This document specifies general requirements for anthropometric databases and their associated reports that contain measurements taken in accordance with ISO 7250-1.
It provides necessary information, such as characteristics of the user population, sampling methods, measurement items and statistics, to make international comparison possible among various population segments. The population segments specified in this document are people who are able to hold the postures specified in ISO 7250-1.
NOTE            The traditional anthropometry defined in ISO 7250-1 is considered to be a necessary complement to 3-D methods, which are used in some countries. Scanned data are verified according to the definitions given in ISO 7250-1 (see ISO 20685-1). State-of-the-art software allows integration of traditional anthropometric measures with those obtained by 3-D imaging.

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This document establishes protocols for testing of 3-D surface-scanning systems in the acquisition of human body shape data and measurements. It does not apply to instruments that measure the motion of individual landmarks.
While mainly concerned with whole-body scanners, this document is also applicable to body-segment scanners (head scanners, hand scanners, foot scanners). It applies to body scanners that measure the human body in a single view. When a hand-held scanner is evaluated, the human operator can contribute to the overall error. When systems are evaluated in which the participant is rotated, movement artefacts can be introduced; these can also contribute to the overall error. This document applies to the landmark positions determined by an anthropometrist. It does not apply to landmark positions automatically calculated by software from the point cloud.
The quality of surface shape of the human body and landmark positions is influenced by the performance of scanner systems and humans, including measurers and participants. This document addresses the performance of scanner systems by using artefacts rather than human participants as test objects.
Traditional instruments are required to be accurate to the millimetre. Their accuracy can be verified by comparing the instrument with a scale calibrated according to an international standard of length. To verify or specify the accuracy of body scanners, a calibrated test object with known form and size is used.
The intended audience is those who use 3-D body scanners to create 3-D anthropometric databases, the users of these data, and body scanner designers and manufacturers. This document intends to provide the basis for agreement on the performance of body scanners between scanner users and scanner providers as well as between 3-D anthropometric database providers and data users.

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This document describes a model [the predicted heat strain (PHS) model] for the analytical determination and interpretation of the thermal stress (in terms of water loss and rectal temperature) experienced by an average person in a hot environment and determines the maximum allowable exposure times within which the physiological strain is acceptable for 95 % of the exposed population (the maximum tolerable rectal temperature and the maximum tolerable water loss are not exceeded by 95 % of the exposed people).
The various terms used in this prediction model and, in particular, in the heat balance, show the influence of the different physical parameters of the environment on the thermal stress experienced by the average person. In this way, this document makes it possible to determine which parameter or group of parameters can be changed, and to what extent, in order to reduce the risk of excessive physiological strain.
In its present form, this method of assessment is not applicable to cases where special protective clothing (e.g. fully reflective clothing, active cooling and ventilation, impermeable coveralls) is worn.
This document does not predict the physiological response of an individual person, but only considers average persons in good health and fit for the work they perform. It is therefore intended to be used by, among others, ergonomists and industrial hygienists, as the outcomes can require expert interpretations. Recommendations about how and when to use this model are given in ISO 8025.

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This document contains test methods for comparing the performance of different ensembles as part of any PPE selection process.
This document does not replace the product standards for the certification of individual items of PPE. It specifies the testing of individual items of PPE as an ensemble, so that the interactions between the individual items of PPE can be evaluated and any adverse interactions between the individual items of PPE, the user and the environment can be identified.
It specifies requirements for testing by either assessing the performance of a PPE ensemble against a benchmark condition (i.e. benchmark testing) or assessing the performance of two or more PPE ensembles against each other (i.e. comparative testing).
This document incorporates examples of laboratory and field tests. It can also be used to assess the performance regarding the ergonomics of an ensemble that incorporates an item of PPE that has never before been incorporated into an ensemble, and the listed methods can be combined into dedicated test batteries for evaluating that ensemble.

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This document describes information items enabling systematic human-centred design for interactive
systems.
Some of these information items are elaborated by separate International Standards, named the
Common Industry Format (CIF) for usability-related information.
This document provides the framework of information items, including definitions and the content for
each information item.
This document includes the following:
— the intended users of the information items;
— consistent terminology;
— the high-level content structure to be used for documenting each information item.
The information items are intended to be used as part of system-level documentation resulting from
development processes such as those in ISO 9241-210, ISO 9241-220 and ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 7 process
standards (e.g. ISO/IEC/IEEE 15288, ISO/IEC/IEEE 29148).
This document focuses on those information items needed for design, development and evaluation
of usable systems, rather than prescribing a specific process. It is intended to be used in conjunction
with existing International Standards, including the standards of the ISO 9241 series and the SQuaRE
documents.
This document does not prescribe any kind of method, life cycle or process.
NOTE The information items produced by human-centred design activities can be incorporated in design
approaches as diverse as object-oriented, waterfall, HFI (human factors integration), agile and rapid development.

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This document provides an overview of ISO 9241 software ergonomic standards in the form of executive summaries of these standards, in particular the parts in the ISO 9241-1XX family of documents. In addition, it provides executive summaries for ISO 9241-11, ISO 9241-210 and ISO 9241-220, which have specific relevance to the design of software-based interactive systems.
This document is intended for the following types of users:
—     managers, who are involved in planning and managing product, system and/or service development projects, who are to be informed on the human-centred design approach and on guidance on software ergonomics;
—     developers, who will apply the guidance in these documents during the development process (either directly, based on training, or by using tools and style guides which incorporate the guidance);
—     user interface design roles (including interaction designers, information architects, user interface designers, visual designers and content creators), who will apply the guidance in these documents during the creation and design process (either directly, based on training, or by using tools and style guides which incorporate the guidance);
—     user researchers, who are responsible for identifying user needs and inform context of use of a product, system or service;
—     evaluators, who are responsible for ensuring that products, systems or services meet the recommendations contained in these documents;
—     buyers, who will reference these documents in contracts during product procurement;
—     designers of user interface development tools and style guides to be used by user interface designers and developers.
While the documents are applicable to all types of interactive systems, they do not cover the specifics of every context of use, such as safety critical systems and collaborative work.

