Characterization of waste - Overall guidance document for characterization of waste from the extractive industries

This Technical Report gives guidance and recommendations on the application of methods for the characterization of waste from extractive industries , i.e. wastes resulting from the prospecting, extraction, treatment and storage of mineral resources and the working of quarries. The document covers characterization methods for both physical and geochemical properties and also other significant aspects, from planning to interpretation and reporting.
The main purpose of the document is to aid the extractive industry and regulatory agencies in the member states in understanding how to perform waste characterization for planned, active and closed extractive operations.
The document includes a discussion on when and why characterization may be needed and on the contexts within which characterization data may need to be applied. However, it does not cover information on how to apply these characterization results, e.g. for dam design or closure planning. For guidance on how to use characterization results correctly for predictive modelling or design purposes references are made to other sources of information.
The extractive industry covers many different sectors with very different waste categories and characterization may be carried out with many different objectives. For this reason, a guidance document on characterization cannot be prescriptive or provide generally applicable instructions on how waste characterization should be performed in each and every case.

Charakterisierung von Abfällen - Leitfaden zur Charakterisierung von Abfällen der mineralgewinnenden Industrie

Caractérisation des déchets - Document guide pour la caractérisation des déchets issus des industries extractives

Karakterizacija odpadkov - Splošno navodilo za karakterizacijo odpadkov iz industrije bogatenja mineralnih surovin

To tehnično poročilo podaja smernice in priporočila v zvezi z uporabo metod za karakterizacijo odpadkov iz industrije bogatenja mineralnih surovin (kot je opredeljeno v členu 2 Direktive 2006/21/ES), tj. odpadkov, ki nastanejo pri raziskovanju, pridobivanju, bogatenju in skladiščenju mineralnih surovin ter pri obratovanju kamnolomov. Dokument vsebuje metodo karakterizacije fizičnih in geokemičnih lastnosti ter tudi druge pomembne vidike, od načrtovanja do interpretacije in poročanja. Glavni namen dokumenta je industriji bogatenja mineralnih surovin in zakonodajnim organom v državah članicah pomagati pri razumevanju, kako naj izvajajo karakterizacijo odpadkov za načrtovane, aktivne in zaključene dejavnosti bogatenja mineralnih surovin. Dokument vsebuje razpravo o tem, kdaj in zakaj je karakterizacija lahko potrebna, ter o kontekstih, v katerih se bodo podatki karakterizacije lahko uporabili. Vendar ne vsebuje informacij o načinu uporabe navedenih rezultatov karakterizacije, npr. pri projektiranju jeza ali načrtovanju zapore. Za napotke o pravilni uporabi rezultatov karakterizacije za napovedno modeliranje ali projektiranje so navedeni sklici na druge vire informacij. Industrija bogatenja mineralnih surovin zajema številne različne sektorje z zelo različnimi kategorijami odpadkov, pri čemer se lahko karakterizacija izvaja s številnimi različnimi cilji. Zato dokument z napotki v zvezi s karakterizacijo ne more predpisovati ali podati splošno uporabnih navodil o pravilnem izvajanju karakterizacije odpadkov v vsakem posameznem primeru.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
30-Oct-2012
Current Stage
6060 - Definitive text made available (DAV) - Publishing
Due Date
31-Oct-2012
Completion Date
31-Oct-2012

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST-TP CEN/TR 16376:2013
01-januar-2013
Karakterizacija odpadkov - Splošno navodilo za karakterizacijo odpadkov iz
industrije bogatenja mineralnih surovin

Characterization of waste - Overall guidance document for characterization of waste from

the extractive industries

Charakterisierung von Abfällen - Rahmenrichtlinie zur Charakterisierung von Abfällen der

mineralgewinnenden Industrie

Caractérisation des déchets - Document guide pour la caractérisation des déchets issus

des industries extractives
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: CEN/TR 16376:2012
ICS:
13.030.01 Odpadki na splošno Wastes in general
SIST-TP CEN/TR 16376:2013 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST-TP CEN/TR 16376:2013
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SIST-TP CEN/TR 16376:2013
TECHNICAL REPORT
CEN/TR 16376
RAPPORT TECHNIQUE
TECHNISCHER BERICHT
October 2012
ICS 13.030.01
English Version
Characterization of waste - Overall guidance document for
characterization of waste from the extractive industries

