Safety of machinery - Ergonomics requirements for the design of displays and control actuators - Part 1: General principles for human interactions with displays and control actuators

This European Standard applies to the design of displays and control actuators on machinery. It specifies general principles for human interaction with displays and control actuators, to minimise operator errors and to ensure an efficient interaction between the operator and the equipment. It is particularly important to observe these principles when an operator error may lead to injury or damage to health.

Sicherheit von Maschinen - Ergonomische Anforderungen an die Gestaltung von Anzeigen und Stellteilen - Teil 1: Allgemeine Leitsätze für Benutzer-Interaktion mit Anzeigen und Stellteilen

Diese Europäische Norm gilt für die Gestaltung von Anzeigen und Stellteilen an Maschinen. Sie legt die allgemeinen Grundsätze für die Benutzer-Interaktion mit Anzeigen und Stellteilen fest, um Fehler des Benutzers auf ein Minimum zu reduzieren und eine effektive Interaktion zwischen Mensch und Maschine sicherzustellen. Die Beachtung der Grundsätze ist besonders dann wichtig, wenn ein Fehler des Benutzers zu Verletzungen oder gesundheitlichen Schäden führen kann.

Sécurité des machines - Spécifications ergonomiques pour la conception des dispositifs de signalisation et des organes de service - Partie 1: Principes généraux des interactions entre l'homme et les dispositifs de signalisation et organes de service

La présente norme européenne s'applique à la conception des dispositifs de signalisation et des organes de service
des machines. Elle spécifie les principes généraux des interactions entre l'homme et ces dispositifs pour réduire au
minimum les risques d'erreur humaine et assurer une interaction efficace entre l'opérateur et l'équipement. Le respect
de ces principes est particulièrement important lorsqu'une erreur de l'opérateur peut induire des risques en matière
de santé ou de sécurité.

Varnost strojev - Ergonomske zahteve za načrtovanje prikazovalnikov in krmilnih stikal - 1. del: Splošna načela za interakcije človeka s prikazovalniki in krmilnimi stikali

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
30-Sep-2008
Current Stage
9093 - Decision to confirm - Review Enquiry
Completion Date
26-Feb-2021

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN 894-1:2000+A1:2008
01-december-2008
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Safety of machinery - Ergonomics requirements for the design of displays and control

actuators - Part 1: General principles for human interactions with displays and control

actuators
Sicherheit von Maschinen - Ergonomische Anforderungen an die Gestaltung von

Anzeigen und Stellteilen - Teil 1: Allgemeine Leitsätze für Benutzer-Interaktion mit

Anzeigen und Stellteilen

Sécurité des machines - Spécifications ergonomiques pour la conception des dispositifs

de signalisation et des organes de service - Partie 1: Principes généraux des interactions

entre l'homme et les dispositifs de signalisation et organes de service
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN 894-1:1997+A1:2008
ICS:
13.110 Varnost strojev Safety of machinery
13.180 Ergonomija Ergonomics
SIST EN 894-1:2000+A1:2008 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN 894-1:2000+A1:2008
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SIST EN 894-1:2000+A1:2008
EUROPEAN STANDARD
EN 894-1:1997+A1
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
October 2008
ICS 13.110; 13.180 Supersedes EN 894-1:1997
English Version
Safety of machinery - Ergonomics requirements for the design of
displays and control actuators - Part 1: General principles for
human interactions with displays and control actuators

Sécurité des machines - Spécifications ergonomiques pour Sicherheit von Maschinen - Ergonomische Anforderungen

la conception des dispositifs de signalisation et des an die Gestaltung von Anzeigen und Stellteilen - Teil 1:

organes de service - Partie 1: Principes généraux des Allgemeine Leitsätze für Benutzer-Interaktion mit Anzeigen

interactions entre l'homme et les dispositifs de signalisation und Stellteilen
et organes de service

This European Standard was approved by CEN on 3 January 1997 and includes Amendment 1 approved by CEN on 14 August 2008.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European

Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national

standards may be obtained on application to the CEN Management Centre or to any CEN member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation

under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN Management Centre has the same status as the

official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland,

France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal,

Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
Management Centre: rue de Stassart, 36 B-1050 Brussels

© 2008 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN 894-1:1997+A1:2008: E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN 894-1:2000+A1:2008
EN 894-1:1997+A1:2008 (E)
Contents Page

