellites
TR 17603-31-01-31-01 Part 16A    Thermal design handbook – Part 16: Thermal Protection System

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The structural materials handbook, SMH, combines materials and design information on established polymer matrix composites with provisional information on the emerging groups of newer advanced materials and their composites. Design aspects are described, along with factors associated with joining and manufacturing. Where possible, these are illustrated by examples or case studies.
The Structural materials handbook contains 8 Parts.
A glossary of terms, definitions and abbreviated terms for these handbooks is contained in Part 8.
The parts are as follows:
Part 1 Overview and material properties and applications                    Clauses 1 ‐ 9
Part 2 Design calculation methods and general design aspects    Clauses 10 ‐ 22
Part 3 Load transfer and design of joints and design of structures    Clauses 23 ‐ 32
Part 4 Integrity control, verification guidelines and manufacturing    Clauses 33 ‐ 45
Part 5 New advanced materials, advanced metallic materials, general design aspects and load transfer and design of joints    Clauses 46 ‐ 63
Part 6 Fracture and material modelling, case studies and design and integrity control and inspection    Clauses 64 ‐ 81
Part 7 Thermal and environmental integrity, manufacturing aspects, in‐orbit and health monitoring, soft materials, hybrid materials and nanotechnoligies   Clauses 82 ‐ 107
Part 8 Glossary   
NOTE: The 8 parts will be numbered TR17603-32-01 to TR 17603-32-08

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Heat pipes are a solution to many thermal dissipation problems encountered in space systems.
The types of heat pipes that can be used in spacecrafts are described. Details on design and construction, usability, compatibility and the limitations of each type are given.
The Thermal design handbook is published in 16 Parts
TR 17603-31-01 Part 1
Thermal design handbook – Part 1: View factors
TR 17603-31-01 Part 2
Thermal design handbook – Part 2: Holes, Grooves and Cavities
TR 17603-31-01 Part 3
Thermal design handbook – Part 3: Spacecraft Surface Temperature
TR 17603-31-01 Part 4
Thermal design handbook – Part 4: Conductive Heat Transfer
TR 17603-31-01 Part 5
Thermal design handbook – Part 5: Structural Materials: Metallic and Composite
TR 17603-31-01 Part 6
Thermal design handbook – Part 6: Thermal Control Surfaces
TR 17603-31-01 Part 7
Thermal design handbook – Part 7: Insulations
TR 17603-31-01 Part 8
Thermal design handbook – Part 8: Heat Pipes
TR 17603-31-01 Part 9
Thermal design handbook – Part 9: Radiators
TR 17603-31-01 Part 10
Thermal design handbook – Part 10: Phase – Change Capacitors
TR 17603-31-01 Part 11
Thermal design handbook – Part 11: Electrical Heating
TR 17603-31-01 Part 12
Thermal design handbook – Part 12: Louvers
TR 17603-31-01 Part 13
Thermal design handbook – Part 13: Fluid Loops
TR 17603-31-01 Part 14
Thermal design handbook – Part 14: Cryogenic Cooling
TR 17603-31-01 Part 15
Thermal design handbook – Part 15: Existing Satellites
TR 17603-31-01 Part 16
Thermal design handbook – Part 16: Thermal Protection System

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This handbook provides additional information for the application of the verification standard EN 16603-10-02 to a space system product.
This handbook does not contain requirements and therefore cannot be made applicable. In case of conflict betw een the standard and this handbook, the standard prevails.
This handbook is relevant for both the customer and the supplier of the product during all project phases.
To facilitate the cross-reference, this handbook follow s as much as is practical, the structure of the standard and quotes the requirements, to make itself standing and easier to read (the text from the standard is in italic).
As the Standard applies to different products at different product levels from single equipment to the overall system (including space segment hardw are and softw are, launchers and Transportation Systems, ground segment, Verification tools, and GSE) several examples of tailoring, to match the specificity of each application, are proposed in Annex B.
Specific discipline related verification aspects are covered in other dedicated standards and handbooks. In particular the detailed aspects for Testing are covered in the EN 16603-10-03 and in its corresponding handbook.
The application of the requirements of the standard to a particular project is intended to result in effective product
verification and consequently to a high confidence in achieving successful product operations for the intended use, in this respect this handbook has the goal to help reaching these objectives.

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This standard specifies NDI requirements for flight parts, components and structures used for space missions. It covers the NDI methods and stipulates the certification levels for personnel. The qualification of such processes are also specified for non-standard NDI techniques or where complex components are concerned. This standard also identifies the best practice across the large range of international and national standards.
Visual inspection included in this standard is not intended to include incoming inspection of, for example, raw materials, damage during transport, storage and handling and parts procurement verification.
The minimum requirements for NDI documentation are specified in the DRDs of the Annexes.
This standard does not cover the acceptance criteria of components, structures and parts submitted to this examination; it is expected that these criteria are identified on specific program application documentation.
This Standard does not apply to EEE components.
This standard may be tailored for the specific characteristic and constrains of a space project in conformance with ECSS-S-ST-00.

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In the standard CCSDS 132.0-B-2, TM Space Data Link Protocol, CCSDS specifies a data link layer protocol for the
efficient transfer of space application data of various types and characteristics over space links.
This Adoption Notice adopts and applies CCSDS 132.0-B-2 w ith a minimum set of modifications, identified in the present
document, to allow for reference and for a consistent integration in the ECSS system of standards.
The TM Transfer Frame specified in CCSDS 132.0-B-2 is similar to the TM Transfer Frame specified in the EN 16603-50-
03:2014 (ECSS-E-ST-50-03), that is superseded by the follow ing tw o Adoption Notices: EN 16603-50-22 (ECSS-E-AS-
50-22) and EN 16603-50-23 (ECSS-E-AS-50-23).
Differences betw een these tw o standards that are not covered by the normative modifications in clause 4 are described in
the informative Annex A.

