This document provides guidance on aspects of the design of human-system interaction, including conceptual design, user-system interaction design, user interface design and navigation design for interactive systems.
This document applies to all design and development approaches and methodologies, including human-centred design, object-oriented, waterfall, human factors integration (HFI), agile and rapid development.
It is intended for the following types of users:
—     user interface designers, who will apply the guidance during the development process;
—     developers, who will apply the guidance during the design and implementation of system functionality;
—     evaluators, who are responsible for ensuring that products meet the recommendations;
—     designers of user interface development tools and style guides to be used by user interface designers;
—     project managers, who are responsible for managing development processes.

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This document describes information items enabling systematic human-centred design for interactive
systems.
Some of these information items are elaborated by separate International Standards, named the
Common Industry Format (CIF) for usability-related information.
This document provides the framework of information items, including definitions and the content for
each information item.
This document includes the following:
— the intended users of the information items;
— consistent terminology;
— the high-level content structure to be used for documenting each information item.
The information items are intended to be used as part of system-level documentation resulting from
development processes such as those in ISO 9241-210, ISO 9241-220 and ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 7 process
standards (e.g. ISO/IEC/IEEE 15288, ISO/IEC/IEEE 29148).
This document focuses on those information items needed for design, development and evaluation
of usable systems, rather than prescribing a specific process. It is intended to be used in conjunction
with existing International Standards, including the standards of the ISO 9241 series and the SQuaRE
documents.
This document does not prescribe any kind of method, life cycle or process.
NOTE The information items produced by human-centred design activities can be incorporated in design
approaches as diverse as object-oriented, waterfall, HFI (human factors integration), agile and rapid development.

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This document provides an overview of ISO 9241 software ergonomic standards in the form of executive summaries of these standards, in particular the parts in the ISO 9241-1XX family of documents. In addition, it provides executive summaries for ISO 9241-11, ISO 9241-210 and ISO 9241-220, which have specific relevance to the design of software-based interactive systems.
This document is intended for the following types of users:
—     managers, who are involved in planning and managing product, system and/or service development projects, who are to be informed on the human-centred design approach and on guidance on software ergonomics;
—     developers, who will apply the guidance in these documents during the development process (either directly, based on training, or by using tools and style guides which incorporate the guidance);
—     user interface design roles (including interaction designers, information architects, user interface designers, visual designers and content creators), who will apply the guidance in these documents during the creation and design process (either directly, based on training, or by using tools and style guides which incorporate the guidance);
—     user researchers, who are responsible for identifying user needs and inform context of use of a product, system or service;
—     evaluators, who are responsible for ensuring that products, systems or services meet the recommendations contained in these documents;
—     buyers, who will reference these documents in contracts during product procurement;
—     designers of user interface development tools and style guides to be used by user interface designers and developers.
While the documents are applicable to all types of interactive systems, they do not cover the specifics of every context of use, such as safety critical systems and collaborative work.

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This document provides guidance on the design, selection and optimization of non-contacting hand and arm gestures for human-computer interaction. It addresses the assessment of usability and fatigue associated with different gesture set designs and provides recommendations for approaches to evaluating the design and selection of gestures. This document also provides guidance on the documentation of the process for selecting gesture sets.
This document applies to gestures expressed by humans. It does not consider the technology for detecting gestures or the system response when interpreting a gesture. Non-contacting hand gestures can be used for input in a variety of settings, including the workplace or in public settings and when using fixed screens, mobile, virtual reality, augmented reality or mixed-mode reality devices.
Some limitations of this document are:
—    The scope is limited to non-contacting gestures and does not include other forms of inputs. For example, combining gesture with speech, gaze or head position can reduce input error, but these combinations are not considered here.
—    The scope is limited to non-contacting arm, hand and finger gestures, either unilateral (one-handed) or bilateral (two-handed).
—    The scope assumes that all technological constraints are surmountable. Therefore, there is no consideration of technological limitations with interpreting ultra-rapid gestures, gestures performed by people of different skin tones or wearing different colours or patterns of clothing.
—    The scope is limited to UI-based command-and-control human computer interaction (HCI) tasks and does not include gaming scenarios, although the traversal of in-game menus and navigation of UI elements is within scope.
—    The scope does not include HCI tasks for which an obviously more optimal input method exists. For example, speech input is superior for inputting text than gesture input.
—    The scope includes virtual reality (VR), augmented reality (AR) and mixed reality (MR) and the use of head-mounted displays (HMDs).
—    The scope does not include the discoverability of gestures but does include the learnability and memorability of gestures. It is assumed that product documentation and tutorials will adequately educate end users about which gestures are possible. Therefore, assessing gesture discoverability is not a primary goal of the recommendations in this document.