Foreword..............................................................................................................................................................3

Introduction .........................................................................................................................................................4

1 Scope ......................................................................................................................................................4

2 Normative references ............................................................................................................................4

3 Definitions ..............................................................................................................................................4

4 Design principles for operator-task relationships .............................................................................5

4.1 Suitability for the task ...........................................................................................................................5

4.1.1 Principle of function allocation ............................................................................................................6

4.1.2 Principle of complexity .........................................................................................................................6

4.1.3 Principle of grouping.............................................................................................................................6

4.1.4 Principle of identification......................................................................................................................7

4.1.5 Principle of operational relationship ...................................................................................................7

4.2 Self-descriptiveness..............................................................................................................................7

4.2.1 Principle of information availability.....................................................................................................7

4.3 Controllability.........................................................................................................................................7

4.3.1 Principle of redundancy........................................................................................................................8

4.3.2 Principle of accessibility.......................................................................................................................8

4.3.3 Principle of movement space ...............................................................................................................8

4.4 Conformity with user expectations......................................................................................................8

4.4.1 Principle of compatibility with learning...............................................................................................8

4.4.2 Principle of compatibility with practice...............................................................................................9

4.4.3 Principle of consistency .......................................................................................................................9

4.5 Error tolerance .......................................................................................................................................9

4.5.1 Principle of error correction .................................................................................................................9

4.5.2 Principle of error handling time ...........................................................................................................9

4.6 Suitability for individualisation and learning....................................................................................10

4.6.1 Principle of flexibility...........................................................................................................................10

Annex A (informative) Human information processing.................................................................................11

Annex ZA (informative) !!!!Relationship between this European Standard and the Essential

Requirements of EU Directive 98/37/EC, amended by 98/79/EC"""" ...............................................18

Annex ZB (informative) !!!!Relationship between this European Standard and the Essential

Requirements of EU Directive 2006/42/EC""...................................................................................19

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SIST EN 894-1:2000+A1:2008
EN 894-1:1997+A1:2008 (E)
Foreword

This document (EN 894-1:1997+A1:2008) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 122

“Ergonomics”, the secretariat of which is held by DIN.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identical

text or by endorsement, at the latest by April 2009, and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn at the

latest by December 2009.
This document includes Amendment 1, approved by CEN on 2008-08-14.
This document supersedes EN 894-1:1997.

The start and finish of text introduced or altered by amendment is indicated in the text by tags ! "

This European Standard has been prepared under a mandate given to CEN by the European Commission

and the European Free Trade Association, and supports essential requirements of EU Directive(s).

!For relationship with EU Directive(s), see informative Annexes ZA and ZB, which are integral parts of this

document."

According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the following

countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech

Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia,

Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain,

Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.
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SIST EN 894-1:2000+A1:2008
EN 894-1:1997+A1:2008 (E)
Introduction

This standard has been prepared to be a harmonized standard in the sense of the Machinery Directive and

associated EFTA regulations.
1 Scope

This European Standard applies to the design of displays and control actuators on machinery. It specifies

general principles for human interaction with displays and control actuators, to minimise operator errors and to

ensure an efficient interaction between the operator and the equipment. It is particularly important to observe

these principles when an operator error may lead to injury or damage to health.
2 Normative references

This European Standard incorporates by dated or undated reference, provisions from other publications.

These normative references are cited at the appropriate places in the text and the publications are listed

hereafter. For dated reference subsequent amendments to, or revisions of, any of these publications apply to

this European Standard only when incorporated in it by amendment or revision. For undated references the

latest edition of the publication referred to applies.

EN 292-1, Safety of machinery - Basic concepts, general principles for design - Part 1: Basic terminology,

methodology.

EN 292-2, Safety of machinery - Basic concepts, general principles for design - Part 2: Technical principles

and specifications.

EN 418, Safety of machinery – Emergency stop equipment, functional aspects – Principles for design.

EN 614-1, Safety of machinery – Ergonomics design principles – Part 1: Terminology and general principles.

prEN 894-2, Safety of machinery – Ergonomics requirements for the design of displays and control actuators

– Part 2: Displays.

prEN 894-3, Safety of machinery – Ergonomics requirements for the design of displays and control actuators

– Part 3: Control actuators.