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This document provides guidance on the design, selection and optimization of non-contacting hand and arm gestures for human-computer interaction. It addresses the assessment of usability and fatigue associated with different gesture set designs and provides recommendations for approaches to evaluating the design and selection of gestures. This document also provides guidance on the documentation of the process for selecting gesture sets.
This document applies to gestures expressed by humans. It does not consider the technology for detecting gestures or the system response when interpreting a gesture. Non-contacting hand gestures can be used for input in a variety of settings, including the workplace or in public settings and when using fixed screens, mobile, virtual reality, augmented reality or mixed-mode reality devices.
Some limitations of this document are:
—    The scope is limited to non-contacting gestures and does not include other forms of inputs. For example, combining gesture with speech, gaze or head position can reduce input error, but these combinations are not considered here.
—    The scope is limited to non-contacting arm, hand and finger gestures, either unilateral (one-handed) or bilateral (two-handed).
—    The scope assumes that all technological constraints are surmountable. Therefore, there is no consideration of technological limitations with interpreting ultra-rapid gestures, gestures performed by people of different skin tones or wearing different colours or patterns of clothing.
—    The scope is limited to UI-based command-and-control human computer interaction (HCI) tasks and does not include gaming scenarios, although the traversal of in-game menus and navigation of UI elements is within scope.
—    The scope does not include HCI tasks for which an obviously more optimal input method exists. For example, speech input is superior for inputting text than gesture input.
—    The scope includes virtual reality (VR), augmented reality (AR) and mixed reality (MR) and the use of head-mounted displays (HMDs).
—    The scope does not include the discoverability of gestures but does include the learnability and memorability of gestures. It is assumed that product documentation and tutorials will adequately educate end users about which gestures are possible. Therefore, assessing gesture discoverability is not a primary goal of the recommendations in this document.

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This document provides information relating to the specification of liquid crystal display (LCD) screens at visual display workstations in indoor locations, in accordance with ISO 9241-307:2008, 5.2. The information is limited to LCD screens, since these are typically used at workstations.
The information is intended to support managerial decision makers (e.g. procurement operators, companies’ safety committees, occupational safety and health professionals) who are responsible for the acquisition of visual displays.

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This document establishes methods for determining the composition of groups of persons whose anthropometric characteristics are to be representative of the intended user population of any specific object under test.
This document is applicable to the testing of anthropometric aspects of industrial products and designs having direct contact with the human body or dependent on human body measurements, such as machinery, work equipment, personal protective equipment (PPE), consumer goods, working spaces, architectural details or transportation equipment.
This document is also applicable to the testing of such safety aspects of products that are dependent on human body measurements. It does not deal with other aspects of the task or other requirements, such as perception of information (except geometrical arrangement of the viewing targets) and the use of controls (except their geometrical placement).
Although this document deals with selecting test persons from an anthropometric perspective, similar general principles can be applied for other test variables, e.g. biomechanical aspects.

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This document is intended to provide guidance in the use of anthropometric data within the ISO 9241-500 series.

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This document provides both general and specific ergonomic requirements and recommendations for accessible tactile/haptic interactive systems, including accessible tactile/haptic interactions.
This document provides guidance for increasing the accessibility of interactive systems making use of tactile/haptic input/output modalities such as gestures, vibration, and force feedback. The guidance provided also supports alternative input modalities and the use of different output representations.
This document provides guidance for tactile/haptic interactions that is applicable to a variety of interactive systems, including assistive technologies (AT).

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This document establishes the requirements and recommendations for image contents and electronic display systems to reduce visually induced motion sickness (VIMS), while viewing images on electronic displays.
This document is applicable to electronic display systems, including flat panel displays, projectors with a screen, and virtual reality (VR) type of head mounted displays (HMDs), but not including HMDs that present electronic images on/with real-world scenes.
NOTE 1  This document assumes the images are viewed under appropriate defined conditions. See Annex B for the appropriate viewing conditions.
NOTE 2  This document is useful for the design, development, and supply of image contents, as well as electronic displays for reducing VIMS.
NOTE 3  ISO 9241‑392[3] provides guidelines for stereoscopic 3D displays, of which the methods are also used in HMDs.
NOTE 4  The International Telecommunication Union (ITU) generally sets the standards for broadcasting.

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ISO 9241-940:2017
-      describes the types of methods that can be used for the evaluation of haptic devices and of systems that include haptic devices,
-      specifies a procedure for the evaluation of haptic interactions by a usability walkthrough or usability test (see Annex J), and
-      provides guidance on the types of methods that are appropriate for the evaluation of specific attributes of haptic systems, cross-referenced to the guidance in the relevant clauses of other International Standards (see Annexes A, B, C, D, E, F and G).
It applies to the following types of interaction:
-      augmented reality - information overlaid on a real scene, e.g. vibrating belt indicating distance;
-      gesture control of a device or a virtual scenario;
-      unidirectional interaction such as a vibrating phone or a vibrating belt;
-      virtual environment - virtual space with which a user can interact with the aid of a haptic device.
ISO 9241-940:2017 applies to the following types of devices:
-      gesture sensor, e.g. video that discerns 3D hand movements, touch screens that sense 2D touches;
-      kinaesthetic haptic device, e.g. desktop haptic interface;
-      tactile display, e.g. vibrating phone.
ISO 9241-940:2017 is not applicable to standard input devices such as keyboards, mice or track balls.
NOTE       ISO 9241‑400 covers standard input devices, and ISO 9241‑411 applies to the evaluation of input devices such as keyboards and mice.
ISO 9241-940:2017 can be used to identify the types of methods and measures for
-      establishing benchmarks,
-      establishing requirements for haptic interaction,
-      identifying problems with haptic interaction (formative evaluation), and
-      use of the criteria to establish whether a haptic system meets requirements (summative evaluation).