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This document provides information relating to the specification of liquid crystal display (LCD) screens at visual display workstations in indoor locations, in accordance with ISO 9241-307:2008, 5.2. The information is limited to LCD screens, since these are typically used at workstations.
The information is intended to support managerial decision makers (e.g. procurement operators, companies’ safety committees, occupational safety and health professionals) who are responsible for the acquisition of visual displays.

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This document is intended to provide guidance in the use of anthropometric data within the ISO 9241-500 series.

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This document establishes the requirements and recommendations for image contents and electronic display systems to reduce visually induced motion sickness (VIMS), while viewing images on electronic displays.
This document is applicable to electronic display systems, including flat panel displays, projectors with a screen, and virtual reality (VR) type of head mounted displays (HMDs), but not including HMDs that present electronic images on/with real-world scenes.
NOTE 1  This document assumes the images are viewed under appropriate defined conditions. See Annex B for the appropriate viewing conditions.
NOTE 2  This document is useful for the design, development, and supply of image contents, as well as electronic displays for reducing VIMS.
NOTE 3  ISO 9241‑392[3] provides guidelines for stereoscopic 3D displays, of which the methods are also used in HMDs.
NOTE 4  The International Telecommunication Union (ITU) generally sets the standards for broadcasting.

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This document provides both general and specific ergonomic requirements and recommendations for accessible tactile/haptic interactive systems, including accessible tactile/haptic interactions.
This document provides guidance for increasing the accessibility of interactive systems making use of tactile/haptic input/output modalities such as gestures, vibration, and force feedback. The guidance provided also supports alternative input modalities and the use of different output representations.
This document provides guidance for tactile/haptic interactions that is applicable to a variety of interactive systems, including assistive technologies (AT).

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ISO 9241-940:2017
-      describes the types of methods that can be used for the evaluation of haptic devices and of systems that include haptic devices,
-      specifies a procedure for the evaluation of haptic interactions by a usability walkthrough or usability test (see Annex J), and
-      provides guidance on the types of methods that are appropriate for the evaluation of specific attributes of haptic systems, cross-referenced to the guidance in the relevant clauses of other International Standards (see Annexes A, B, C, D, E, F and G).
It applies to the following types of interaction:
-      augmented reality - information overlaid on a real scene, e.g. vibrating belt indicating distance;
-      gesture control of a device or a virtual scenario;
-      unidirectional interaction such as a vibrating phone or a vibrating belt;
-      virtual environment - virtual space with which a user can interact with the aid of a haptic device.
ISO 9241-940:2017 applies to the following types of devices:
-      gesture sensor, e.g. video that discerns 3D hand movements, touch screens that sense 2D touches;
-      kinaesthetic haptic device, e.g. desktop haptic interface;
-      tactile display, e.g. vibrating phone.
ISO 9241-940:2017 is not applicable to standard input devices such as keyboards, mice or track balls.
NOTE       ISO 9241‑400 covers standard input devices, and ISO 9241‑411 applies to the evaluation of input devices such as keyboards and mice.
ISO 9241-940:2017 can be used to identify the types of methods and measures for
-      establishing benchmarks,
-      establishing requirements for haptic interaction,
-      identifying problems with haptic interaction (formative evaluation), and
-      use of the criteria to establish whether a haptic system meets requirements (summative evaluation).

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This document provides:
a) an introduction to the importance of accessibility to human-system interaction;
b) a discussion of the relationship of principles within the ISO 9241 series and accessibility;
c) descriptions of activities related to the processes in ISO 9241-210 that focus on accessibility;
d) references to standards relevant to the accessibility of interactive systems.

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This document describes the different parts of the ISO 11064 series. The overall content of each of the parts is presented, the most likely users of that part and the relevance of each part to different stages in the control room design process.

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This document provides an overview of recent research on readability of electrophoretic displays. It also provides information for evaluating readability of electrophoretic displays and defining the context of their use.

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This document addresses:
—     physically embodied RIA systems, such as robots and autonomous vehicles with which users will physically interact;
—     systems embedded within the physical environment with which users do not consciously interact, but which collect data and/or modify the environment within which people live or work such as smart building and, mood-detection;
—     intelligent software tools and agents with which users actively interact through some form of user interface;
—     intelligent software agents which act without active user input to modify or tailor the systems to the user's behaviour, task or some other purpose, including providing context specific content/information, tailoring adverts to a user based on information about them, user interfaces that adapt to the cognitive or physiological state, "ambient intelligence";
—     the effect on users resulting from the combined interaction of several RIA systems such as conflicting behaviours between the RIA systems under the same circumstances;
—     the complex system-of-systems and sociotechnical impacts of the use of RIA systems, particularly on society and government.
This document is not an exploration of the philosophical, ethical or political issues surrounding robotics, artificial intelligence, machine learning, and intelligent machines or environments. For matters of ethics and political issues, see standards such as BS 8611 and IEC P7000. However, this document does identify where and why ethical issues need to be taken into account for a wide range of systems and contexts, and as such it provides information relevant to the broader debate regarding RIA systems.
This document has a broader focus than much of the early work on autonomy that relates to the automation of control tasks and mechanization of repetitive physical or cognitive tasks, and centres on levels of automation.
Although this document addresses a wide range of technology applications, and sector and stakeholder views on the issues, the treatment of each can be incomplete due to the diverse and increasingly varied applications of RIA systems.