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In this Part 9 of the spacecraft thermal control and design data handbooks, view factors of diffuse and specular thermal surfaces are discussed.
For diffuse surfaces, calculations are given for radiation emission and absorption between different configurations of planar, cylindrical, conical, spherical and ellipsoidal surfaces for finite and infinite surfaces.
For specular surfaces the affect of reflectance on calculations for view factors is included in the calculations. View factors for specular and diffuse surfaces are also included.
The Thermal design handbook is published in 16 Parts
TR 17603-31-01 Part 1
Thermal design handbook – Part 1: View factors
TR 17603-31-01 Part 2
Thermal design handbook – Part 2: Holes, Grooves and Cavities
TR 17603-31-01 Part 3
Thermal design handbook – Part 3: Spacecraft Surface Temperature
TR 17603-31-01 Part 4
Thermal design handbook – Part 4: Conductive Heat Transfer
TR 17603-31-01 Part 5
Thermal design handbook – Part 5: Structural Materials: Metallic and Composite
TR 17603-31-01 Part 6
Thermal design handbook – Part 6: Thermal Control Surfaces
TR 17603-31-01 Part 7
Thermal design handbook – Part 7: Insulations
TR 17603-31-01 Part 8
Thermal design handbook – Part 8: Heat Pipes
TR 17603-31-01 Part 9
Thermal design handbook – Part 9: Radiators
TR 17603-31-01 Part 10
Thermal design handbook – Part 10: Phase – Change Capacitors
TR 17603-31-01 Part 11
Thermal design handbook – Part 11: Electrical Heating
TR 17603-31-01 Part 12
Thermal design handbook – Part 12: Louvers
TR 17603-31-01 Part 13
Thermal design handbook – Part 13: Fluid Loops
TR 17603-31-01 Part 14
Thermal design handbook – Part 14: Cryogenic Cooling
TR 17603-31-01 Part 15
Thermal design handbook – Part 15: Existing Satellites
TR 17603-31-01 Part 16
Thermal design handbook – Part 16: Thermal Protection System

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The document defines the requirements for the interfaces of simulation models between simulation
environments.

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This handbook provides a compilation of different techniques that can be used to mitigate the adverse effects of radiation in integrated circuits (ICs), with almost exclusive attention to Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs) and Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) to be used in space, and excluding other ICs like power devices, MMIC or sensors.
The target users of this handbook are developers and users of ICs which are meant to be used in a radiation environment. Following a bottom-up order, the techniques are presented according to the different stages of an IC development flow where they can be applied. Therefore, users of this handbook can be IC engineers involved in the selection, use or development of IC manufacturing processes, IC layouts and ASIC standard cell libraries, analogue and digital circuit designs, FPGAs, embedded memories, embedded software and the immediate electronic system (printed circuit board) containing the IC that can experience the radiation effects.
In addition, this handbook contains an overview of the space radiation environment and its effects in semiconductor devices, a section on how to validate the good implementation and effectiveness of the mitigation techniques, and a special section providing some general guidelines to help with the selection of the most adequate mitigation techniques including some examples of typical space project scenarios.
The information given in this ECSS Handbook is provided only as guidelines and for reference, and not to be used as requirements. ECSS Standards provide requirements that can be made applicable, while, ECSS Handbooks provide guidelines.

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This Part 4 of the spacecraft thermal control and design data handbooks, provides information on calculating the conductive heat transfer rate for a variety of two and three-dimensional configurations.
Calculations for the conductance of the interface between two surfaces (joints) require special consideration and are included as a separate clause.
The Thermal design handbook is published in 16 Parts
TR 17603-31-01 Part 1
Thermal design handbook – Part 1: View factors
TR 17603-31-01 Part 2
Thermal design handbook – Part 2: Holes, Grooves and Cavities
TR 17603-31-01 Part 3
Thermal design handbook – Part 3: Spacecraft Surface Temperature
TR 17603-31-01 Part 4
Thermal design handbook – Part 4: Conductive Heat Transfer
TR 17603-31-01 Part 5
Thermal design handbook – Part 5: Structural Materials: Metallic and Composite
TR 17603-31-01 Part 6
Thermal design handbook – Part 6: Thermal Control Surfaces
TR 17603-31-01 Part 7
Thermal design handbook – Part 7: Insulations
TR 17603-31-01 Part 8
Thermal design handbook – Part 8: Heat Pipes
TR 17603-31-01 Part 9
Thermal design handbook – Part 9: Radiators
TR 17603-31-01 Part 10
Thermal design handbook – Part 10: Phase – Change Capacitors
TR 17603-31-01 Part 11
Thermal design handbook – Part 11: Electrical Heating
TR 17603-31-01 Part 12
Thermal design handbook – Part 12: Louvers
TR 17603-31-01 Part 13
Thermal design handbook – Part 13: Fluid Loops
TR 17603-31-01 Part 14
Thermal design handbook – Part 14: Cryogenic Cooling
TR 17603-31-01 Part 15
Thermal design handbook – Part 15: Existing Satellites
TR 17603-31-01 Part 16
Thermal design handbook – Part 16: Thermal Protection System

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