Cranes - Light crane systems

This document applies to:
-   light crane systems, either suspended or free-standing systems, where the rated capacity of any single lifting device is 4 t or less;
-   pillar and wall-mounted jib cranes, without an operator's cabin, whose rated capacity is 10 t or less and whose overturning load moment is 500 kNm or less.
NOTE   For illustration of crane types, see Annex B.
This document is not applicable to cranes covered by another product specific crane standard, e.g. EN 15011:2011+A1:2014 or EN 14985:2012.
This document is applicable to cranes and crane systems, whose structures are made of steel or aluminium, excluding aluminium structures containing welded joints.
This document gives requirements for all significant hazards, hazardous situations and events relevant to cranes, when used as intended and under conditions foreseen by the manufacturer (see Clause 4).
The specific hazards due to potentially explosive atmospheres, ionizing radiation, operation in electro-magnetic fields beyond the range of EN 61000 6 2:2016 and operation in pharmacy or food industry are not covered by this document.
This document does not cover hazards related to the lifting of persons.
This document is applicable to cranes, which are manufactured after the date of its publication by CEN as a European Standard.
This document is not applicable to cranes manufactured before the date of its publication.

Krane - Leichtkransysteme

!Dieses Dokument gilt für:
- Leichtkransysteme, entweder hängende oder freistehende Systeme, bei denen die Nennkapazität einer einzelnen Hebevorrichtung 4 t oder weniger beträgt;
- Säulenschwenkkrane und Wandschwenkkrane ohne Fahrerkabine mit einer Nennkapazität von 10 t oder weniger und einem umkippbaren Lastmoment von 500 kNm oder weniger.
ANMERKUNG   Zur Veranschaulichung der Kranarten, siehe Anhang B.
Dieses Dokument gilt nicht für Krane, die unter eine andere produktspezifische Norm für Krane fallen, z. B. EN 15011:2011+A1:2014 oder EN 14985:2012.
Dieses Dokument gilt für Krane und Kransysteme, deren Strukturen aus Stahl oder Aluminium bestehen, ausgenommen Aluminiumkonstruktionen mit geschweißten Verbindungsstellen.
Dieses Dokument enthält Anforderungen für alle wesentlichen Gefährdungen, Gefährdungssituationen und Gefährdungsereignisse, die für Krane relevant sind, wenn sie bestimmungsgemäß und unter vom Hersteller vorgesehenen Bedingungen verwendet werden (siehe Abschnitt 4).
Die spezifischen Gefährdungen durch explosionsgefährdete Bereiche, ionisierende Strahlung, Betrieb in elektromagnetischen Feldern außerhalb des Anwendungsbereichs von EN 61000 6 2:2016 und der Betrieb in der Pharma- oder Lebensmittelindustrie werden von diesem Dokument nicht abgedeckt.
Dieses Dokument enthält keine Anforderungen an das Heben von Personen.
Dieses Dokument gilt für Krane, die nach dem Datum der Veröffentlichung dieses Dokuments als Europäische Norm durch CEN hergestellt werden.
Dieses Dokument gilt nicht für Krane, die vor dem Veröffentlichungsdatum dieses Dokuments hergestellt wurden."

Appareils de levage à charge suspendue - Systèmes de grue légère

Žerjavi - Lahki žerjavni sistemi

General Information

Status
Published
Current Stage
6060 - Definitive text made available (DAV) - Publishing
Due Date
16-Dec-2020
Completion Date
16-Dec-2020

RELATIONS

Effective Date
21-Oct-2020
Effective Date
21-Oct-2020

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN 16851:2017+A1:2021
01-april-2021
Žerjavi - Lahki žerjavni sistemi
Cranes - Light crane systems
Krane - Leichtkransysteme
Appareils de levage à charge suspendue - Systèmes de grue légère
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN 16851:2017+A1:2020
ICS:
53.020.20 Dvigala Cranes
SIST EN 16851:2017+A1:2021 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST EN 16851:2017+A1:2021
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST EN 16851:2017+A1:2021
EN 16851:2017+A1
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
December 2020
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 53.020.20 Supersedes EN 16851:2017
English Version
Cranes - Light crane systems
Appareils de levage à charge suspendue - Systèmes de Krane - Leichtkransysteme
grue légère

This European Standard was approved by CEN on 14 November 2016 and includes Amendment 1 approved by CEN on 9