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This document specifies different methods for the determination of metabolic rate in the context of ergonomics of the thermal working environment. It can also be used for other applications, e.g. the assessment of working practices, the energetic cost of specific jobs or sport activities and the total energy cost of an activity. The methods are classified in four levels of increasing accuracy: level 1, Screening, with a table giving examples of activities with low, moderate and high metabolic rates; level 2, Observation, where the metabolic rate is estimated by a time and motion study; level 3, Analysis, where the metabolic rate is estimated from heart rate recordings or accelerometers measurements; and level 4, Expertise, where more sophisticated techniques are described. The procedure to put into practice these methods is presented and the uncertainties are discussed.

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This document provides:
a) an introduction to the importance of accessibility to human-system interaction;
b) a discussion of the relationship of principles within the ISO 9241 series and accessibility;
c) descriptions of activities related to the processes in ISO 9241-210 that focus on accessibility;
d) references to standards relevant to the accessibility of interactive systems.

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This document describes the different parts of the ISO 11064 series. The overall content of each of the parts is presented, the most likely users of that part and the relevance of each part to different stages in the control room design process.

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This document addresses:
—     physically embodied RIA systems, such as robots and autonomous vehicles with which users will physically interact;
—     systems embedded within the physical environment with which users do not consciously interact, but which collect data and/or modify the environment within which people live or work such as smart building and, mood-detection;
—     intelligent software tools and agents with which users actively interact through some form of user interface;
—     intelligent software agents which act without active user input to modify or tailor the systems to the user's behaviour, task or some other purpose, including providing context specific content/information, tailoring adverts to a user based on information about them, user interfaces that adapt to the cognitive or physiological state, "ambient intelligence";
—     the effect on users resulting from the combined interaction of several RIA systems such as conflicting behaviours between the RIA systems under the same circumstances;
—     the complex system-of-systems and sociotechnical impacts of the use of RIA systems, particularly on society and government.
This document is not an exploration of the philosophical, ethical or political issues surrounding robotics, artificial intelligence, machine learning, and intelligent machines or environments. For matters of ethics and political issues, see standards such as BS 8611 and IEC P7000. However, this document does identify where and why ethical issues need to be taken into account for a wide range of systems and contexts, and as such it provides information relevant to the broader debate regarding RIA systems.
This document has a broader focus than much of the early work on autonomy that relates to the automation of control tasks and mechanization of repetitive physical or cognitive tasks, and centres on levels of automation.
Although this document addresses a wide range of technology applications, and sector and stakeholder views on the issues, the treatment of each can be incomplete due to the diverse and increasingly varied applications of RIA systems.

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This document provides an overview of recent research on readability of electrophoretic displays. It also provides information for evaluating readability of electrophoretic displays and defining the context of their use.

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This document provides guidance for the auditory presentation of information controlled by software, irrespective of the device. It includes specific properties such as the syntactic or semantic aspects of information, e.g. coding techniques, and gives provisions for the organization of information taking account of human perception and memory capabilities.
This document does not address the hardware issues of the transmission and the production of auditory information.
NOTE 1  Volume is dependent on hardware and thus cannot always be absolutely controlled by software. Environmental conditions can also affect the ability for sounds to be perceived, which can be beyond the ability of the software to take into account.
This document does not apply to auditory alarms, warnings or other safety-related uses of auditory information.
NOTE 2  Safety-related uses of auditory presentation of information are covered in various domain specific standards, such as ISO 7731:2003 which deals with auditory danger signals for public and work areas, and IEC 60601-1-8:2006 which provides very specific requirements for auditory alarms for medical devices.
While this document applies to the presentation of all non-safety-related information, it does not include application domain specific guidance (e.g., audio instructions for consumer products).
This document can be utilized throughout the design process (e.g. as specification and guidance for designers during design or as a basis for heuristic evaluation). Its provisions for the presentation of information depend on the auditory design approach, the task, the user, the environment and the single or multiple technologies that can be used for presenting the information. Consequently, this document cannot be applied without knowledge of the context of use. It is not intended to be used as a prescriptive set of rules to be applied in its entirety but rather assumes that the designer has proper information available concerning task and user requirements and understands the use of available technology.
This document does not address visual or tactile/haptic presentation of information or modality shifting for the presentation of auditory information in other modalities.
NOTE 3  ISO 9241-112 provides high-level ergonomic guidance that applies to all modalities.

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This document gives the scientific summaries of visually induced motion sickness resulting from images presented visually on or by electronic display devices. Electronic displays include flat panel displays, electronic projections on a flat screen, and head-mounted displays.
Different aspects of human-system interaction are covered in other parts of the ISO 9241 series (see Annex A).

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This document contains guidance on identifying reliable sources of anthropometric and strength data published since 2000 for the European population under the age of 18 years. It does not contain the anthropometric data itself.
This document is intended to give guidance to the stakeholders such as the standard writers, designers and manufacturers of products for children on how to identify currently available sources of anthropometric data that are relevant to their needs in terms of age/gender groupings, types of anthropometric data. This document also identifies the lack of data for specific applications hence implicitly indicating caution for the stakeholders
This document also provides information about the sources of anthropometric data listed within it. This information includes:
-   Date of survey;
-   Organization who carried out the survey;
-   Geographic limitations of the survey;
-   Size and gender of the population measured or scanned;
-   Types of anthropometric measurements included in them.
This document has two annexes
-   Annex A: Definition of body measurements;
-   Annex B: Existing data sources.