EN ISO 9241-10, Ergonomic requirements for office work with visual display terminals (VDTs) – Part 10:

Dialogue principles.
3 Definitions
For the purposes of this European Standard, the following definitions apply:
3.1
control actuator

the part of the control actuating system that is directly actuated by the operator, e.g. by applying pressure

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SIST EN 894-1:2000+A1:2008
EN 894-1:1997+A1:2008 (E)
3.2
display

device for presenting information that can change with the aim of making things visible, audible or

discriminable by touch (tactile)
3.3
operator

the person or persons given the task of installing, operating, adjusting, maintaining, cleaning, repairing or

transporting machinery [EN 292-1].
4 Design principles for operator-task relationships

Human-machine systems are considered here as closed loops: the machine displays information to the

operator who uses control actuators to affect the machine, which in turn provides feedback to the operator,

etc.

Human-machine systems can comprise any number of man-machine units or subsystems, in which a single

operator interacts with a machine or process. Several subsystems may act independently or interact with each

other. When considering the requirements for a particular human-machine subsystem it is important to assess

how it interacts with the system as a whole.

Moreover, human-machine systems are part of more complex systems. For example, the physical

environment (noise, lighting, etc.) as well as the social and organisational environment can affect the efficient

operation of human-machine systems.

Knowledge of ergonomics principles is the basis for a successful implementation of a human-machine system.

In particular, it is important to ensure that systems are designed as an iterative process between the designer

and the users. EN 614-1 provides a framework for incorporating ergonomics principles in the design process

that shall be taken into account when designing machines. This framework can help designers to take account

of the principles in this standard.

An important factor to consider is the degree to which the human operator is needed in the system in order to

accomplish the given task. The informative annex A summarizes information on the capabilities of humans

when interacting with machines. The designer shall consider if the planned allocation of a particular function in

a man-machine system is in accordance with human capabilities. If this is not the case, the designer shall

redesign the system. A result of the redesign may be a (sub) system without the involvement of an operator.

The overall principle which concerns human-machine systems is that the machine and its associated

elements (displays, controls, instructions, etc) shall be suitable for the operator and the given task. In order to

realise this general principle, the machine system shall be so designed that human characteristics with

respect to physical, psychological and social aspects are considered. The following clauses present

ergonomics principles that shall be considered when designing a human-machine system. Some guidance on

methods which can be used to achieve the principles is also given. It should be noted that this list is not

exhaustive but provides a good indication of practical measures which should be considered. EN ISO 9241-10

gives further information on these principles when applied to software.

When trying to comply with these requirements it is important that the selected solutions shall be tested under

realistic conditions (see EN 614-1).
4.1 Suitability for the task

A human-machine system is suitable for the task if it supports the operator in the safe, effective and efficient

completion of the task.
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SIST EN 894-1:2000+A1:2008
EN 894-1:1997+A1:2008 (E)
4.1.1 Principle of function allocation

The most suitable allocation of functions between the operator and the machine should be decided after

considering the requirements of the task and the strengths and limitations of the human operator.

Application:

Ensure the machine does not place unacceptable demands on the operator in terms of, for example, speed

and accuracy of response, forces required to operate control actuators, vigilance for small changes in display

status.
4.1.2 Principle of complexity

As far as consistent with the task requirements, possibilities shall be offered to reduce complexity. Special

consideration shall be given to the complexity of the task structure and the type and amount of the information

to be processed by the operator.
Application:

When designing human-machine interaction then speed and accuracy are important variables to consider.

Those factors which influence these variables need to be determined.

For example, in check reading, the operator makes a qualitative assessment that the system is within

acceptable boundaries. The accuracy of such readings may be enhanced if the pointers of the displays are

arranged into a pattern so that it is easy to determine if one or several of the pointers deviate from the normal

pattern (see prEN 894-2).
4.1.3 Principle of grouping

Arrange displays and control actuators so that they are easy to use in combination by following procedures for

grouping items.
Application:

Where control actuators and displays are operated in a certain fixed sequence, they shall be arranged in that

sequence. This arrangement helps the operator to remember the sequence and it decreases response time

and leads to fewer errors.

Where control actuators and displays are not operated in a fixed sequence then the grouping should be

determined using the following aspects:
a) The importance for the safe use of the machine;
b) The frequency of use in regular machine operation;

c) The use of elements in a sub-sequence (for example, start up controls like the ignition, choke and starter

on a car);

d) The functional relationship between elements (for example, the wiper and wash controls on a car).