November 2020.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2020 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN 16851:2017+A1:2020 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST EN 16851:2017+A1:2021
EN 16851:2017+A1:2020 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 4

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................... 5

1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................................... 6

2 Normative references .................................................................................................................................... 6

3 Terms and definitions ................................................................................................................................... 8

4 List of significant hazards ......................................................................................................................... 10

5 Safety requirements and/or protective measures .......................................................................... 15

5.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 15

5.2 Aluminium structures ................................................................................................................................ 16

5.2.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 16

5.2.2 Products and materials .............................................................................................................................. 16

5.2.3 Proof of static strength ............................................................................................................................... 17

5.2.4 Proof of fatigue strength ............................................................................................................................ 17

5.2.5 Proof of elastic stability ............................................................................................................................. 18

5.3 Actions on supporting structures ........................................................................................................... 18

5.4 General components ................................................................................................................................... 18

5.4.1 Joints in crane tracks, crane bridges and monorails ....................................................................... 18

5.4.2 Suspensions .................................................................................................................................................... 19

5.4.3 Bridge skewing .............................................................................................................................................. 19

5.4.4 Backup devices for trolleys and suspensions .................................................................................... 19

5.4.5 Turntables and switches ........................................................................................................................... 19

5.4.6 Interlock .......................................................................................................................................................... 20

5.4.7 Loading/unloading station ....................................................................................................................... 21

5.4.8 Telescopic and cantilevered crane systems ....................................................................................... 21

5.4.9 Trolleys ............................................................................................................................................................ 22

5.4.10 End stops and motion limiters ................................................................................................................ 22

5.4.11 Power supply ................................................................................................................................................. 23

5.5 Tandem operation of cranes/trolleys from a single control station ......................................... 23

5.6 Use of multiple lifting devices.................................................................................................................. 23

5.7 Man-machine interface .............................................................................................................................. 23

5.7.1 Control devices and control stations..................................................................................................... 23

5.7.2 Horizontal speeds ........................................................................................................................................ 23

5.7.3 Guarding and access .................................................................................................................................... 24

5.7.4 Lighting ............................................................................................................................................................ 25

5.7.5 Reduction of noise by design ................................................................................................................... 25

5.8 Equipment for warning .............................................................................................................................. 26

5.8.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 26

5.8.2 Warning markings ....................................................................................................................................... 26

5.8.3 Cableless control warning light .............................................................................................................. 26

5.8.4 Location of the visual display unit ......................................................................................................... 26

5.9 Safety related functions of control systems ........................................................................................ 26

6 !Verification of safety requirements and/or protective measures" ................................ 27

6.1 !General ...................................................................................................................................................... 27

6.2 !Types of verification ............................................................................................................................. 27

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SIST EN 16851:2017+A1:2021
EN 16851:2017+A1:2020 (E)

6.3 !Fitness for purpose testing" ........................................................................................................... 29

6.3.1 Functional test ............................................................................................................................................... 29

6.3.2 Static test ......................................................................................................................................................... 29

6.3.3 Dynamic test ................................................................................................................................................... 29

7 Information for use ...................................................................................................................................... 30

7.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 30

7.2 Operator’s manual ........................................................................................................................................ 30

7.3 User’s manual ................................................................................................................................................. 30

7.3.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 30

7.3.2 Instructions for installation ...................................................................................................................... 31

7.3.3 Instructions for maintenance ................................................................................................................... 32

7.4 Marking of rated capacities ....................................................................................................................... 33

Annex A (informative) Guidance for specifying the operating duty ........................................................ 34

Annex B (normative) Actions on supporting structures and installation dimensions ..................... 35

B.1 Loads and load combinations ................................................................................................................... 35

B.2 Jib cranes ......................................................................................................................................................... 36

B.2.1 Pillar jib crane................................................................................................................................................ 36

B.2.2 Wall-mounted jib crane .............................................................................................................................. 37

B.3 Suspended light crane systems ................................................................................................................ 38

B.4 Free-standing systems ................................................................................................................................ 39

Annex C (normative) Noise test code .................................................................................................................. 40

C.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 40

C.2 Description of machinery family ............................................................................................................. 41

C.3 Determination of a conventional emission sound pressure level by calculation ................. 41

C.3.1 Principle of the method .............................................................................................................................. 41

C.3.2 Calculation....................................................................................................................................................... 41

C.4 Determination of emission sound pressure level at control stations and other

specified positions and determination of sound power level by measurement.................... 43