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This document provides a framework and consistent terminology for specifying user requirements. It specifies the common industry format (CIF) for a user requirement specification including the content elements and the format for stating those requirements.
NOTE 1    A user requirements specification is the formal documentation of a set of user requirements, which aids in the development and evaluation of usable interactive systems.
In this document, user requirements refers to:
a)    user-system interaction requirements for achieving intended outcomes (including requirements for system outputs and their attributes);
b)    use-related quality requirements that specify the quality criteria associated with the outcomes of users interacting with the interactive system and can be used as criteria for system acceptance.
NOTE 2    ISO/IEC 25030 introduces the concept of quality requirements. The use-related quality requirements in this document are a particular type of quality requirement.
The content elements of a user requirements specification are intended to be used as part of documentation resulting from the activities specified in ISO 9241-210, and from human centred design processes, such as those in ISO 9241-220.
This document is intended to be used by requirements engineers, business analysts, product managers, product owners, and people acquiring systems from third parties.
The CIF series of standards addresses usability-related information (as described in ISO 9241-11 and ISO/IEC TR 25060).
NOTE 3    In addition to usability, user requirements can include other perspectives, such as human-centred quality introduced in ISO 9241-220, and other quality perspectives presented in ISO/IEC 25010, ISO/IEC TS 25011, and ISO/IEC 25030.
NOTE 4    While this document was developed for interactive systems, the guidance can also be applied in other domains.
This document does not prescribe any kind of method, lifecycle or process. The content elements of a user requirements specification can be used in iterative development which includes the elaboration and evolution of requirements (e.g. as in agile development).

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This document provides ergonomics data for standard developers to use in applying ISO/IEC Guide 71:2014 to address accessibility in standards. These data can also be used by ergonomists and designers to support the development of more accessible products, systems, services, environments, and facilities.
The ergonomics data include quantitative data and knowledge about basic human characteristics and capabilities as well as context-specific and task-specific data, all being based on ergonomics research. The data focused on the effects of ageing and/or consequences of various types of human sensory, physical, and cognitive disabilities. It does not contain general ergonomics data that have no direct relation to ageing or disabilities.
The data presented in this document are not exhaustive due to no available data for some aspects of human characteristics and capabilities with regard to ageing and disabilities.

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This document describes principles for interaction between a user and a system that are formulated in general terms (i.e. independent of situations of use, application, environment or technology). This document provides a framework for applying those interaction principles and the general design recommendations for interactive systems.
While this document is applicable to all types of interactive systems, it does not cover the specifics of every application domain (e.g. safety critical systems, collaborative work, artificial intelligence features).
It is intended for the following audiences:
—     analysts of requirements (including market requirements, user requirements, and system requirements);
—     designers of user interface development tools and style guides to be used by user interface designers and developers;
—     designers of user interfaces who will apply the guidance during the design activities (either directly, based on training, or by using tools and style guides which incorporate the guidance);
—     developers who will apply the guidance during the development process;
—     evaluators who are responsible for ensuring that products meet the general design recommendations contained in this document;
—     buyers who will reference this document in contracts during product procurement.
This document focuses on interaction principles related to the design of interactions between user and interactive system. ISO 9241-112 provides further guidance on the presentation of information.
This document does not consider any other aspect of design such as marketing, aesthetics and corporate identity.

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This document specifies ergonomic requirements and recommendations for consumer product spoken instructions that are provided to guide users in the operation of a product and/or as a means of providing feedback to users about the status/state of a product. Such instructions can be used by persons with or without visual impairments, and are useful for users who have difficulty reading and/or cognitive impairments.
The applicability of the requirements and recommendations described in this document does not depend on the language of the instructions or whether the instructions are provided via recorded human speech or synthesized speech from text.
The requirements and recommendations in this document are applicable to conventional, stand-alone consumer products in general, whose function is limited by characteristics that prevent a user from attaching, installing or using assistive technology in order to use the product. They are not applicable to machines and equipment used for professional work.
This document does not apply to products for which the instructional content and/or the means of presentation are specified in other standards (e.g. medical devices, fire alarms). It also does not provide recommendations or requirements for spoken instructions of Interactive Voice Response (IVR) systems or digital assistants on personal computers or similar devices.
NOTE    ISO 9241‑154 provides recommendations or requirements for IVR systems.
This document does not specify voice sounds of text-to-speech systems or narrative speech used in place of printed instruction manuals and independently from the product.

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This document specifies design requirements and recommendations for indicator lights, mainly LED sourced, on consumer products for use by older people and people with visual disabilities. It does not consider the needs of persons who are blind.
Indicator lights include those that inform users visually about the conditions, changes in functional status and settings, and malfunction of products. They convey information by light on/off, time-modulated intensity, blinking, colour, luminance level, and layout.
This document addresses household and home appliances. It excludes electronic displays presenting characters and graphics, machinery, and appliances in special use for professional, technical, and industrial applications.

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ISO/IEC 25066:2016 describes the Common Industry Format (CIF) for reporting usability evaluations. It provides a classification of evaluation approaches and the specifications for the content items (content elements) to be included in an evaluation report based on the selected evaluation approach(es). The intended users of the usability evaluation reports are identified, as well as the situations in which the usability evaluation report can be applied.
The usability evaluation reports in ISO/IEC 25066:2016 are applicable to software and hardware systems, products or services used for predefined tasks (excluding generic products, such as a display screen or a keyboard). The content elements are intended to be used as part of system-level documentation resulting from development processes such as those in ISO 9241‑210 and ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 7 process standards.
The content elements for documenting evaluations can be integrated in any type of process model.
NOTE          For the purpose of establishing process models, ISO/IEC TR 24774 and ISO/IEC 33020 specify the format and conformance requirements for process models, respectively. In addition, ISO/IEC 15289 defines the types and content of information items developed and used in process models for system and software lifecycle management. ISO/IEC 15504‑5 and ISO/IEC 15504‑6 (to be replaced by ISO/IEC 33060) define work products, including information items, for the purpose of process capability assessment. Process models and associated information items for human-centred design of interactive systems are contained in ISO/TR 18529 and ISO/TS 18152.