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This document provides guidance for the auditory presentation of information controlled by software, irrespective of the device. It includes specific properties such as the syntactic or semantic aspects of information, e.g. coding techniques, and gives provisions for the organization of information taking account of human perception and memory capabilities.
This document does not address the hardware issues of the transmission and the production of auditory information.
NOTE 1  Volume is dependent on hardware and thus cannot always be absolutely controlled by software. Environmental conditions can also affect the ability for sounds to be perceived, which can be beyond the ability of the software to take into account.
This document does not apply to auditory alarms, warnings or other safety-related uses of auditory information.
NOTE 2  Safety-related uses of auditory presentation of information are covered in various domain specific standards, such as ISO 7731:2003 which deals with auditory danger signals for public and work areas, and IEC 60601-1-8:2006 which provides very specific requirements for auditory alarms for medical devices.
While this document applies to the presentation of all non-safety-related information, it does not include application domain specific guidance (e.g., audio instructions for consumer products).
This document can be utilized throughout the design process (e.g. as specification and guidance for designers during design or as a basis for heuristic evaluation). Its provisions for the presentation of information depend on the auditory design approach, the task, the user, the environment and the single or multiple technologies that can be used for presenting the information. Consequently, this document cannot be applied without knowledge of the context of use. It is not intended to be used as a prescriptive set of rules to be applied in its entirety but rather assumes that the designer has proper information available concerning task and user requirements and understands the use of available technology.
This document does not address visual or tactile/haptic presentation of information or modality shifting for the presentation of auditory information in other modalities.
NOTE 3  ISO 9241-112 provides high-level ergonomic guidance that applies to all modalities.

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This document gives the scientific summaries of visually induced motion sickness resulting from images presented visually on or by electronic display devices. Electronic displays include flat panel displays, electronic projections on a flat screen, and head-mounted displays.
Different aspects of human-system interaction are covered in other parts of the ISO 9241 series (see Annex A).

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This document provides a framework and consistent terminology for specifying user requirements. It specifies the common industry format (CIF) for a user requirement specification including the content elements and the format for stating those requirements.
NOTE 1    A user requirements specification is the formal documentation of a set of user requirements, which aids in the development and evaluation of usable interactive systems.
In this document, user requirements refers to:
a)    user-system interaction requirements for achieving intended outcomes (including requirements for system outputs and their attributes);
b)    use-related quality requirements that specify the quality criteria associated with the outcomes of users interacting with the interactive system and can be used as criteria for system acceptance.
NOTE 2    ISO/IEC 25030 introduces the concept of quality requirements. The use-related quality requirements in this document are a particular type of quality requirement.
The content elements of a user requirements specification are intended to be used as part of documentation resulting from the activities specified in ISO 9241-210, and from human centred design processes, such as those in ISO 9241-220.
This document is intended to be used by requirements engineers, business analysts, product managers, product owners, and people acquiring systems from third parties.
The CIF series of standards addresses usability-related information (as described in ISO 9241-11 and ISO/IEC TR 25060).
NOTE 3    In addition to usability, user requirements can include other perspectives, such as human-centred quality introduced in ISO 9241-220, and other quality perspectives presented in ISO/IEC 25010, ISO/IEC TS 25011, and ISO/IEC 25030.
NOTE 4    While this document was developed for interactive systems, the guidance can also be applied in other domains.
This document does not prescribe any kind of method, lifecycle or process. The content elements of a user requirements specification can be used in iterative development which includes the elaboration and evolution of requirements (e.g. as in agile development).

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This document describes principles for interaction between a user and a system that are formulated in general terms (i.e. independent of situations of use, application, environment or technology). This document provides a framework for applying those interaction principles and the general design recommendations for interactive systems.
While this document is applicable to all types of interactive systems, it does not cover the specifics of every application domain (e.g. safety critical systems, collaborative work, artificial intelligence features).
It is intended for the following audiences:
—     analysts of requirements (including market requirements, user requirements, and system requirements);
—     designers of user interface development tools and style guides to be used by user interface designers and developers;
—     designers of user interfaces who will apply the guidance during the design activities (either directly, based on training, or by using tools and style guides which incorporate the guidance);
—     developers who will apply the guidance during the development process;
—     evaluators who are responsible for ensuring that products meet the general design recommendations contained in this document;
—     buyers who will reference this document in contracts during product procurement.
This document focuses on interaction principles related to the design of interactions between user and interactive system. ISO 9241-112 provides further guidance on the presentation of information.
This document does not consider any other aspect of design such as marketing, aesthetics and corporate identity.