C.4.1 Measurement method and points ........................................................................................................... 43

C.4.2 Installation and mounting conditions ................................................................................................... 44

C.4.3 Operating conditions ................................................................................................................................... 45

C.5 Uncertainties .................................................................................................................................................. 46

C.6 Information to be recorded....................................................................................................................... 46

C.7 Information to be reported ....................................................................................................................... 46

C.8 Declaration and verification of noise emission values ................................................................... 46

Annex D (informative) Selection of a suitable set of European Standards for cranes in a

given application........................................................................................................................................... 48

Annex ZA (informative) !Relationship between this European Standard and the essential

requirements of Directive2006/42/EC aimed to be covered ....................................................... 50

Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................. 53

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SIST EN 16851:2017+A1:2021
EN 16851:2017+A1:2020 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN 16851:2017+A1:2020) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 147

“Cranes - Safety”, the secretariat of which is held by BSI.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by June 2021, and conflicting national standards shall be

withdrawn at the latest by June 2021.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document has been prepared under a mandate given to CEN by the European Commission and the

European Free Trade Association, and supports essential requirements of EU Directive(s).

For relationship with EU Directive(s), see informative Annex ZA, which is an integral part of this

document.
This document includes Amendment 1 approved by CEN on 9 November 2020.
!This document supersedes EN 16851:2017."

The start and finish of text introduced or altered by amendment is indicated in the text by tags !".

For relationship with other European Standards for cranes, see Annex D.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organisations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland,

Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of

North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the

United Kingdom.
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
SIST EN 16851:2017+A1:2021
EN 16851:2017+A1:2020 (E)
Introduction
This European Standard is a type C standard as stated in EN ISO 12100.

This European Standard has been prepared to provide one means for equipment of cranes to conform

to the essential health and safety requirements of the Machinery Directive.

The machinery concerned and the extent to which hazards, hazardous situations and hazardous events

are covered are indicated in the scope of this document (see Clause 1).

When provisions of this type C standard are different from those which are stated in type A or B

standards, the provisions of this type C standard take precedence over the provisions of the other

standards, for machines that have been designed and built according to the provisions of this type C

standard.
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
SIST EN 16851:2017+A1:2021
EN 16851:2017+A1:2020 (E)
1 Scope
!This document applies to:

— light crane systems, either suspended or free-standing systems, where the rated capacity of any

single lifting device is 4 t or less;

— pillar and wall-mounted jib cranes, without an operator's cabin, whose rated capacity is 10 t or less

and whose overturning load moment is 500 kNm or less.
NOTE For illustration of crane types, see Annex B.

This document is not applicable to cranes covered by another product specific crane standard, e.g.

EN 15011:2011+A1:2014 or EN 14985:2012.

This document is applicable to cranes and crane systems, whose structures are made of steel or

aluminium, excluding aluminium structures containing welded joints.

This document gives requirements for all significant hazards, hazardous situations and events relevant

to cranes, when used as intended and under conditions foreseen by the manufacturer (see Clause 4).

The specific hazards due to potentially explosive atmospheres, ionizing radiation, operation in electro-

magnetic fields beyond the range of EN 61000-6-2:2016 and operation in pharmacy or food industry

are not covered by this document.
This document does not cover hazards related to the lifting of persons.

This document is applicable to cranes, which are manufactured after the date of its publication by CEN

as a European Standard.

This document is not applicable to cranes manufactured before the date of its publication."

2 Normative references

!The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

EN 515:2017, Aluminium and aluminium alloys - Wrought products - Temper designations

EN 614-1:2006+A1:2009, Safety of machinery - Ergonomic design principles - Part 1: Terminology and

general principles

EN 755-9:2016, Aluminium and aluminium alloys - Extruded rod/bar, tube and profiles - Part 9: Profiles,

tolerances on dimensions and form
EN 795:2012, Personal fall protection equipment - Anchor devices

EN 894-1:1997+A1:2008, Safety of machinery - Ergonomics requirements for the design of displays and

control actuators - Part 1: General principles for human interactions with displays and control actuators

EN 894-2:1997+A1:2008, Safety of machinery - Ergonomics requirements for the design of displays and

control actuators - Part 2: Displays

EN 12077-2:1998+A1:2008, Cranes safety - Requirements for health and safety - Part 2: Limiting and

indicating devices

EN 12644-1:2001+A1:2008, Cranes - Information for use and testing - Part 1: Instructions

