Solid Biofuels - Sampling (ISO 18135:2017)

ISO 18135:2017 describes methods for preparing sampling plans and certificates, as well as taking samples of solid biofuels, for example, from the place where the raw materials grow, from production plant, from deliveries, e.g. lorry loads, or from stock. It includes both manual and mechanical methods, and is applicable to solid biofuels that are either:
- fine (particle sizes up to about 10 mm) and regularly shaped particulate materials that can be sampled using a scoop or pipe, for example, sawdust, olive stones and wood pellets;
- coarse or irregularly shaped particulate materials (particle sizes up to about 200 mm) that can be sampled using a fork or shovel, for example, wood chips and nut shells, forest residue chips, and straw;
- baled materials, for example, baled straw or grass;
- large pieces (particle sizes above 200 mm) that are either picked manually or automatically;
- vegetable waste, fibrous waste from virgin pulp production and from production of paper from pulp that has been dewatered;
- thermally treated and densified biomass materials;
- roundwood.
ISO 18135:2017 is not applicable to airborne dust from solid biofuels. It may be possible to use this document for other solid biofuels.
The methods described in this document may be used, for example, when the samples are to be tested for moisture content, ash content, calorific value, bulk density, durability, particle size distribution, ash melting behaviour and chemical composition.

Biogene Festbrennstoffe - Probenahme (ISO 18135:2017)

Dieses Dokument legt Verfahren zur Erstellung von Probenahmeplänen und  zertifikaten sowie zur Probenahme von biogenen Festbrennstoffen, z. B. vom Ort des Vorkommens der Rohmaterialien, aus einer Produktionsanlage, aus Lieferungen, z. B. aus LKW Ladungen, oder aus einem Lager fest. Sie umfasst sowohl manuelle als auch mechanische Verfahren und gilt für biogene Festbrennstoffe, die eines der folgenden Merkmale aufweisen:
-   feine (mit Partikelgrößen bis zu etwa 10 mm) und regelmäßig geformte aus Partikeln bestehende Materialien, von denen mit einer Probenahmeschaufel oder einem Rohr Proben entnommen werden können, z. B. Sägespäne, Olivensteine und Holzpellets;
-   grobe oder unregelmäßig geformte aus Partikeln bestehende Materialien mit Partikelgrößen bis zu etwa 200 mm, von denen mit einer Gabel oder einer Schaufel Proben entnommen werden können, z. B.: Holzhackschnitzel und Nussschalen, Waldrestholz Hackschnitzel und Stroh;
-   Materialien in Ballenform, z. B. Stroh  oder Grasballen;
-   große Stücke (Partikelgrößen über 200 mm), die entweder mit der Hand oder automatisch entnommen werden;
-   pflanzliche Abfälle, faserige Abfälle aus der Herstellung von natürlichem Zellstoff und aus der Herstellung von Papier aus Zellstoff, die entwässert wurden;
-   thermisch behandelte und gepresste Biomassematerialien;
-   Rundholz.
Dieses Dokument gilt nicht für Schwebstaub von biogenen Festbrennstoffen. Möglicherweise kann dieses Dokument auch auf andere biogene Festbrennstoffe angewendet werden.
Die in diesem Dokument festgelegten Verfahren dürfen z. B. angewendet werden, wenn Proben im Hinblick auf Wasser  und Aschegehalt, Energiegehalt, Schüttdichte, Festigkeit, Partikelgrößenverteilung, Ascheschmelzverhalten und chemische Zusammensetzung zu prüfen sind.

Biocarburants solides - Échantillonnage (ISO 18135:2017)