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ISO/IEC 25066:2016 describes the Common Industry Format (CIF) for reporting usability evaluations. It provides a classification of evaluation approaches and the specifications for the content items (content elements) to be included in an evaluation report based on the selected evaluation approach(es). The intended users of the usability evaluation reports are identified, as well as the situations in which the usability evaluation report can be applied.
The usability evaluation reports in ISO/IEC 25066:2016 are applicable to software and hardware systems, products or services used for predefined tasks (excluding generic products, such as a display screen or a keyboard). The content elements are intended to be used as part of system-level documentation resulting from development processes such as those in ISO 9241‑210 and ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 7 process standards.
The content elements for documenting evaluations can be integrated in any type of process model.
NOTE          For the purpose of establishing process models, ISO/IEC TR 24774 and ISO/IEC 33020 specify the format and conformance requirements for process models, respectively. In addition, ISO/IEC 15289 defines the types and content of information items developed and used in process models for system and software lifecycle management. ISO/IEC 15504‑5 and ISO/IEC 15504‑6 (to be replaced by ISO/IEC 33060) define work products, including information items, for the purpose of process capability assessment. Process models and associated information items for human-centred design of interactive systems are contained in ISO/TR 18529 and ISO/TS 18152.

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This document provides requirements and recommendations for human-centred design principles and activities throughout the life cycle of computer-based interactive systems. It is intended to be used by those managing design processes, and is concerned with ways in which both hardware and software components of interactive systems can enhance human?system interaction.
NOTE      Computer-based interactive systems vary in scale and complexity. Examples include off-the-shelf (shrink-wrap) software products, custom office systems, process control systems, automated banking systems, Web sites and applications, and consumer products such as vending machines, mobile phones and digital television. Throughout this document, such systems are generally referred to as products, systems or services although, for simplicity, sometimes only one term is used.
This document provides an overview of human-centred design activities. It does not provide detailed coverage of the methods and techniques required for human-centred design, nor does it address health or safety aspects in detail. Although it addresses the planning and management of human-centred design, it does not address all aspects of project management.
The information in this document is intended for use by those responsible for planning and managing projects that design and develop interactive systems. It therefore addresses technical human factors and ergonomics issues only to the extent necessary to allow such individuals to understand their relevance and importance in the design process as a whole. It also provides a framework for human factors and usability professionals involved in human-centred design. Detailed human factors/ergonomics, usability and accessibility issues are dealt with more fully in a number of standards including other parts of ISO 9241 (see Annex A) and ISO 6385, which sets out the broad principles of ergonomics.
The requirements and recommendations in this document can benefit all parties involved in human-centred design and development. Annex B provides a checklist that can be used to support claims of conformance with this document.

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This document describes the processes and specifies the outcomes by which human-centred design (HCD) is carried out within organizations. Human-centred design aims to meet requirements for human-centred quality (see Annex E) throughout the life cycle of interactive systems. The processes are described from the viewpoint of those responsible for the analysis, design and evaluation of the human use of interactive systems. The process descriptions include the purpose, benefits, outcomes, typical activities and work products for each process, and are for use in the specification, implementation, assessment and improvement of the activities used for human-centred design and operation in any type of system life cycle. They can also provide the basis for professional development and certification.
The processes are associated with the domains of ergonomics/human factors, human?computer interaction, usability and user experience. This document does not include specific methods for human-centred design, nor does it describe processes for organizational redesign.
The scope of this document does not include other aspects of ergonomics, which include the design of organizations as well as systems for human use, and which extend beyond the domain of design; for example in the forensic analysis of the causes of accidents and in the generation of data and methods of measurement.
NOTE 1    ISO/TS 18152 is a related standard with a broader scope than this document. It includes the organizational processes for the identification and handling of issues related to both users and other stakeholders.
The intended application of this document is computer-based interactive systems. While the processes apply to interactive systems that deliver services, they do not cover the design of those services. The relevant aspects of the processes can also be applied to simple or non-computer?based interactive systems.
NOTE 2    Human-centred design concentrates on the human-centred aspects of design and not on other aspects of design such as mechanical construction, programming or the basic design of services.
The process descriptions in this document provide the basis for a rigorous assessment of an enterprise's capability to carry out human-centred processes in compliance with the ISO/IEC 33000 family of standards.
This document is intended for use by organizations that want to address and improve their treatment of human-centred design of either their internal systems or the products and services they provide, and the procurement of systems and parts of systems. The processes can be applied by small- and medium-sized enterprises as well as by large organizations.
Copyright release for the process descriptions
Users of this document may freely reproduce the process descriptions contained in Clause 9 as part of any process assessment model, or as part of any demonstration of compatibility with this document, so that it can be used for its intended purpose.