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This document provides requirements and recommendations for human-centred design principles and activities throughout the life cycle of computer-based interactive systems. It is intended to be used by those managing design processes, and is concerned with ways in which both hardware and software components of interactive systems can enhance human?system interaction.
NOTE      Computer-based interactive systems vary in scale and complexity. Examples include off-the-shelf (shrink-wrap) software products, custom office systems, process control systems, automated banking systems, Web sites and applications, and consumer products such as vending machines, mobile phones and digital television. Throughout this document, such systems are generally referred to as products, systems or services although, for simplicity, sometimes only one term is used.
This document provides an overview of human-centred design activities. It does not provide detailed coverage of the methods and techniques required for human-centred design, nor does it address health or safety aspects in detail. Although it addresses the planning and management of human-centred design, it does not address all aspects of project management.
The information in this document is intended for use by those responsible for planning and managing projects that design and develop interactive systems. It therefore addresses technical human factors and ergonomics issues only to the extent necessary to allow such individuals to understand their relevance and importance in the design process as a whole. It also provides a framework for human factors and usability professionals involved in human-centred design. Detailed human factors/ergonomics, usability and accessibility issues are dealt with more fully in a number of standards including other parts of ISO 9241 (see Annex A) and ISO 6385, which sets out the broad principles of ergonomics.
The requirements and recommendations in this document can benefit all parties involved in human-centred design and development. Annex B provides a checklist that can be used to support claims of conformance with this document.

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This document presents principles and examples of practical application for the construction of appropriate subjective scales for use in the assessment and evaluation of the physical environment. It does not standardize particular scales.
It considers scales of perception, comfort, preference, acceptability, expression form and tolerance, and environmental components such as thermal, visual, air quality, acoustic and vibration.
It does not consider other scales such as:
—         scales related to the effects of the environment on the ability to read displays or signs, on manual performance or on psychological conditions such as mood, etc.;
—         scales related to pain or scales related to stimuli that can lead to injury.
This document does not present principles of surveys (see Note) or questionnaire design. However, the scales that are developed using this document can be incorporated into surveys or questionnaires.
NOTE       Environmental surveys are described in ISO 28802. ISO 28802 includes scales that are complementary to, and based upon, the principles of scale construction that are described in this document.

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This document describes the processes and specifies the outcomes by which human-centred design (HCD) is carried out within organizations. Human-centred design aims to meet requirements for human-centred quality (see Annex E) throughout the life cycle of interactive systems. The processes are described from the viewpoint of those responsible for the analysis, design and evaluation of the human use of interactive systems. The process descriptions include the purpose, benefits, outcomes, typical activities and work products for each process, and are for use in the specification, implementation, assessment and improvement of the activities used for human-centred design and operation in any type of system life cycle. They can also provide the basis for professional development and certification.
The processes are associated with the domains of ergonomics/human factors, human?computer interaction, usability and user experience. This document does not include specific methods for human-centred design, nor does it describe processes for organizational redesign.
The scope of this document does not include other aspects of ergonomics, which include the design of organizations as well as systems for human use, and which extend beyond the domain of design; for example in the forensic analysis of the causes of accidents and in the generation of data and methods of measurement.
NOTE 1    ISO/TS 18152 is a related standard with a broader scope than this document. It includes the organizational processes for the identification and handling of issues related to both users and other stakeholders.
The intended application of this document is computer-based interactive systems. While the processes apply to interactive systems that deliver services, they do not cover the design of those services. The relevant aspects of the processes can also be applied to simple or non-computer?based interactive systems.
NOTE 2    Human-centred design concentrates on the human-centred aspects of design and not on other aspects of design such as mechanical construction, programming or the basic design of services.
The process descriptions in this document provide the basis for a rigorous assessment of an enterprise's capability to carry out human-centred processes in compliance with the ISO/IEC 33000 family of standards.
This document is intended for use by organizations that want to address and improve their treatment of human-centred design of either their internal systems or the products and services they provide, and the procurement of systems and parts of systems. The processes can be applied by small- and medium-sized enterprises as well as by large organizations.
Copyright release for the process descriptions
Users of this document may freely reproduce the process descriptions contained in Clause 9 as part of any process assessment model, or as part of any demonstration of compatibility with this document, so that it can be used for its intended purpose.

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This document is intended to be used within organizations that embrace and intend to implement the principles of human centredness outlined in ISO 27500.
This document is intended to provide requirements and recommendations on the human factors and ergonomics approach to achieving a successful and sustainable human-centred organization. It outlines managers' responsibilities ranging from organizational strategy to development of procedures and processes enabling human centredness, and the implementation of those procedures and processes.
This document provides requirements and recommendations for managers and the actions to be taken in order for an organization to achieve human centredness.
This document can be used:
a)    by managers to understand and improve human-centred aspects of their activities;
b)    by managers to identify how their staff can improve human-centred aspects of their activities;
c)    to provide a basis for training managers how to be human-centred;
d)    to provide a basis for organizations to evaluate the performance of managers.
It is not a management systems standard. Nor is it intended to prevent the development of standards that are more specific or more demanding.

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This document addresses protocols for the use of 3-D surface-scanning systems in the acquisition of human body shape data and measurements defined in ISO 7250-1 that can be extracted from 3-D scans.
While mainly concerned with whole-body scanners, it is also applicable to body-segment scanners (head scanners, hand scanners, foot scanners).
It does not apply to instruments that measure the location and/or motion of individual landmarks.
The intended audience is those who use 3-D scanners to create 1-D anthropometric databases and the users of 1-D anthropometric data from 3-D scanners. Although not necessarily aimed at the designers and manufacturers of those systems, scanner designers and manufacturers can find it useful in meeting the needs of clients who build and use 1‑D anthropometric databases.