ISO 18135:2017 décrit les méthodes de préparation des plans et certificats d'échantillonnage, ainsi que les méthodes de prélèvement d'échantillons de biocombustibles solides, par exemple, depuis l'endroit où sont cultivées les matières premières, depuis l'usine de production, depuis les livraisons (par exemple les camions) ou depuis l'amoncellement. Il inclut des méthodes à la fois manuelles et mécaniques et s'applique aux biocombustibles solides pouvant être:
- des matériaux fins (dont la taille maximale des particules est d'environ 10 mm) et dont la forme des particules est régulière et qui peuvent être prélevés à l'aide d'une pelle d'échantillonnage ou d'un tube, par exemple: la sciure, les noyaux d'olives et les granulés de bois;
- des matériaux grossiers (dont la taille maximale des particules est d'environ 200 mm) ou dont la forme des particules est irrégulière et qui peuvent être prélevés à l'aide d'une fourche ou d'une pelle, par exemple: les copeaux de bois et les coquilles de noix, les rémanents forestiers et la paille;
- des matériaux en balle, par exemple: les balles de paille ou d'herbe;
- de grands morceaux (dont la taille des particules dépasse les 200 mm) ramassés manuellement ou automatiquement;
- des déchets végétaux, des déchets fibreux venant de la production de la pâte vierge et de la production de papier à partir de pâte ayant été déshydratée;
- des matériaux de biomasse traitée thermiquement et densifiée;
- du bois rond.
ISO 18135:2017 ne s'applique pas aux poussières en suspension dans l'air émises par des biocombustibles solides. Il est possible que le présent document soit applicable à d'autres biocombustibles solides.
Les méthodes décrites dans le présent document peuvent être utilisées, par exemple, lorsque les échantillons doivent être soumis à essai afin de déterminer leur taux d'humidité, leur teneur en cendres, leur pouvoir calorifique, leur masse volumique apparente, leur durabilité, leur distribution granulométrique, leur fusibilité de cendres et leur composition chimique.

Trdna biogoriva - Vzorčenje (ISO 18135:2017)

Ta mednarodni standard opisuje metode za pripravo načrtov vzorčenja in certifikatov ter odvzem vzorcev trdnih biogoriv, na primer z mesta, kjer rastejo surovine, v proizvodnem obratu, iz dobav, npr. kamionskih tovorov, ali iz zaloge. Vključuje ročne in mehanske metode ter se uporablja za naslednja trdna biogoriva: ⎯ fine (velikost delcev do približno 10 mm) in trdne snovi z delci pravilnih oblik, ki jih je mogoče vzorčiti z merico ali s cevjo, na primer: žagovina, olivne koščice in lesni peleti; ⎯ grobe ali trdne snovi z delci nepravilnih oblik (velikost delcev do približno 200 mm) ki jih je mogoče vzorčiti z vilicami ali lopato, na primer: lesni sekanci in lupine oreščkov, gozdno iverje in slama; ⎯ balirani materiali, na primer: balirana slama ali trava; ⎯ veliki kosi (velikost delcev nad 200 mm), ki so zbrani ročno ali samodejno; ⎯ rastlinski odpadki, vlaknasti odpadki pri proizvodnji primarne papirne kaše in proizvodnji papirja iz kaše, ki ji je bila odstranjena voda; ⎯ okrogel les. Ta standard se morda lahko uporablja tudi za druga trdna biogoriva. Metode, ki so opisane v tem standardu, se lahko uporabljajo, ko je na primer potrebno preskusiti vsebnost vlage, vsebnost pepela, kalorično vrednost, prostorninsko maso, trajnost, porazdelitev velikosti delcev, lastnosti pepela pri taljenju in kemično sestavo. Te metode niso namenjene za pridobivanje zelo velikih vzorcev, ki so potrebni za preskušanje premostitvenih lastnosti.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
25-Apr-2017
Technical Committee
Drafting Committee
Current Stage
6060 - Definitive text made available (DAV) - Publishing
Due Date
26-Apr-2017
Completion Date
26-Apr-2017

RELATIONS

Effective Date
07-May-2014
Effective Date
03-May-2017

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 18135:2017
01-julij-2017
1DGRPHãþD
SIST EN 14778:2011
7UGQDELRJRULYD9]RUþHQMH ,62
Solid Biofuels - Sampling (ISO 18135:2017)
Biogene Festbrennstoffe - Probenahme (ISO 18135:2017)
Biocarburants solides - Échantillonnage (ISO 18135:2017)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 18135:2017
ICS:
75.160.40 Biogoriva Biofuels
SIST EN ISO 18135:2017 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN ISO 18135:2017
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SIST EN ISO 18135:2017
EN ISO 18135
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
April 2017
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 75.160.40 Supersedes EN 14778:2011
English Version
Solid Biofuels - Sampling (ISO 18135:2017)

Biocarburants solides - Échantillonnage (ISO Biogene Festbrennstoffe - Probenahme (ISO

18135:2017) 18135:2017)
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 6 March 2017.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,

Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Brussels

© 2017 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 18135:2017 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN ISO 18135:2017
EN ISO 18135:2017 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

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SIST EN ISO 18135:2017
EN ISO 18135:2017 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN ISO 18135:2017) has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 238 "Solid

biofuels" in collaboration with Technical Committee CEN/TC 335 “Solid biofuels” the secretariat of

which is held by SIS.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by October 2017 and conflicting national standards shall

be withdrawn at the latest by October 2017.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent

rights.
This document supersedes EN 14778:2011.