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This document establishes optical, geometrical and visual inspection methods for the assessment of a display in various contexts of use according to ISO 9241‑303.

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ISO 9241-11:2018 provides a framework for understanding the concept of usability and applying it to situations where people use interactive systems, and other types of systems (including built environments), and products (including industrial and consumer products) and services (including technical and personal services).
NOTE       In this document, the phrase "object of interest" refers to the system, product or service for which usability is being considered (see 8.1).
ISO 9241-11:2018:
-      explains that usability is an outcome of use;
-      defines key terms and concepts;
-      identifies the fundamentals of usability; and
-      explains the application of the concept of usability.
ISO 9241-11:2018 does not describe specific processes or methods for taking account of usability in design development or evaluation.
The intended users of this document include:
-      usability/ergonomics/human factors professionals;
-      designers and developers of systems, products and services;
-      quality assurance personnel;
-      public and corporate purchasers; and
-      consumer organizations.
The most common applications of this document are in design and evaluation.

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ISO 9241-960:2017 gives guidance on the selection or creation of the gestures to be used in a gesture interface. It addresses the usability of gestures and provides information on their design, the design process and relevant parameters that are to be considered. In addition, it provides guidance on how gestures should be documented. This document is concerned with gestures expressed by a human and not with the system response generated when users are performing these gestures.
NOTE 1    Specific gestures are standardized within ISO/IEC 14754 and the ISO/IEC 30113 series.
NOTE 2    Input devices such as tablets or spatial gesture recognition devices can capture gestures in 2D or 3D. All human gestures are 3D.

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ISO 9241-125:2017 provides guidance for the visual presentation of information controlled by software, irrespective of the device. It includes specific properties such as the syntactic or semantic aspects of information, e.g. coding techniques, and gives provisions for the organization of information taking account of human perception and memory capabilities. Those of its provisions that do not apply to specific types of visual interfaces clearly indicate any limitations to their applicability. It does not address specific details of charts, graphs or information visualization.
ISO 9241-125:2017 can be utilized throughout the design process (e.g. as specification and guidance for designers during design or as a basis for heuristic evaluation). Its provisions for the presentation of information depend upon the visual design approach, the task, the user, the environment and the single or multiple technologies that might be used for presenting the information. Consequently, this document cannot be applied without knowledge of the context of use. It is not intended to be used as a prescriptive set of rules to be applied in its entirety but rather assumes that the designer has proper information available concerning task and user requirements and understands the use of available technology.
Some of the provisions of this document are based on Latin-based language usage and might not apply, or might need to be modified, for use with languages that use other alphabets. In applying those that assume a specific language base (e.g. alphabetic ordering of coding information, items in a list), it is important that care is taken to follow its intent of the standard when translation is required to a different language.
ISO 9241-125:2017 does not address auditory or tactile/haptic presentation of information or modality shifting for the presentation of visual information in other modalities.
NOTE       ISO 9241‑112 provides high-level ergonomic guidance that applies to all modalities.

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ISO/IEC 25063:2014 describes the Common Industry Format (CIF) for context of use descriptions and specifies the contents of both high-level and detailed descriptions of the context of use for an existing, intended, implemented or deployed system. A context-of-use description includes information about the users and other stakeholder groups, the characteristics of each user group, the goals of the users, the tasks of the users, and the environment(s) in which the system is used.
The context of use description is applicable to software and hardware systems, products or services (excluding generic products, such as a display screen or keyboard). It is important to gather and analyse information on the current context in order to understand and then describe the context that will apply in the future system. The context of use description provides a collection of data relevant for analysis, specification, design and evaluation of an interactive system from the perspective of the various user groups and other stakeholders.

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ISO/IEC 25064:2013 describes the Common Industry Format (CIF) for user needs reports, and provides specifications for their contents and format, including the content elements to be provided. User needs reports include both the collection and documentation of information from various sources relevant to user needs, and the analysis and integration of this information into consolidated user needs.
User needs reports are applicable to software and hardware systems, products or services (excluding generic products, such as a display screen or keyboard). The content elements are intended to be used as part of system-level documentation resulting from development processes such as those in ISO 9241-210 and ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 7 process standards. User needs are a major input into the establishment of user requirements.
User needs reports are intended to be used as part of system-level documentation resulting from development processes such as those in ISO 9241-210 and ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 7 process standards.

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ISO 9241-333:2017 specifies ergonomic requirements for stereoscopic displays using glasses designed to produce or facilitate binocular parallax. These requirements are stated as performance specifications, aimed at ensuring effective and comfortable viewing conditions for users, and at reducing visual fatigue caused by stereoscopic images on stereoscopic display using glasses. Test methods and metrology, yielding conformance measurements and criteria, are provided for design evaluation. See Annex B for measurement procedures.
ISO 9241-333:2017 is applicable to temporally or spatially interlaced types of display. These are implemented by flat-panel displays, projection displays, etc.
Stereoscopic displays using glasses can be applied to many contexts of use. However, this document focuses on business and home leisure applications (i.e. observing moving images, games, etc.). Only dark environments are specified in this document.
For technical explanation of display technologies, see Annex C.