---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
SIST EN 16851:2017+A1:2021
EN 16851:2017+A1:2020 (E)

EN 12644-2:2000+A1:2008, Cranes - Information for use and testing - Part 2: Marking

EN 13001-1:2015, Cranes - General design - Part 1: General principles and requirements

EN 13001-2:2014, Crane safety - General design - Part 2: Load actions

EN 13001-3-1:2012+A2:2018, Cranes - General Design - Part 3-1: Limit States and proof competence of

steel structure

EN 13001-3-2:2014, Cranes - General design - Part 3-2: Limit states and proof of competence of wire ropes

in reeving systems

EN 13001-3-3:2014, Cranes - General design - Part 3-3: Limit states and proof of competence of wheel/rail

contacts

EN 13001-3-4:2018, Cranes - General design - Part 3-4: Limit states and proof of competence of machinery

- Bearings

EN 13001-3-5:2016, Cranes - General design - Part 3-5: Limit states and proof of competence of forged

hooks

EN 13001-3-6:2018, Cranes - General design - Part 3-6: Limit states and proof of competence of machinery

- Hydraulic cylinders
EN 13135:2013+A1:2018, Cranes - Safety - Design - Requirements for equipment
EN 13157:2004+A1:2009, Cranes - Safety - Hand powered cranes
EN 13557:2003+A2:2008, Cranes - Controls and control stations
EN 13586:2004+A1:2008, Cranes - Access
EN 14238:2004+A1:2009, Cranes - Manually controlled load manipulating devices

EN 14492-2:2019, Cranes - Power driven winches and hoists - Part 2: Power driven hoists

EN 15011:2011+A1:2014, Cranes - Bridge and gantry cranes

EN 60204-32:2008, Safety of machinery - Electrical equipment of machines - Part 32: Requirements for

hoisting machines (IEC 60204-32:2008)

EN ISO 3744:2010, Acoustics - Determination of sound power levels and sound energy levels of noise

sources using sound pressure - Engineering methods for an essentially free field over a reflecting plane

(ISO 3744:2010)

EN ISO 4871:2009, Acoustics - Declaration and verification of noise emission values of machinery and

equipment (ISO 4871:1996)

EN ISO 11201:2010, Acoustics - Noise emitted by machinery and equipment - Determination of emission

sound pressure levels at a work station and at other specified positions in an essentially free field over a

reflecting plane with negligible environmental corrections (ISO 11201:2010)

EN ISO 11202:2010, Acoustics - Noise emitted by machinery and equipment - Determination of emission

sound pressure levels at a work station and at other specified positions applying approximate

environmental corrections (ISO 11202:2010)
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SIST EN 16851:2017+A1:2021
EN 16851:2017+A1:2020 (E)

EN ISO 11203:2009, Acoustics - Noise emitted by machinery and equipment - Determination of emission

sound pressure levels at a work station and at other specified positions from the sound power level (ISO

11203:1995)

EN ISO 11688-1:2009, Acoustics - Recommended practice for the design of low-noise machinery and

equipment - Part 1: Planning (ISO/TR 11688-1:1995)

EN ISO 12100:2010, Safety of machinery - General principles for design - Risk assessment and risk

reduction (ISO 12100:2010)

EN ISO 13849-1:2015, Safety of machinery - Safety-related parts of control systems - Part 1: General

principles for design (ISO 13849-1:2015)

EN ISO 13854:2019, Safety of machinery - Minimum gaps to avoid crushing of parts of the human body

(ISO 13854:2017)

EN ISO 13857:2019, Safety of machinery - Safety distances to prevent hazard zones being reached by

upper and lower limbs (ISO 13857:2019)

EN ISO 14120:2015, Safety of machinery - Guards - General requirements for the design and construction

of fixed and movable guards (ISO 14120:2015)
ISO 3864 (all parts), Graphical symbols — Safety colours and safety signs
ISO 4306-1:2007, Cranes — Vocabulary — Part 1: General

ISO 4309:2017, Cranes — Wire ropes — Care and maintenance, inspection and discard"

3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in !ISO 4306-1:2007,

EN ISO 3744:2010" and the following apply.
3.1
light crane system

assembly of lifting devices, bridges, trolleys and tracks with their suspensions for lifting operations

3.2
bridge
beam carrying lifting device(s) and supported on trolleys running on tracks

Note 1 to entry: Wording of the definition differs from that given in !ISO 4306-1:2007".