This document has been prepared under a mandate given to CENELEC by the European Commission

and the European Free Trade Association.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia,

France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta,

Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and the United Kingdom.
Endorsement notice

The text of ISO 18135:2017 has been approved by CEN as EN ISO 18135:2017 without any modification.

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SIST EN ISO 18135:2017
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SIST EN ISO 18135:2017
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 18135
First edition
2017-04
Solid Biofuels — Sampling
Biocarburants solides — Échantillonnage
Reference number
ISO 18135:2017(E)
ISO 2017
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SIST EN ISO 18135:2017
ISO 18135:2017(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2017, Published in Switzerland

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

the requester.
ISO copyright office
Ch. de Blandonnet 8 • CP 401
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva, Switzerland
Tel. +41 22 749 01 11
Fax +41 22 749 09 47
copyright@iso.org
www.iso.org
ii © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 18135:2017
ISO 18135:2017(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Symbols .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

5 Principle ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 3

6 Establishing a sampling scheme (sampling plan) .............................................................................................................. 4

6.1 Principle ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 4

6.2 Full sampling plan ................................................................................................................................................................................ 5

6.3 Brief sampling plan ............................................................................................................................................................................. 5

6.4 Division of lots ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

7 Visual inspection .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 6

8 Number of increments .................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

8.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

8.2 Primary increment variance (V ) ............................................................................................................................................. 7

8.3 Preparation and testing variance (V ) ............................................................................................................................. 8

8.4 Overall precision (P ) ........................................................................................................................................................................ 8

8.5 Calculation of number of increments per (sub-) lot ............................................................................................... 8

9 Calculation of the size of increment ..............................................................................................................................................10

10 Combined sample — Calculation of the volume of the combined sample .............................................10

11 Sampling equipment .....................................................................................................................................................................................11

11.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................11

11.2 Equipment for manual sampling ..........................................................................................................................................11

11.2.1 Sampling box for falling-stream ......................................................................................................................11

11.2.2 Scoops ....................................................................................................................................................................................12

11.2.3 Shovels ...................................................................................................................................................................................13

11.2.4 Forks ........................................................................................................................................................................................14

11.2.5 Grabs .......................................................................................................................................................................................15

11.2.6 Probes (thieves).............................................................................................................................................................16

11.2.7 Pipes (spears) ..................................................................................................................................................................16

11.2.8 Frames ...................................................................................................................................................................................17

11.2.9 Hooks ......................................................................................................................................................................................17

11.2.10 Drills (augers) .................................................................................................................................................................18

11.3 Equipment for mechanical sampling ................................................................................................................................19

11.3.1 Use of coal sampling standards and checking for bias .................................................................19

11.3.2 Falling-stream sampler ...........................................................................................................................................19

11.3.3 Cross-belt sampler ......................................................................................................................................................20

11.3.4 Mechanical probes .................. .................................................... .................................................................................21

11.3.5 Mechanical drills ...........................................................................................................................................................21

12 Sampling in practice ......................................................................................................................................................................................21

12.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................21

12.2 Methods for sampling stationary material ..................................................................................................................22

12.2.1 Sampling from small packages (<50 kg) ..................................................................................................22

12.2.2 Sampling from containers, lorries and wagons ..................................................................................22

12.2.3 Sampling from stockpiles ......................................................................................................................................23

12.2.4 Sampling from ships and barges .....................................................................................................................24

12.2.5 Sampling from bales ..................................................................................................................................................25

12.3 Methods for sampling moving material .........................................................................................................................25

© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved iii
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SIST EN ISO 18135:2017
ISO 18135:2017(E)

12.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................25

12.3.2 Sampling from falling streams ..........................................................................................................................25