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ISO 9241-112:2017 establishes ergonomic design principles for interactive systems related to the software-controlled presentation of information by user interfaces. It applies to the three main modalities (visual, auditory, tactile/haptic) typically used in information and communication technology. These principles apply to the perception and understanding of presented information. These principles are applicable in the analysis, design, and evaluation of interactive systems. This document also provides recommendations corresponding to the principles. The recommendations for each of the principles are not exhaustive and are not necessarily independent from one another.
While this document is applicable to all types of interactive systems, it does not cover the specifics of particular application domains. This document also applies to outputs from interactive systems (such as printed documents, e.g. invoices).
The guidance in this document for presenting information is aimed at helping the user to accomplish tasks. This guidance is not aimed at the presentation of information for other reasons (e.g. corporate branding or advertising).
It is intended for the following types of users:
-      user interface designers, who will apply the guidance during the development process;
-      developers, who will apply the guidance during design and implementation of system functionality;
-      evaluators, who are responsible for ensuring that products meet the recommendations;
-      designers of user interface development tools and style guides to be used by user interface designers;
-      project managers, who are responsible for managing development processes;
-      buyers, who will reference this document during product procurement.

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ISO 9241-392:2015 establishes recommendations for reducing the potential visual discomfort and visual fatigue experienced during viewing of stereoscopic images under defined viewing conditions. Visual fatigue and discomfort might be produced by the stereoscopic optical stimulus of disparate images that were presented binocularly.
ISO 9241-392:2015 is also applicable to the final products of stereoscopic presentations which depend on stereoscopic image content and stereoscopic displays when viewed under appropriate defined conditions. Therefore, the recommendations are intended for people responsible for the design, development, and supply of stereoscopic image content as well as stereoscopic displays.
NOTE 1       See Annex B for appropriate viewing conditions.
The recommendations in this part of ISO 9241 are applicable to stereoscopic displays such as those with glasses and two-view autostereoscopic displays, stereoscopic head-mounted displays, and stereoscopic projectors. Moreover, they are applicable to stereoscopic image content intended to be presented on the above-mentioned stereoscopic displays and stereoscopic presentations that are realized by the combinations of these images and displays.
NOTE 2       Annex C presents numerical criteria as an informative reference.
NOTE 3       Other guidance might need to be established by referring to this part of ISO 9241 when requirements and recommendations specific to each type of stereoscopic image content or stereoscopic display become necessary.
NOTE 4       ITU generally sets the standards for broadcasting.
NOTE 5       ISO 9241‑303:2011, Annex E provides guidelines for virtual displays which are intended for stereoscopic head-mounted displays.

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ISO 9241-920:2009 gives recommendations for tactile and haptic hardware and software interactions. It provides guidance on the design and evaluation of hardware, software, and combinations of hardware and software interactions, including: the design/use of tactile/haptic inputs, outputs, and/or combinations of inputs and outputs, with general guidance on their design/use as well as on designing/using combinations of tactile and haptic interactions for use in combination with other modalities or as the exclusive mode of interaction; the tactile/haptic encoding of information, including textual data, graphical data and controls; the design of tactile/haptic objects, the layout of tactile/haptic space; interaction techniques.
It does not provide recommendations specific to Braille, but can apply to interactions that make use of Braille.
The recommendations given in ISO 9241-920:2009 are applicable to at least the controls of a virtual workspace, but they can also be applied to an entire virtual environment — consistent, in as far as possible, with the simulation requirements.
NOTE          It is recognized that some interactive scenarios might be constrained by the limitation that a real workspace is to be modelled in a virtual environment. Objects can be in suboptimal positions or conditions for haptic interaction by virtue of the situation being modelled.

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ISO 9241-161:2016 describes visual user-interface elements presented by software and provides requirements and recommendations on when and how to use them. This part of ISO 9241 is concerned with software components of interactive systems to make human-system interaction usable as far as the basic interaction aspects are concerned.
ISO 9241-161:2016 provides a comprehensive list of generic visual user-interface elements, regardless of a specific input method, visualization, and platform or implementation technology. The guidance given in this part of ISO 9241 is intended to be used in conjunction with ISO 9241 guidance on dialogue techniques. It recognizes that additional elements can evolve. It also addresses derivates, compositions (assemblies) and states of user-interface elements. It gives requirements and recommendations on selection, usage and dependencies of user-interface elements and their application. It is applicable regardless of a fixed, portable or mobile interactive system.
It does not provide detailed coverage of the methods and techniques required for design of user-interface elements. This part of ISO 9241 does not address implementation (e.g. graphical design of elements) and interaction details for specific input methods or technologies. It does not cover decorative user-interface elements that are intended to address solely aesthetic (hedonic) qualities in the user interface, e.g. background images.
The information in this part of ISO 9241 is intended for use by those responsible for the selection and implementation of visual user-interface elements in interactive systems and for evaluating user interfaces. It is intended for use by those planning and managing platform specific aspects of user interface screen design. It also provides guidance for human factors/ergonomics and usability professionals involved in human-centred design. It addresses technical issues only to the extent necessary to allow users of this part of ISO 9241 to understand the relevance and importance of a consistent interface element usage and selection in the design process as a whole.
Annex A provides a guide to selection of different visual user interface elements depending of their appropriate application.