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This document establishes optical, geometrical and visual inspection methods for the assessment of a display in various contexts of use according to ISO 9241‑303.

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ISO 9241-11:2018 provides a framework for understanding the concept of usability and applying it to situations where people use interactive systems, and other types of systems (including built environments), and products (including industrial and consumer products) and services (including technical and personal services).
NOTE       In this document, the phrase "object of interest" refers to the system, product or service for which usability is being considered (see 8.1).
ISO 9241-11:2018:
-      explains that usability is an outcome of use;
-      defines key terms and concepts;
-      identifies the fundamentals of usability; and
-      explains the application of the concept of usability.
ISO 9241-11:2018 does not describe specific processes or methods for taking account of usability in design development or evaluation.
The intended users of this document include:
-      usability/ergonomics/human factors professionals;
-      designers and developers of systems, products and services;
-      quality assurance personnel;
-      public and corporate purchasers; and
-      consumer organizations.
The most common applications of this document are in design and evaluation.

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ISO 10075-1:2017 defines terms in the field of mental workload, covering mental stress and mental strain, and short- and long-term, positive and negative consequences of mental strain. It also specifies the relations between these concepts involved.
In this document, mental workload is regarded as an umbrella or generic term, referring to all the concepts and constructs mentioned in the document and does not have a specified or standardized meaning of its own within the document. This is consistent with the use of the term in ergonomics and its applications, where it can refer to mental stress, mental strain and their effects, i.e. both to the causes and the effects. In this document, the term mental workload will thus not be treated as a technical term but only as a reference to the domain of mental workload.
NOTE       Annex A gives additional explanations of terms and concepts.
ISO 10075-1:2017 applies to the design of working conditions with respect to mental workload and is intended to promote a common usage of terminology between experts and practitioners in the field of ergonomics as well as in general.
ISO 10075-1:2017 does not address methods of measurement and principles of task design, which are dealt with in ISO 10075‑2 and ISO 10075‑3.

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ISO 9241-960:2017 gives guidance on the selection or creation of the gestures to be used in a gesture interface. It addresses the usability of gestures and provides information on their design, the design process and relevant parameters that are to be considered. In addition, it provides guidance on how gestures should be documented. This document is concerned with gestures expressed by a human and not with the system response generated when users are performing these gestures.
NOTE 1    Specific gestures are standardized within ISO/IEC 14754 and the ISO/IEC 30113 series.
NOTE 2    Input devices such as tablets or spatial gesture recognition devices can capture gestures in 2D or 3D. All human gestures are 3D.

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ISO 9241-125:2017 provides guidance for the visual presentation of information controlled by software, irrespective of the device. It includes specific properties such as the syntactic or semantic aspects of information, e.g. coding techniques, and gives provisions for the organization of information taking account of human perception and memory capabilities. Those of its provisions that do not apply to specific types of visual interfaces clearly indicate any limitations to their applicability. It does not address specific details of charts, graphs or information visualization.
ISO 9241-125:2017 can be utilized throughout the design process (e.g. as specification and guidance for designers during design or as a basis for heuristic evaluation). Its provisions for the presentation of information depend upon the visual design approach, the task, the user, the environment and the single or multiple technologies that might be used for presenting the information. Consequently, this document cannot be applied without knowledge of the context of use. It is not intended to be used as a prescriptive set of rules to be applied in its entirety but rather assumes that the designer has proper information available concerning task and user requirements and understands the use of available technology.
Some of the provisions of this document are based on Latin-based language usage and might not apply, or might need to be modified, for use with languages that use other alphabets. In applying those that assume a specific language base (e.g. alphabetic ordering of coding information, items in a list), it is important that care is taken to follow its intent of the standard when translation is required to a different language.
ISO 9241-125:2017 does not address auditory or tactile/haptic presentation of information or modality shifting for the presentation of visual information in other modalities.
NOTE       ISO 9241‑112 provides high-level ergonomic guidance that applies to all modalities.

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ISO 7250-1:2017 provides a description of anthropometric measurements which can be used as a basis for comparison of population groups and for the creation of anthropometric databases (see ISO 15535). The basic list of measurements specified in this document is intended to serve as a guide for ergonomists who are required to define population groups and apply their knowledge to the geometric design of the places where people work and live. In addition, the list serves as a basis for extracting one- and two-dimensional measurements from three-dimensional scans (specified in ISO 20685). It serves as a guide on how to take anthropometric measurements, but also gives information to the ergonomist and designer on the anatomical and anthropometrical bases and principles of measurement which are applied in the solution of design tasks.
ISO 7250-1:2017 is intended to be used in conjunction with national or international regulations or agreements to ensure harmony in defining population groups and to allow comparison of anthropometric data among member bodies. In its various applications, it is anticipated that the basic list will be supplemented by specific additional measurements. Annex A shows the correspondence of dimensions described here with their use in ISO 14738 and ISO 15534.

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ISO 7243:2017 presents a screening method for evaluating the heat stress to which a person is exposed and for establishing the presence or absence of heat stress.
It applies to the evaluation of the effect of heat on a person during his or her total exposure over the working day (up to 8 h).
It does not apply for very short exposures to heat.
It applies to the assessment of indoor and outdoor occupational environments as well as to other types of environment, and to male and female adults who are fit for work.

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ISO/IEC 25064:2013 describes the Common Industry Format (CIF) for user needs reports, and provides specifications for their contents and format, including the content elements to be provided. User needs reports include both the collection and documentation of information from various sources relevant to user needs, and the analysis and integration of this information into consolidated user needs.
User needs reports are applicable to software and hardware systems, products or services (excluding generic products, such as a display screen or keyboard). The content elements are intended to be used as part of system-level documentation resulting from development processes such as those in ISO 9241-210 and ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 7 process standards. User needs are a major input into the establishment of user requirements.
User needs reports are intended to be used as part of system-level documentation resulting from development processes such as those in ISO 9241-210 and ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 7 process standards.