The above aspects are not mutually exclusive and several elements may appear in more than one category.

Consequently the location of displays and control actuators should be arranged so that:

a) The important and frequently used items are in the most accessible positions;
b) Items in sub-sequences are then placed together;
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SIST EN 894-1:2000+A1:2008
EN 894-1:1997+A1:2008 (E)

c) Functionally related items are placed in groups with visual and spatial separation from other items.

Important displays and control actuators, such as those used for emergencies shall be designed and

positioned so that they can be used quickly and accurately. Guidance on emergency stop devices is given in

EN 418.
4.1.4 Principle of identification
Control actuators and displays should be readily identifiable.
Application:

Labels, signs and other informative texts or symbols should be located on or adjacent to their associated

control actuators and displays in such a position that they are visible when the control actuators are operated.

It is generally preferable to place such means of identification either above or on the control actuator or

display.
4.1.5 Principle of operational relationship

Associated control actuators and displays should be arranged to reflect their operational relationships.

Application:

Control actuators should be located adjacent to associated displays so as to make their relationship obvious

to the operator.

The direction of control actuator operation shall be consistent with the direction of associated system

responses and/or display movements (see prEN 894-2 and prEN 894-3).

If a system failure occurs, it shall be identified to the operator as quickly as possible.

4.2 Self-descriptiveness

The human-machine interface should be designed so as to be self-descriptive, this means that the operator

can easily recognise the displays and controls and understand the underlying process.

4.2.1 Principle of information availability

Information about the status of the system shall be readily available at the request of the operator without the

need to interfere with other activities.
Application:

Verification that an operator action has been accepted by the system shall be presented to the operator

without unnecessary delay. If the execution is prolonged, the operator should be informed. When appropriate

the system shall respond instantly and simultaneously to an operator's actuation of the associated control

actuator. With delays greater than 1 s, the perceived association is reduced and preliminary feedback

becomes necessary.
4.3 Controllability

The operator shall dominate the system. This means that the system and its components shall guide the

operator throughout the task during periods when the system is under direct operator control. The operator

shall not be dominated by the workcycle rhythm inherent in the system.
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SIST EN 894-1:2000+A1:2008
EN 894-1:1997+A1:2008 (E)
4.3.1 Principle of redundancy

Provision should be made for additional displays and controls where such redundancy may benefit overall

system safety.
Application:

In certain situations the efficiency and safety of a system depends upon the system's ability to present

redundant information to the operator. Important information should be available from different sources. With

respect to control actuators, some system requirements may demand that a given function can be operated

from different locations in order to maintain speed, accuracy, health and safety.

4.3.2 Principle of accessibility
Information should be readily accessible.
Application:

Ensure the layout places the displays within the operator's field of vision. The important information in terms of

safety and frequently consulted information shall be located in the central areas most frequently scanned by

the eye (see prEN 894-2).

In addition to this general requirement consider that the information may be obscured because of the

positioning of the operator's arms.
4.3.3 Principle of movement space

The body movements that are required to operate control actuators should not cause discomfort for the

operator.
Application:

The space between individual control actuators shall be optimal in order to ensure efficient operation, since

too much space may demand unnecessary movements, while too little space may cause accidental operation.

In order to determine the optimal space it is essential to consider the specific characteristics of each individual

control actuator as well as the overall context in which the control actuators are to be operated, e.g. some

systems are operated by persons wearing gloves.
4.4 Conformity with user expectations

Population stereotypes and other user expectations of how the human-machine interface operates are

powerful influences in determining how an operator will use a particular control actuator or display. Under

stress operators can be expected to revert to population stereotypes even if they have been trained to act in a

contrary manner.
4.4.1 Principle of compatibility with learning

The function, movement, and position of control actuator and display elements shall correspond to what the

operator expects from previous work experience or training.
Application:

What is expected from conventions is important when applying this principle. For example, there is a

stereotype to rotate a dial clockwise to increase a value on a display and to move a control actuator upwards

or to the right to increase the value.
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SIST EN 894-1:2000+A1:2008
EN 894-1:1997+A1:2008 (E)
4.4.2 Principle of compatibility with practice

The function, movement, and position of control actuator and display elements shall correspond to

expectancies based on practical experience in using the system and the relevant manual.