Caractérisation des déchets - Document guide pour la Charakterisierung von Abfällen - Rahmenrichtlinie zur

caractérisation des déchets issus des industries extractives Charakterisierung von Abfällen der mineralgewinnenden

Industrie

This Technical Report was approved by CEN on 24 June 2012. It has been drawn up by the Technical Committee CEN/TC 292.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,

Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and United

Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Brussels

© 2012 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. CEN/TR 16376:2012: E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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Contents Page

Foreword ............................................................................................................................................................. 5

Introduction ......................................................................................................................................................... 6

1 Scope ...................................................................................................................................................... 7

2 Principles and procedures ................................................................................................................... 7

2.1 Definition and role of waste characterization ..................................................................................... 7

2.2 The waste characterization process at a glance ................................................................................ 7

2.3 Choice of test methods ....................................................................................................................... 12

2.4 Health and safety ................................................................................................................................. 14

2.5 Applications ......................................................................................................................................... 15

2.5.1 Development of waste management plans ....................................................................................... 15

2.5.2 Waste facility classification ................................................................................................................ 15

2.5.3 Inert waste classification .................................................................................................................... 16

2.5.4 Prediction of discharge water quality ............................................................................................... 16

2.5.5 Assessment of closed waste facilities .............................................................................................. 17

2.5.6 Planning for monitoring ...................................................................................................................... 18

3 Waste categories, potential environmental impacts and related characterization

methods ................................................................................................................................................ 18

3.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 18

3.2 Characterization during the different phases of extractive operations ......................................... 18

3.3 Types of waste facilities ..................................................................................................................... 20

3.4 Associated environmental aspects ................................................................................................... 21

3.4.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 21

3.4.2 Risk of dam / slope failure .................................................................................................................. 21

3.4.3 Risk of dusting and siltation .............................................................................................................. 24

3.4.4 Risk of contaminated drainage .......................................................................................................... 25

3.4.5 Risk of spontaneous combustion ...................................................................................................... 26

3.4.6 Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) .......................................................................... 26

4 Supporting information....................................................................................................................... 27

4.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 27

4.2 Background information ..................................................................................................................... 27

4.3 Geological background of deposit to be exploited .......................................................................... 28

4.3.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 28

4.3.2 Surrounding geology .......................................................................................................................... 28

4.3.3 Nature of deposit ................................................................................................................................. 29

4.3.4 Mineral deposit .................................................................................................................................... 29

4.3.5 Size and geometry ............................................................................................................................... 29

4.3.6 Weathering stage of deposit .............................................................................................................. 30

4.4 The waste and its intended handling ................................................................................................ 31

4.5 Baseline data for the site of disposal ................................................................................................ 32

5 Characterization tools ......................................................................................................................... 32

5.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 32

5.2 Sampling .............................................................................................................................................. 33

5.3 Mineralogy ............................................................................................................................................ 33

5.3.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 33

5.3.2 Analytical methods .............................................................................................................................. 34

5.3.3 Texture .................................................................................................................................................. 35

5.4 Physical and hydraulic properties ..................................................................................................... 36

5.4.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 36

5.4.2 Overview of types of geotechnical investigations ........................................................................... 36

5.4.3 Test methods for physical and hydraulic properties ....................................................................... 36

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5.4.4 In situ investigations of physical and hydraulic properties of deposited waste .......................... 37

5.5 Chemical composition ........................................................................................................................ 38

5.5.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 38

5.5.2 Digestion methods for inorganic substances .................................................................................. 38

5.5.3 Analysis of major, minor and trace elements ................................................................................... 38

5.5.4 Chemical speciation ............................................................................................................................ 39

5.5.5 Sulfur (total, sulfate, and sulfide) ...................................................................................................... 39

5.6 Determination of acid generation potential ...................................................................................... 39

5.6.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 39

5.6.2 Paste pH ............................................................................................................................................... 39

5.6.3 Acid-base accounting ......................................................................................................................... 39

5.6.4 Kinetic testing ...................................................................................................................................... 40

5.7 Leaching behaviour and leaching tests ............................................................................................ 41

5.8 Field Investigations ............................................................................................................................. 42

6 Evaluation and interpretation ............................................................................................................. 42

6.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 42

6.2 Uncertainties – limitations .................................................................................................................. 43

6.3 Interpretation and evaluation of geotechnical data ......................................................................... 44