3.3
track
stationary beam on which a bridge or lifting device(s) are running

Note 1 to entry: Characteristic for tracks in light crane systems is that a track can be removed from the

supporting building structures without influence on strength of the supporting structures.

3.4
suspension

necessary clamps, hanger rods and other fittings from which a track is suspended from a building or

other supporting structure
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SIST EN 16851:2017+A1:2021
EN 16851:2017+A1:2020 (E)
3.5
monorail

!single track consisting of one or several sections, on which lifting devices or trolleys are running

Note 1 to entry: Monorail together with lifting devices is a particular type of a light crane system."

!3.6
pillar mounted jib crane

crane with a vertical pillar fixed on a floor, equipped with a slewing jib and lifting device(s)

3.7
wall mounted jib crane

crane fixed to a vertical structure (e.g. wall or column), equipped with a slewing jib and lifting device(s)

3.8
jib crane
generic term for both pillar mounted and wall mounted jib cranes
Note 1 to entry: This definition is different from that in ISO 4306-1:2007."
3.9
free-standing system
floor-mounted light crane system

Note 1 to entry: A free-standing system can be supported by the surrounding structures using bracings.

Note 2 to entry: Characteristic for a free-standing system is that it can be removed from the supporting building

structures without influence on strength of the supporting structures.
Note 3 to entry: For an example of free-standing system see Figure B.4.
3.10
trolley

wheel assembly running on a track or on a bridge and supporting a bridge or lifting device

Note 1 to entry: Definition differs from that specified in ISO 4306-1.
3.11
loading/unloading station

arrangement enabling a piece of track to be lowered down and lifted up together with the lifting device

or trolley
3.12
turntable

component able to rotate in a horizontal plane and containing a piece of track, enabling the lifting

device or trolley to change from one track to another
3.13
switch

component enabling the lifting device or trolley to change from one track to another

3.14
interlock

mechanism aligning a moving bridge with a stationary track or aligning two bridges and keeping this

aligned connection steady for lifting device or trolley to move through the connection

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SIST EN 16851:2017+A1:2021
EN 16851:2017+A1:2020 (E)
4 List of significant hazards

Table 1 contains all the significant hazards, hazardous situations and events, as far as they are dealt

with in this European Standard, identified by risk assessment as significant for this type of machinery

and which require action to eliminate or reduce the risk.
Table 1 — List of significant hazards and associated requirements
No. Type or group Origin (sources) Subclauses of this
European Standard
1 Mechanical hazards
1.1 Hazards generated by
machine parts or work
pieces, e.g. by:
1.1.1 Relative location 5.4.3, 5.4.5, 5.4.6,
5.4.7, 5.4.8, 5.4.10,
5.7.3, Clause 6, 7.2
1.1.2 Mass and stability 5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 5.4.1,
5.4.2, 5.4.3, 5.4.4,
5.4.6, 5.4.7, 5.4.8,
5.4.9, 5.4.10, Clause 6,
7.2, 7.4
1.1.3 Mass and velocity 5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 5.4.1,
5.4.2, 5.4.3, 5.4.10, 5.5,
5.7.3, Clause 6, 7.2
1.1.4 Inadequacy of mechanical strength 5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 5.4.1,
5.4.2, 5.4.3, 5.4.4,
5.4.6, 5.4.7, 5.4.9,
5.4.10, Clause 6, 7.1,
7.4
1.2 Accumulation of energy
inside the machinery,
e.g. by:
1.2.1 Fluids under pressure 5.4.11, Clause 6, 7.1,
7.2
1.3 Elementary forms of
mechanical hazards:
1.3.1 Crushing 5.7.3, 7.1
1.3.2 Shearing 5.1, 5.7.3, 7.1
1.3.3 Cutting or severing 5.7.3, 7.1
1.3.4 Drawing-in or trapping hazard 5.7.3, 7.1
- moving transmission parts
1.3.5 Impact 5.7.3, 7.1, 7.2
1.3.6 High pressure fluid injection or ejection 5.4.11, 5.7.3, 7.1
hazard
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
SIST EN 16851:2017+A1:2021
EN 16851:2017+A1:2020 (E)
No. Type or group Origin (sources) Subclauses of this
European Standard
2 Electrical hazards due
to:
2.1 Contact of persons with live parts (direct 5.4.11, 5.7.3, 7.2
contact)
2.2 Contact of persons with parts which have 5.1
become live under faulty conditions
(indirect contact)
2.3 Approach to live par
...

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