Application:

After some time the operator becomes accustomed to the particular response times exhibited by the system

and develops expectations regarding them. Similar operations shall thus exhibit the same general pattern with

respect to response times. The operator shall be informed if the response time of the system deviates from

what would normally be expected.
4.4.3 Principle of consistency
Similar parts of the human-machine system should operate in a consistent manner.
Application:

The arrangement, function and movement of control actuators, displays and other devices of the system shall

be consistent and not interchanged throughout the system or systems, e.g. related control actuators and

displays shall be arranged in the same order.
A consistent set of codes and symbols shall be used.
4.5 Error tolerance

A system is said to be error tolerant if, despite evident errors in operation, the intended result is achieved with

either no or minimal corrective action.
4.5.1 Principle of error correction

Systems should be able to perform error checking and provide the operator with the means for handling such

errors.
Application:

If the system can correct an operator error in several ways, the operator shall have the chance to select from

these possibilities. However, it could be important to inform the operator about the correct procedure to be

followed.

Enough information shall be provided in critical situations to ensure optimal error handling. If a system failure

occurs it shall be identified to the operator as quickly as possible. Error messages shall be easily understood.

The operator shall be able to execute the necessary actions without extensive information processing and

help from manuals etc. The operator should be able to choose between brief and detailed error information.

4.5.2 Principle of error handling time

The system should provide sufficient time for an operator to reliably recover from any errors.

Application:

Ensure that the operator has sufficient opportunity to identify any errors and make appropriate corrective

actions before the consequences of the errors become critical.

Guidance on how to minimise the likelihood of inadvertent operation of control actuators is presented in prEN

894-3.
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SIST EN 894-1:2000+A1:2008
EN 894-1:1997+A1:2008 (E)
4.6 Suitability for individualisation and learning

A system is suitable for individualisation and learning if it can be adjusted to individual needs.

4.6.1 Principle of flexibility

The system shall be flexible enough to be adapted to differences in personal needs, general physiological and

psychological abilities, learning abilities and cultural differences.
Application:

Where possible, the operator shall be able to influence the speed of interaction.

The experienced operator shall be able to structure the feedback so that it conforms to their level of expertise.

By the same token the inexperienced operator should be able to set the level of feedback at an appropriate

level.

In a complex system, the system should provide the operator with the choice of brief or detailed information

about the system.

Regarding operation, most control actuators can be operated equally well with both hands. However, control

actuators that demand accurate, and/or fast, operation should either be capable of being operated by either

hand or be so designed to allow accurate and/or fast operation by the non-preferred hand.

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SIST EN 894-1:2000+A1:2008
EN 894-1:1997+A1:2008 (E)
Annex A
(informative)
Human information processing
A.0 Introduction

Many criteria and principles of ergonomics are derived from knowledge acquired in the fields of human-

machine systems and general psychology. This Annex presents some of this basic knowledge in terms of an

overview of some principles of human information processing. However, it is to be noted that due to the rapid

theoretical and empirical development in the field, there are many diverging opinions regarding these matters.

The following presentation should thus be regarded as a set of tentative suggestions based on some current

ideas about these issues.

The following approach considers the human mind as an information processing system. In this system three

interacting subsystems are distinguished, namely:
 The perceptual system;
 The cognitive system;
 The motor system.

Although, as mentioned above, it is practice to distinguish among different systems of information processing,

it is important to realise that some of these distinctions often become blurred in the observation of an operator

in a real situation. It is therefore essential to realise that human performance always reflects the interaction

and combinations of many different information processing subsystems and that these interactions may

produce unpredictable results.
A.1 Overview

The presentation below is arranged under the following main sections; attention, perception, cognition, motor

performance and performance shaping factors. Due to the close interrelationship among the systems

discussed under each section, the order of presentation is somewhat arbitrary and is mainly adopted for

heuristic reasons. For example, the issue of memory is discussed under the cognitive section, but as

mentioned above, the characteristics of memory are involved in many of the systems discussed, such as

attention, expectation etc.
A.2 Attention

In many situations, e.g. those involving a human operator in a human-machine system, the person can be

viewed as a single channel processor with capacity to process information from no more than a few sources at

a time.

Attention is normally confined to two main sources, the internal world i.e. thoughts and sensations from the

body, and the external world. Since attention can be described as a limited resource, there may be

competition among attentional resources. For e
...

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