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ISO 9241-391:2016 provides requirements and recommendations for reducing photosensitive seizures (PSS), while viewing images on electronic displays.
The requirements and recommendations in this part of ISO 9241 are designed to be applied to image contents. By image contents, reference is made to the images independent of the device or environment in which they are displayed.
The requirements and recommendations in this part of ISO 9241 are for the protection of the vulnerable individuals in the viewing population who are photosensitive and who are therefore liable to seizures triggered by flashing lights and regular patterns, including certain repetitive images.
NOTE 1       ITU considers the image safety issues in relation to broadcasting. Some of these are described in ITU-R BT.1702.[2]
NOTE 2       There are some related recommendations in ISO/IEC 40500:2012, W3C Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) 2.0, for web contents accessibility.
NOTE 3       Photosensitive seizures and photosensitive epilepsy, that is, chronic conditions characterized by those repeated seizures are medical conditions. Clinical aspects of photosensitivity appear in Annex C. Visually induced seizures are equivalent to PSS.

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ISO/TR 9241-308:2007 gives guidelines for surface-conduction electron-emitter displays (SED).

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ISO/TR 9241-309:2008 gives guidelines for organic light‑emitting diode (OLED) displays.

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ISO/TR 9241-310:2010 provides a summary of existing knowledge on ergonomics requirements for pixel defects in electronic displays at the time of its publication. It also gives guidance on the specification of pixel defects, visibility thresholds and aesthetic requirements for pixel defects. It does not itself give requirements related to pixel defects, but it is envisaged that its information could be used in the revision of other parts in the ISO 9241 series.

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1 Scope
This part of ISO 9241 specifies evaluation methods for the design of physical input devices for interactive systems. It provides guidance for the laboratory assessment of conformance with ISO 9241-410 for keyboards, mice, pucks, joysticks, trackballs, touch pads, tablets/overlays, touch-sensitive screens, and styli/light pens. Its provisions apply only to keyboards identified as "full-size" or "compact" by the manufacturer, but nevertheless could provide useful guidance in the design of other keyboards. It is not applicable to those of the requirements of ISO 9241-410 that relate to gesture- and voice-input systems.

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ISO 11064-4:2013 specifies ergonomic principles, recommendations and requirements for the design of workstations found in control centres. It covers control workstation design with particular emphasis on layout and dimensions. It is applicable primarily to seated, visual-display-based workstations, although control workstations at which operators stand are also addressed. These different types of control workstation are to be found in applications such as transportation control, process control and security installations. Most of these workstations now incorporate flat-display screens for the presentation of information.

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ISO/TR 9241-331:2012 establishes an ergonomic point of view for the optical properties of autostereoscopic displays (ASDs), with the aim of reducing visual fatigue caused by stereoscopic images on those displays. It gives terminology, performance characteristics and optical measurement methods for ASDs. It is applicable to spatially interlaced autostereoscopic displays (two-view, multi-view and integral displays) of the transmissive and emissive types. These can be implemented by flat-panel displays, projection displays, etc.

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ISO 9241-154:2013 gives guidance on, and requirements for, the user interface design of interactive voice response (IVR) applications. It covers both IVR systems that employ touchtone input and those using automated speech recognition (ASR) as the input mechanism. It is equally applicable to cases in which the caller or the IVR system itself (e.g. in some telemarketing applications) initiates the call. It is intended to be used together with ISO/IEC 13714.

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2011-11-24 EMA: Draft for // vote received in ISO/CS (see notification of 2011-11-23 in dataservice).
2010-08-16 EMA: ENQ draft received in ISO/CS following ISO notification received in dataservice on 2010-08-13.
2009-04-10 EMA: WI created following ISO discrepancy list of April 2009.