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ISO/IEC 25063:2014 describes the Common Industry Format (CIF) for context of use descriptions and specifies the contents of both high-level and detailed descriptions of the context of use for an existing, intended, implemented or deployed system. A context-of-use description includes information about the users and other stakeholder groups, the characteristics of each user group, the goals of the users, the tasks of the users, and the environment(s) in which the system is used.
The context of use description is applicable to software and hardware systems, products or services (excluding generic products, such as a display screen or keyboard). It is important to gather and analyse information on the current context in order to understand and then describe the context that will apply in the future system. The context of use description provides a collection of data relevant for analysis, specification, design and evaluation of an interactive system from the perspective of the various user groups and other stakeholders.

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ISO 9241-333:2017 specifies ergonomic requirements for stereoscopic displays using glasses designed to produce or facilitate binocular parallax. These requirements are stated as performance specifications, aimed at ensuring effective and comfortable viewing conditions for users, and at reducing visual fatigue caused by stereoscopic images on stereoscopic display using glasses. Test methods and metrology, yielding conformance measurements and criteria, are provided for design evaluation. See Annex B for measurement procedures.
ISO 9241-333:2017 is applicable to temporally or spatially interlaced types of display. These are implemented by flat-panel displays, projection displays, etc.
Stereoscopic displays using glasses can be applied to many contexts of use. However, this document focuses on business and home leisure applications (i.e. observing moving images, games, etc.). Only dark environments are specified in this document.
For technical explanation of display technologies, see Annex C.

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ISO 27500:2016 is intended for executive board members and policy makers of all types of organizations (whether large or small) in the private, public and non-profit sectors.
It describes the values and beliefs that make an organization human-centred, the significant business benefits that can be achieved, and explains the risks for the organization of not being human-centred. It provides recommendations for the policies that executive board members need to implement to achieve this. It sets out high-level human-centred principles for executive board members to endorse in order to optimize performance, minimize risks to organizations and individuals, maximize well-being in their organization, and enhance their relationships with the customers. The importance of organizational policy to address human-centredness is emphasized.
ISO 27500:2016 is not a management system standard. It is not intended or appropriate for certification purposes or regulatory or contractual use.
ISO 27500:2016 is not intended to prevent the development of national standards that are more specific or demanding.

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ISO 9241-112:2017 establishes ergonomic design principles for interactive systems related to the software-controlled presentation of information by user interfaces. It applies to the three main modalities (visual, auditory, tactile/haptic) typically used in information and communication technology. These principles apply to the perception and understanding of presented information. These principles are applicable in the analysis, design, and evaluation of interactive systems. This document also provides recommendations corresponding to the principles. The recommendations for each of the principles are not exhaustive and are not necessarily independent from one another.
While this document is applicable to all types of interactive systems, it does not cover the specifics of particular application domains. This document also applies to outputs from interactive systems (such as printed documents, e.g. invoices).
The guidance in this document for presenting information is aimed at helping the user to accomplish tasks. This guidance is not aimed at the presentation of information for other reasons (e.g. corporate branding or advertising).
It is intended for the following types of users:
-      user interface designers, who will apply the guidance during the development process;
-      developers, who will apply the guidance during design and implementation of system functionality;
-      evaluators, who are responsible for ensuring that products meet the recommendations;
-      designers of user interface development tools and style guides to be used by user interface designers;
-      project managers, who are responsible for managing development processes;
-      buyers, who will reference this document during product procurement.

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ISO 9241-392:2015 establishes recommendations for reducing the potential visual discomfort and visual fatigue experienced during viewing of stereoscopic images under defined viewing conditions. Visual fatigue and discomfort might be produced by the stereoscopic optical stimulus of disparate images that were presented binocularly.
ISO 9241-392:2015 is also applicable to the final products of stereoscopic presentations which depend on stereoscopic image content and stereoscopic displays when viewed under appropriate defined conditions. Therefore, the recommendations are intended for people responsible for the design, development, and supply of stereoscopic image content as well as stereoscopic displays.
NOTE 1       See Annex B for appropriate viewing conditions.
The recommendations in this part of ISO 9241 are applicable to stereoscopic displays such as those with glasses and two-view autostereoscopic displays, stereoscopic head-mounted displays, and stereoscopic projectors. Moreover, they are applicable to stereoscopic image content intended to be presented on the above-mentioned stereoscopic displays and stereoscopic presentations that are realized by the combinations of these images and displays.
NOTE 2       Annex C presents numerical criteria as an informative reference.
NOTE 3       Other guidance might need to be established by referring to this part of ISO 9241 when requirements and recommendations specific to each type of stereoscopic image content or stereoscopic display become necessary.
NOTE 4       ITU generally sets the standards for broadcasting.
NOTE 5       ISO 9241‑303:2011, Annex E provides guidelines for virtual displays which are intended for stereoscopic head-mounted displays.

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ISO 6385:2016 establishes the fundamental principles of ergonomics as basic guidelines for the design of work systems and defines relevant basic terms. It describes an integrated approach to the design of work systems, where ergonomists will cooperate with others involved in the design, with attention to the human, the social and the technical requirements in a balanced manner during the design process.
Users of this International Standard will include executives, managers, workers (and their representatives, when appropriate) and professionals, such as ergonomists, project managers and designers who are involved in the design or redesign of work systems. Those who use this International Standard can find a general knowledge of ergonomics (human factors), engineering, design, quality and project management helpful.
The term "work system" in this International Standard is used to indicate a large variety of working situations, including permanent and flexible work places. The intention of this International Standard is to assist in the improvement, (re)design or change of work systems. Work systems involve combinations of workers and equipment, within a given space and environment, and the interactions between these components within a work organization. Work systems vary in complexity and characteristics, for example, the use of temporary work systems. Some examples of work systems in different areas are the following:
-      production, e.g. machine operator and machine, worker and assembly line;
-      transportation, e.g. driver and car or lorry, personnel in an airport;
-      support, e.g. maintenance technician with work equipment;
-      commercial, e.g. office worker with workstation, mobile worker with a tablet computer, cook in a restaurant kitchen;
-      other areas like health care, teaching and training.
The observance of ergonomic principles applies to all phases throughout the life cycle of the work system from conception through development, realization and implementation, utilization, maintenance and support to decommissioning.
The systems approach in this International Standard gives guidance to the users of this International Standard in existing and new situations.
The definitions and ergonomic principles specified in this International Standard apply to the design of optimal working conditions with regard to human well-being, safety and health, including the development of existing skills and the acquisition of new ones, while taking into account technological and economic effectiveness and efficiency.
The principles in this International Standard are applicable to many other human activities, e.g. in the design of products for domestic and leisure activities. A more general description of the principles in this International Standard can be found in ISO 26800.

