Stationary source emissions - Determination of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in energy-intensive industries - Part 3: Cement industry

This European Standard specifies a harmonized methodology for calculating GHG emissions from the cement industry, with a view to reporting these emissions for various purposes and by different basis, such as, plant basis, company basis (by country or by region) or even international group basis. It addresses all the following direct and indirect sources of GHG included [1]:
-   Direct GHG emissions (scope 1) from sources that are owned or controlled by the organization, such as emissions result from the following sources:
-   process: calcinations of carbonates and combustion of organic carbon contained in raw materials;
-   combustion of kiln fuels (fossil kiln fuels, alternative fossil fuels, mixed fuels with biogenic carbon content, biomass and bioliquids) related to clinker production and/or drying of raw materials and fuels;
-   combustion of non-kiln fuels (fossil fuels, alternative fossil fuels, mixed fuels with biogenic carbon content, biomass and bioliquids) related to equipment and on-site vehicles, room heating/cooling, drying of MIC (e.g. slag or pozzolana);
-   combustion of fuels for on-site power generation;
-   combustion of carbon contained in wastewater.
-   Energy indirect GHG emissions (scope 2) from the generation of purchased electricity consumed in the  organization’s owned or controlled equipment;
-   Other indirect GHG emissions (scope 3) from bought clinker. Excluded from this standard are all other scope 3 emissions from the cement industry.

Emissionen aus stationären Quellen - Bestimmung von Treibhausgasen (THG) aus energieintensiven Industrien - Teil 3: Zementindustrie

Die vorliegende Europäische Norm legt eine harmonisierte Methodik zur Berechnung der Treibhausgasemissionen aus der Zementindustrie fest, und zwar im Hinblick auf die Berichterstattung dieser Emissionen für verschiedene Zwecke und auf unterschiedlicher Bezugsebene, wie zum Beispiel auf Anlagenebene, Unternehmensebene (nach Land oder nach Region) oder sogar auf Konzernebene. Sie behandelt alle im Folgenden genannten direkten und indirekten Quellen von Treibhausgasen [1]:
—   direkte Treibhausgasemissionen (Scope 1) aus Quellen, die im Besitz der Organisation sind oder von dieser kontrolliert werden, z. B. Emissionen aus folgenden Quellen:
—   Prozess: Kalzinierung von Carbonaten und Verbrennung des in Rohmaterialien enthaltenen organischen Kohlenstoffs;
—   Verbrennung der Ofenbrennstoffe (fossile Ofenbrennstoffe, alternative fossile Brennstoffe, Mischbrennstoffe mit biogenem Kohlenstoffanteil, Biomasse und flüssige Biobrennstoffe) im Zusammenhang mit der Klinkerherstellung und/oder dem Trocknen von Rohmaterialien und Brennstoffen;
—   Verbrennung der Nicht-Ofenbrennstoffe (fossile Brennstoffe, alternative fossile Brennstoffe, Mischbrennstoffe mit biogenem Kohlenstoffanteil, Biomasse und flüssige Biobrennstoffe) im Zusammenhang mit Betriebseinrichtungen und auf dem Gelände eingesetzten Fahrzeugen, dem Heizen/Kühlen von Räumen, dem Trocknen von MIC (z. B. Schlacke oder Puzzolan);
—   Verbrennung von Brennstoffen zur Stromerzeugung vor Ort;
—   Verbrennung von in Abwasser enthaltenem Kohlenstoff;
—   energiebedingte indirekte Treibhausgasemissionen (Scope 2) aus der Erzeugung zugekaufter elektrischer Energie, die in den Betriebseinrichtungen verbraucht wird, welche sich im Besitz der Organisation befinden oder von dieser kontrolliert werden;
—   sonstige indirekte Treibhausgasemissionen (Scope 3) aus zugekauftem Klinker. Alle übrigen Scope-3-Emissionen aus der Zementindustrie sind von dieser Norm ausgeschlossen.

Émissions de sources fixes - Détermination des émissions de gaz à effet de serre (GES) dans les industries énergo-intensives - Partie 3: Industrie du ciment

La présente Norme européenne spécifie une méthodologie harmonisée pour calculer les émissions de GES provenant de l'industrie du ciment, en vue de déclarer ces émissions à des fins diverses et sur différentes bases telles qu'au niveau d'une usine, d'une entreprise (par pays ou région) ou d'un groupe international. Elle examine toutes les sources suivantes d'émissions directes et indirectes de GES [1] :
-   Émissions directes de GES (type 1) provenant de sources détenues ou contrôlées par l'organisation, les émissions émanant des sources suivantes :
-   procédé : calcination des carbonates et combustion du carbone organique contenu dans les matières premières ;
-   combustion des combustibles alimentant les fours (combustibles fossiles utilisés pour alimenter les fours, combustibles fossiles de substitution, combustibles mixtes contenant du carbone biogénique, biomasse et bioliquides) liés à la production de clinker et/ou au séchage des matières premières et des combustibles ;
-   combustion des combustibles non destinés à alimenter les fours (combustibles fossiles, combustibles fossiles de substitution, combustibles mixtes contenant du carbone biogénique, biomasse et bioliquides) liés aux équipements et aux véhicules utilisés sur site, au chauffage/refroidissement des locaux, au séchage des MIC (laitier ou pouzzolane, par exemple) ;
-   combustion des combustibles pour la production d'électricité sur site ;
-   combustion du carbone contenu dans les eaux usées ;
-   Émissions indirectes de GES des énergies (type 2) provenant de la production de l'électricité achetée et consommée par les équipements détenus ou contrôlés par l'organisation ;
-   Autres émissions indirectes de GES (type 3) provenant du clinker acheté. Toutes les autres émissions de type 3 provenant de l'industrie du ciment sont exclues du domaine d'application de la présente norme.