12.3.3 Sampling from conveyor belts ...........................................................................................................................26

12.3.4 Sampling from bucket conveyors, drag conveyors, bucket loaders or grabs ............26

12.4 Sampling of roundwood ...............................................................................................................................................................26

12.4.1 General method ...................................................................... ........................................................................................26

12.4.2 Method for fast moisture-content determination ............................................................................27

13 Sample generation for combined samples and laboratory samples ...........................................................28

14 Performance characteristics .................................................................................................................................................................28

15 Handling and storage of samples .....................................................................................................................................................28

15.1 Packaging, storing and transport of samples .............................................................................................................28

15.2 Identification/labelling .................................................................................................................................................................29

16 Sampling certificates .....................................................................................................................................................................................29

Annex A (informative) Model sampling plan and sampling certificate .........................................................................30

Annex B (informative) Sampling from large stockpiles .................................................................................................................31

Annex C (informative) Bulk densities of solid biofuels ..................................................................................................................32

Annex D (informative) Reference values for V and V .................................................................................................................33

i PT

Annex E (informative) Guidelines for the number of increments to be taken .......................................................36

Annex F (informative) Quality parameters for various solid biofuels in BIONORM projects

and large shipments of wood pellets ............................................................................................................................................43

Annex G (informative) Single delivery sampling ...................................................................................................................................53

Annex H (informative) Continuous delivery sampling....................................................................................................................54

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................56

iv © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 18135:2017
ISO 18135:2017(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the voluntary nature of the standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following

URL: w w w . i s o .org/ iso/ foreword .html.
This document was prepared by Technical committee ISO/TC 238, Solid biofuels.
© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved v
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SIST EN ISO 18135:2017
ISO 18135:2017(E)
Introduction

The objective of this document is to provide unambiguous and clear principles for sampling solid

biofuels. It also aims to serve as a tool to enable efficient trading of biofuels and a good understanding

between seller and buyer, as well as a tool for communication with equipment manufacturers. It will

also facilitate authority permission procedures and reporting.
This document is made for all stakeholders.

Solid biomass is defined in ISO 16559 and according to the specification in ISO 17225-1 covers organic,

non-fossil material of biological origin which may be used as fuel for heat and electrical generation.

This document was developed with significant content from EN 14778:2011.
vi © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 18135:2017
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 18135:2017(E)
Solid Biofuels — Sampling
1 Scope

This document describes methods for preparing sampling plans and certificates, as well as taking

samples of solid biofuels, for example, from the place where the raw materials grow, from production

plant, from deliveries, e.g. lorry loads, or from stock. It includes both manual and mechanical methods,

and is applicable to solid biofuels that are either:

— fine (particle sizes up to about 10 mm) and regularly shaped particulate materials that can be

sampled using a scoop or pipe, for example, sawdust, olive stones and wood pellets;

— coarse or irregularly shaped particulate materials (particle sizes up to about 200 mm) that can be

sampled using a fork or shovel, for example, wood chips and nut shells, forest residue chips, and straw;

— baled materials, for example, baled straw or grass;

— large pieces (particle sizes above 200 mm) that are either picked manually or automatically;

— vegetable waste, fibrous waste from virgin pulp production and from production of paper from pulp

that has been dewatered;
— thermally treated and densified biomass materials;
— roundwood.

This document is not applicable to airborne dust from solid biofuels. It may be possible to use this

document for other solid biofuels.

The methods described in this document may be used, for example, when the samples are to be tested

for moisture content, ash content, calorific value, bulk density, durability, particle size distribution, ash

melting behaviour and chemical composition.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 13909-8, Hard coal and coke — Mechanical sampling — Part 8: Methods of testing for bias

ISO 14780, Solid biofuels — Sample preparation
ISO 16559, Solid biofuels — Terminology, definitions and descriptions

ISO 21398, Hard coal and coke — Guidance to the inspection of mechanical sampling systems

3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 16559 and the following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
— ISO Online browsing platform: available at http:// www .iso .org/ obp
© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved 1
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SIST EN ISO 18135:2017
ISO 18135:2017(E)
3.1
bias

systematic error that leads to the average value of a series of results being persistently higher or

persistently lower than those that are obtained using a reference sampling method

3.2
large stockpile
stockpile with a capacity >40 t
3.3
nominal top size

aperture size of the sieve through which at least 95 % by mass of the material passes

Note 1 to entry: For pellets the diameter is used to determine the nominal top size.