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ISO 9241-143:2012 provides requirements and recommendations for the design and evaluation of forms, in which the user fills-in, selects entries for or modifies labelled fields on a "form" or dialogue box presented by the system. Often the system then creates or updates the data associated with the form. Form-based entries typically are in the form of typed input (abbreviations, or full names) or selections from available option lists.
ISO 9241-143:2012 is applicable to forms regardless of the modality in which they are rendered (visual, spatial, vocal); much of its guidance is based on a model of visual and spatial relationship. In addition, it specifies the use of non-text methods for providing forms entries (e.g. list boxes) and pertains to dialogue boxes which utilize form techniques. Guidance is provided on the selection and design of those user-interface elements relevant to forms.
While it covers lists used to enter forms data, menus which are similar to lists are outside its scope (see ISO 9241‑14). It is not applicable to the hardware aspects of forms.
The requirements and recommendations in ISO 9241-143:2012 are applicable throughout the development process (for example, as guidance for designers during design, as a basis for heuristic evaluation, as guidance for usability testing) and in the procurement process.

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ISO 9241-910:2011 provides a framework for understanding and communicating various aspects of tactile/haptic interaction. It defines terms, describes structures and models, and gives explanations related to the other parts of the ISO 9241 "900" subseries. It also provides guidance on how various forms of interaction can be applied to a variety of user tasks.
It is applicable to all types of interactive systems making use of tactile/haptic devices and interactions.
It does not address purely kinaesthetic interactions, such as gestures, although it might be useful for understanding such interactions.

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ISO 9241-420:2011 provides guidance for the selection of input devices for interactive systems, based on ergonomic factors, considering the limitations and capabilities of users and the specific tasks and context of use. It describes methods for selecting a device or a combination of devices for the task at hand. It can also be used for evaluating the acceptability of trade-offs under the existing conditions.
The target users of ISO 9241-420:2011 are user organizations and systems integrators who tailor systems for a given context of use.
It is applicable to the following input devices: keyboards, mice, pucks, joysticks, trackballs, trackpads, tablets and overlays, touch-sensitive screens, styli and light pens. It does not specify design requirements or give recommendations for those devices.

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ISO 9241-303:2011 establishes image-quality requirements, as well as providing guidelines, for electronic visual displays. These are given in the form of generic (independent of technology, task and environment) performance specifications and recommendations that will ensure effective and comfortable viewing conditions for users with normal or adjusted-to-normal eyesight.

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ISO 24503:2011 specifies requirements for the design of tactile dots and tactile bars for use on consumer products to improve accessibility for everyone, including older persons and persons with disabilities.
ISO 24503:2011 is applicable to consumer products used by persons with visual disabilities, and in cases where visual information is not the primary sense used for accomplishing the task.
Alternative tactile methods, such as texture and vibration, and other tactile symbols, such as triangles and squares, are not covered in ISO 24503:2011.
Alternative feedback methods, such as in acoustic and visual modalities, are not covered in ISO 24503:2011.

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ISO 9241-129:2010 provides ergonomics guidance on individualization within interactive systems, including recommendations on where individualization might be appropriate or inappropriate and how to apply individualization.
It focuses on individualization of the software user interface to support the needs of users as individuals or as members of a defined group. It does not recommend specific implementations of individualization mechanisms. It provides guidance on how the various aspects of individualization are made usable and accessible, but does not specify which individualizations are to be included within a system. (Individualizations depend on the specific context of use for which an interactive system is to be designed and/or used, and need to be developed for that specific context of use.)
ISO 9241-129:2010 is not intended to be used in isolation. It deals only with individualization within the context of designing a complete software system. It is intended to be used with ISO 9241-110 and any other parts in the ISO 9241 series applicable to the design of the intended system.
Some of its guidance can also be applied to hardware user interfaces and user interfaces that combine software and hardware.

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This European Standard contains ergonomic requirements for the location and arrangement of displays and control actuators in order to avoid hazards associated with their use.
This European Standard applies to displays and control actuators for machinery and other interactive equipment (e.g. devices and installations, instrument panels, control and monitoring consoles).
This European Standard is not applicable to the location and arrangement of displays and control actuators which are manufactured before the date of its publication as EN.

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This European Standard gives guidance on the selection, design and location of displays to avoid potential ergonomic hazards associated with their use. It specifies ergonomics requirements and covers visual, audible and tactile displays.
It applies to displays used in machinery (e.g. devices and installations, control panels, operating and monitoring consoles) for occupational and private use. Specific ergonomics requirements for visual display terminals (VDTs) used for office tasks are given in the standard EN ISO 9241.

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This European Standard gives guidance on the selection, design and location of control actuators so that they are adapted to the requirements of the operators, are suitable for the control task in question and take account of the circumstances of their use.
It applies to manual control actuators used in equipment for occupational and private use. It is particularly important to observe the recommendations in this European Standard where operating a control actuator may lead to injury or damage to health, either directly or as a result of a human error.

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This European Standard applies to the design of displays and control actuators on machinery. It specifies general principles for human interaction with displays and control actuators, to minimise operator errors and to ensure an efficient interaction between the operator and the equipment. It is particularly important to observe these principles when an operator error may lead to injury or damage to health.

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