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ISO 9241-920:2009 gives recommendations for tactile and haptic hardware and software interactions. It provides guidance on the design and evaluation of hardware, software, and combinations of hardware and software interactions, including: the design/use of tactile/haptic inputs, outputs, and/or combinations of inputs and outputs, with general guidance on their design/use as well as on designing/using combinations of tactile and haptic interactions for use in combination with other modalities or as the exclusive mode of interaction; the tactile/haptic encoding of information, including textual data, graphical data and controls; the design of tactile/haptic objects, the layout of tactile/haptic space; interaction techniques.
It does not provide recommendations specific to Braille, but can apply to interactions that make use of Braille.
The recommendations given in ISO 9241-920:2009 are applicable to at least the controls of a virtual workspace, but they can also be applied to an entire virtual environment — consistent, in as far as possible, with the simulation requirements.
NOTE          It is recognized that some interactive scenarios might be constrained by the limitation that a real workspace is to be modelled in a virtual environment. Objects can be in suboptimal positions or conditions for haptic interaction by virtue of the situation being modelled.

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ISO 24504:2014 specifies methods to determine an appropriate sound pressure level range for spoken announcements in environments where ambient noise is less than 80 dB. The specified methods follow the concepts of ISO/IEC Guide 71 and includes consideration of older persons with decreased hearing ability to determine sound pressure levels of spoken announcements. The spoken speech levels specified are for products and public-address systems.
ISO 24504:2014 is applicable when a loudspeaker producing a spoken announcement is located a short distance from the user in an environment where the sound pressure level with a standard frequency weighting A of ambient noise does not exceed 80 dB. It is applicable to spoken announcements that are audible to persons with normal hearing for their age when presented by a target product under quiet and anechoic conditions, and for both recorded voice and synthetic speech announcements.
It is not applicable to products providing private information such as automated teller machines in public spaces, nor to spoken announcements heard through headphones or earphones, or with the ear close to the speech sound source such as ear speakers. It does not specify the sound pressure levels of spoken announcements for systems with automatic sound pressure level control to compensate for fluctuating ambient noise levels, nor those presented in emergency situations such as signals for fire alarms, gas leakage and crime prevention (covered in ISO 7240‑16 and ISO 7240‑19), or in automobiles (covered in ISO 15006). It considers only the audibility of speech and not the process of speech understanding.

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ISO 9241-161:2016 describes visual user-interface elements presented by software and provides requirements and recommendations on when and how to use them. This part of ISO 9241 is concerned with software components of interactive systems to make human-system interaction usable as far as the basic interaction aspects are concerned.
ISO 9241-161:2016 provides a comprehensive list of generic visual user-interface elements, regardless of a specific input method, visualization, and platform or implementation technology. The guidance given in this part of ISO 9241 is intended to be used in conjunction with ISO 9241 guidance on dialogue techniques. It recognizes that additional elements can evolve. It also addresses derivates, compositions (assemblies) and states of user-interface elements. It gives requirements and recommendations on selection, usage and dependencies of user-interface elements and their application. It is applicable regardless of a fixed, portable or mobile interactive system.
It does not provide detailed coverage of the methods and techniques required for design of user-interface elements. This part of ISO 9241 does not address implementation (e.g. graphical design of elements) and interaction details for specific input methods or technologies. It does not cover decorative user-interface elements that are intended to address solely aesthetic (hedonic) qualities in the user interface, e.g. background images.
The information in this part of ISO 9241 is intended for use by those responsible for the selection and implementation of visual user-interface elements in interactive systems and for evaluating user interfaces. It is intended for use by those planning and managing platform specific aspects of user interface screen design. It also provides guidance for human factors/ergonomics and usability professionals involved in human-centred design. It addresses technical issues only to the extent necessary to allow users of this part of ISO 9241 to understand the relevance and importance of a consistent interface element usage and selection in the design process as a whole.
Annex A provides a guide to selection of different visual user interface elements depending of their appropriate application.

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ISO 9241-391:2016 provides requirements and recommendations for reducing photosensitive seizures (PSS), while viewing images on electronic displays.
The requirements and recommendations in this part of ISO 9241 are designed to be applied to image contents. By image contents, reference is made to the images independent of the device or environment in which they are displayed.
The requirements and recommendations in this part of ISO 9241 are for the protection of the vulnerable individuals in the viewing population who are photosensitive and who are therefore liable to seizures triggered by flashing lights and regular patterns, including certain repetitive images.
NOTE 1       ITU considers the image safety issues in relation to broadcasting. Some of these are described in ITU-R BT.1702.[2]
NOTE 2       There are some related recommendations in ISO/IEC 40500:2012, W3C Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) 2.0, for web contents accessibility.
NOTE 3       Photosensitive seizures and photosensitive epilepsy, that is, chronic conditions characterized by those repeated seizures are medical conditions. Clinical aspects of photosensitivity appear in Annex C. Visually induced seizures are equivalent to PSS.

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