Note 2 to entry: Includes additional information not found in ISO 16559.
3.4
overall precision

closeness of agreement between independent test results obtained under stipulated conditions;

including sample preparation and sample analysis

Note 1 to entry: A determination might be made with great precision and the standard deviation of a number of

determinations on the same sub-lot might, therefore, be low; but such results are accurate only if they are free

from bias.
4 Symbols
d nominal top size biofuel, in mm
d difference between individual pair members
m mass of the lot or sub-lot, tonne
lot
n number of increments per (sub-) lot
n minimum number of increments per (sub-) lot
min
n number of pairs (for estimating V )
P PT
n maximum practicable number of increments per sub-lot
N , N number of lots/sub-lots
L SL

P overall precision for the sampling, sample preparation and testing for the whole

biofuel lot at 95 % confidence level
P similar to P but then for the sub-lot
SL L
S sample estimate of the population standard deviation
V total variance of the results for replicate samples
SPT
Vol volume for the combined sample, l
Combined Sample
Vol volume of an increment, l
incr
Vol minimum volume of increment, l
min
V primary increment variance
2 © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 18135:2017
ISO 18135:2017(E)
V preparation and testing variance
W width of a sampling tool, mm
X value of the analyzed parameter
5 Principle

The main principle of correct sampling is to obtain a representative sample (samples) from the whole

lot concerned. Every particle in the lot or sub-lot to be represented by the sample should have an equal

probability of being included in the sample. In order to do so, a sampling plan is needed. Figure 1

shows the actions needed for the development of a sampling plan. When sampling is to be carried

out according to the same plan repeatedly or continuously (e.g. daily), a full sampling plan shall be

prepared according to 6.2 (it is necessary to do this only once). A brief sampling plan shall be prepared

for routine use according to 6.3 (same type of sampling object or situation occasionally). In the case of

a new material or supplier, the existing plan shall be checked and updated or a new full sampling plan

shall be developed.
© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved 3
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SIST EN ISO 18135:2017
ISO 18135:2017(E)
Figure 1 — Procedure for sampling
NOTE The numbers in Figure 1 refer to the clauses in this document.
6 Establishing a sampling scheme (sampling plan)
6.1 Principle

The sampler shall prepare a full sampling plan either by copying the forms presented in Annex A or by

preparing his own forms or documents containing the appropriate items selected from those shown in

Annex A. Each sampling plan shall be given a unique reference number or a code/name.

4 © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 18135:2017
ISO 18135:2017(E)
6.2 Full sampling plan

A Model Sampling Plan is presented in Annex A as forms that are to be completed by the sampler. Once

completed, these forms become sampling certificates.
6.3 Brief sampling plan
The sampling plan shall include the following key elements:
a) reference to the full sampling plan (Annex A);
b) unique identification number of the sample;
c) date and time of sampling;
d) identity of the biofuel supplier;
e) identification number of the lot or the sub-lot;
f) type of biofuel (wood pellet, briquette, chips, etc.).
Also consider including the following items:
g) name of the sampler;
h) mass or volume of the sub-lot or the lot;
i) identity of the carrier (transport company);

j) storage information of the lot (like weather conditions, storage inside or outside);

k) sampling technique, e.g. shovelling, cross stream cutter, hammer sampler, probe, stopped belt, etc.;

l) any other details that change from sample to sample;

m) source (pile, silo, cargo hold, train car, truck/lorry, etc.) and location (centre, bottom, etc.) where

the sample was obtained.
6.4 Division of lots

The lot may be sampled as a whole, resulting in one sample, or divided into a number of sub-lots

resulting in a possible sample from each. In the case of manual sampling a lot may be sampled as a

whole only when it has a maximum of 2 500 t or as a series of sub-lots each to a maximum of 2 500 t,

e.g. fuel dispatched or delivered over a period of time, a ship load, a train load, a wagon load, or fuel

produced during a certain period, e.g. a shift.
Such division into a number of sub-lots can be necessary to
a) achieve the required precision (calculated by the procedure in 8.2),

b) maintain the integrity of the sample by enclosing in an airtight plastic bag or conta

...

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