6.4 Mineralogy, chemistry, leaching and A/NRD evaluation ................................................................. 44

6.4.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 44

6.4.2 Mineralogy ............................................................................................................................................ 45

6.4.3 Chemistry ............................................................................................................................................. 46

6.4.4 Acid-base accounting ......................................................................................................................... 47

6.4.5 Kinetic testing ...................................................................................................................................... 49

6.4.6 Leaching ............................................................................................................................................... 51

6.5 Field verification .................................................................................................................................. 52

6.6 Water quality predictions ................................................................................................................... 52

7 Documentation and reporting ............................................................................................................ 53

Annex A (informative) Terms and definitions ................................................................................................ 55

Annex B (informative) Test methods – Geochemical analysis – Applicability of EN and

ISO Standards ..................................................................................................................................... 58

B.1 Introduction .......................................................................................................................................... 58

B.2 Evaluation of applicability .................................................................................................................. 58

B.2.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 58

B.2.2 Procedure ............................................................................................................................................. 58

B.2.3 Types of wastes ................................................................................................................................... 59

B.2.4 Levels of applicability ......................................................................................................................... 59

B.3 Methods to analyse waste from the extractive industries.......................................................... 59

B.3.1 General remark .................................................................................................................................... 59

B.3.2 Sample preparation ............................................................................................................................. 60

B.3.3 Physical-chemical parameters (see also Annex C) .................................................................... 60

B.3.4 Digestion and extraction methods .................................................................................................... 62

B.3.5 Composition: major, minor and trace elements ........................................................................... 62

B.3.6 Organic and inorganic carbon ........................................................................................................... 64

B.3.7 Sulfur (total, sulfate and sulfidic) (see also Annex F for sulfide analysis) .................................... 66

B.3.8 Eluate and leachate analysis ........................................................................................................... 67

B.3.9 Eluates: analytical methods referenced in EN 12506 and EN 13370 ........................................ 67

B.3.10 Eluates: further analytical methods ............................................................................................... 71

Annex C (informative) Physical and hydraulic properties ........................................................................... 72

C.1 Introduction .......................................................................................................................................... 72

C.2 Existing standards .............................................................................................................................. 72

C.2.1 Physical properties ............................................................................................................................. 78

C.2.2 Hydraulic properties ............................................................................................................................ 81

Annex D (informative) Leach tests .................................................................................................................. 83

D.1 Leach tests ........................................................................................................................................... 83

D.2 Applicability of leaching tests ......................................................................................................... 83

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D.3 Leaching test procedures ................................................................................................................... 85

D.3.1 pH-dependence leaching test ............................................................................................................ 85

D.3.2 Column leaching test .......................................................................................................................... 85

D.3.3 Dynamic monolith leaching test ........................................................................................................ 85

D.3.4 Compacted granular leaching test .................................................................................................... 85

D.3.5 Sequential extraction .......................................................................................................................... 86

D.3.6 Field tests ............................................................................................................................................. 86

D.3.7 Short term tests ................................................................................................................................... 87

Annex E (informative) Mineralogical analysis ................................................................................................ 88

E.1 Mineralogical analytical methods ...................................................................................................... 88

E.1.2 X-ray powder diffractometer .............................................................................................................. 91

E.1.3 Optical microscopy ............................................................................................................................. 92

E.1.4 Electron microscopy techniques ....................................................................................................... 92

E.1.5 X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy .................................................................................................... 92

Annex F (informative) ....................................................................................................................................... 94

Sulfur speciation in waste from extractive industries .................................................................................. 94

F.1 Total sulphur ........................................................................................................................................ 94

F.2 Sulfur species ...................................................................................................................................... 94

F.3 Analysis program for sulfur species ................................................................................................. 94

F.4 Analytical procedures for sulfides .................................................................................................... 95

F.4.1 Sulfides (pyrite) determination by combustion at different temperatures .................................... 95

F.4.2 Sulfides (pyrite) determination (direct) by reaction with HCl ......................................................... 95

F.4.3 Sulfides (pyrite) determination (direct) by reaction with NaCO .................................................... 95

F.4.4 Sulfides (pyrite) determination (indirect) by leaching with HNO .................................................. 95

F.4.5 Sulfides (pyrite) by calculation .......................................................................................................... 96

F.5 Results for sulfide (pyrite) sulfur ....................................................................................................... 96

F.5.1 Pyrite-rich waste samples .................................................................................................................. 96

F.5.2 Other waste samples........................................................................................................................... 97

F.6 Summary and recommendations ....................................................................................................... 98

Annex G (informative) A/NRD processes and mineralogy ............................................................................ 99

G.1 Introduction .......................................................................................................................................... 99

G.2 Natural supergene A/NRD processes ................................................................................................ 99

G.3 Mineral oxidation / dissolution ......................................................................................................... 100

G.3.2 Sulfide ................................................................................................................................................. 100

G.3.3 Secondary minerals .......................................................................................................................... 103

G.3.4 Carbonate minerals ........................................................................................................................... 103

G.3.5 Silicate minerals ................................................................................................................................ 104

G.4 Mineralogy issues ............................................................................................................................. 106

G.4.2 Mineral reaction rate concepts ........................................................................................................ 106

G.4.3 Quantification of the mineral surface .............................................................................................. 107

G.4.4 Mineral texture ................................................................................................................................... 107

Annex H (informative) Hydrological and geochemical modelling ............................................................ 109

H.1 Importance of modelling long-term release ................................................................................... 109

H.2 Uses of modelling .............................................................................................................................. 109

H.3 Commonly used codes ..................................................................................................................... 110

H.4 Challenges ......................................................................................................................................... 118

Annex I (informative) Field investigations of tailings management facilities and waste rock

dumps ................................................................................................................................................. 119

I.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................................................ 119

I.2 Tailings ............................................................................................................................................... 119

I.3 Waste rocks ....................................................................................................................................... 120

Bibliography .................................................................................................................................................... 123

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Foreword

This document (CEN/TR 16376:2012) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 292

“Characterization of waste”, the secretariat of which is held by NEN.

The preparation of this document by CEN is based on a mandate by the European Commission (Mandate

M/395), which assigned the development of standards on the characterization of waste from extractive

industries. The target audience of this guidance document includes all stakeholders concerned with the

management of extractive waste including authorities, regulators, waste producers, consultants and

testing laboratories.

The overall guidance document is one out of three guideline documents (TR, technical reports) and one

technical specification (TS) on aspects related to the characterization of extractive wastes developed by

CEN/TC 292. These four documents are:

 overall guidance document for characterization of waste from extractive industries

(CEN/TR 16376);
 guidance on sampling of wastes from extractive industries (CEN/TR 16365);

 kinetic testing for sulfidic waste from extractive industries (CEN/TR 16363); and

 sampling and analysis of cyanides (WAD) discharged into tailings ponds (CEN/TS 16229).

In addition to these four documents, CEN/TC 292 developed a European Standard (EN 15875) for static

determination of acid and neutralization potential of sulfidic waste (acid-base accounting).

The overall guidance document applies to waste from extractive industries according to the waste

definition in Art. 3 para 1 of the Directive 2008/98/EC on Waste. Therefore, as far as residues from the

extractive industries are mentioned in this document they are only covered if they fulfil the criteria of the

above mentioned waste definition.

This document provides guidance and is not a required procedure. It gives recommendations on what to

evaluate during characterization of waste from extractive industries. It provides a tool box with many

different methods that may or may not be applicable in a specific case, and it is not a legally binding

document.
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Introduction

Waste from the extractive industries can only be managed properly if sufficient knowledge about its

geochemical and physical properties and behaviour is available. Such knowledge may be obtained

through characterization of the waste. Consequently, Directive 2006/21/EC of the European Parliament

and of the Council of 15 March 2006 on the management of waste from extractive industries and the

associated Commission Decisions on waste facility classification, inert waste definition and waste

characterization include several requirements related to characterization of waste.

In one of its decisions the European Commission states that: “The purpose of the characterization of

extractive waste is to obtain the relevant information on the waste to be managed in order to be able to

assess and monitor its properties, behaviour and characteristics and thereby ensure that it is managed

under environmentally safe conditions in the long term. Furthermore, the characterization of extractive

waste should facilitate the determination of the options for managing such waste and the related

mitigation measures in order to protect human health and the environment.”

A multitude of methods and tools are available for various waste characterization purposes – some are

standardized and some are not. Often several methods that differ only slightly from each other are

available for the same purpose. Tradition and geography often determine which method is used. In some

cases, the use of specific methods is required by legislation. Within EU legislation, European (CEN)

Standards and methods are
...

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