Emisije nepremičnih virov - Določevanje emisij toplogrednih plinov (TGP) v energetsko intenzivnih industrijah - 3. del: Proizvodnja cementa

Določevanje emisij toplogrednih plinov na podlagi metode masne bilance pri proizvodnji cementa. Zajete bodo definicije in indikatorji učinkovitosti. Cilj je postopek preverjanja, s katerim se oceni in primerja vhodna in izhodna metoda za določanje emisij CO2 pri postopku proizvodnje klinkerja. Standard bo opisoval potrjeni postopek določanja.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
19-Jul-2016
Current Stage
6060 - Definitive text made available (DAV) - Publishing
Due Date
20-Jul-2016
Completion Date
20-Jul-2016

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN 19694-3:2017
01-julij-2017
(PLVLMHQHSUHPLþQLKYLURY'RORþHYDQMHHPLVLMWRSORJUHGQLKSOLQRY 7*3 Y
HQHUJHWVNRLQWHQ]LYQLKLQGXVWULMDKGHO3URL]YRGQMDFHPHQWD
Stationary source emissions - Determination of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in
energy-intensive industries - Part 3: Cement industry
Emissionen aus stationären Quellen - Bestimmung von Treibhausgasen (THG) aus
energieintensiven Industrien - Teil 3: Zementindustrie

Émissions de sources fixes - Détermination des émissions des gaz à effet de serre dans

les industries à forte intensité énergétique - Partie 3: Industrie du ciment
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN 19694-3:2016
ICS:
13.020.40 Onesnaževanje, nadzor nad Pollution, pollution control
onesnaževanjem in and conservation
ohranjanje
13.040.40 (PLVLMHQHSUHPLþQLKYLURY Stationary source emissions
91.100.10 Cement. Mavec. Apno. Malta Cement. Gypsum. Lime.
Mortar
SIST EN 19694-3:2017 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN 19694-3:2017
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SIST EN 19694-3:2017
EN 19694-3
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
July 2016
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 13.040.40
English Version
Stationary source emissions - Determination of
greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in energy-intensive
industries - Part 3: Cement industry

Émissions de sources fixes - Détermination des Emissionen aus stationären Quellen - Bestimmung von

émissions de gaz à effet de serre (GES) dans les Treibhausgasen (THG) aus energieintensiven

industries énergo-intensives - Partie 3: Industrie du Industrien - Teil 3: Zementindustrie

ciment
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 5 May 2016.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,

Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Brussels

© 2016 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN 19694-3:2016 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN 19694-3:2017
EN 19694-3:2016 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 4

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................... 5

1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................................... 9

2 Normative references .................................................................................................................................... 9

3 Terms and definitions ................................................................................................................................... 9

4 Symbols and abbreviated terms ............................................................................................................. 12

5 Determination of GHGs based on the mass balance method ........................................................ 13

5.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 13

5.2 Major GHG in cement .................................................................................................................................. 14

5.3 Determination based on mass balance ................................................................................................ 14

5.4 Determination by stack emission measurements ............................................................................ 14

5.5 Gross and net emissions ............................................................................................................................ 14

6 System boundaries ...................................................................................................................................... 21

6.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 21

6.2 Operational boundaries ............................................................................................................................. 21

6.3 Organizational boundaries ....................................................................................................................... 22

7 Direct GHG emissions and their determination ................................................................................ 25

7.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 25

7.2 CO from raw material calcinations ....................................................................................................... 28

7.3 Reporting of CO emissions from raw material calcination based on clinker output:

summary of IPCC and CSI recommendations and default emission factor for clinker ....... 37

7.4 Determining the FD calcination rate ..................................................................................................... 38

7.5 Direct determination of the CO emission factor of FD from analysis of CO content ......... 39

2 2

7.6 Cement specific issues for fuels .............................................................................................................. 39

7.7 GHG from fuels for kilns ............................................................................................................................. 41

7.8 GHG from non-kiln fuels ............................................................................................................................ 41

7.9 GHG from the combustion of wastewater ............................................................................................ 42

7.10 Non-CO GHG emissions from the cement industry ......................................................................... 42

8 Energy indirect and other indirect GHG emissions and their determination ........................ 43

8.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 43

8.2 CO from external electricity production ............................................................................................ 43

8.3 CO from bought clinker ............................................................................................................................ 44

9 Baselines, acquisitions and disinvestments ....................................................................................... 44

10 Reporting ........................................................................................................................................................ 45

10.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 45

10.2 Corporate environmental reporting ..................................................................................................... 45

10.3 Reporting periods ........................................................................................................................................ 46

10.4 Performance indicators ............................................................................................................................. 47

11 Uncertainty of GHG inventories .............................................................................................................. 53

11.1 Introduction to uncertainty assessment ............................................................................................. 53

11.2 Uncertainty of activity data ...................................................................................................................... 56

11.3 Uncertainties of fuel and material parameters ................................................................................. 56

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SIST EN 19694-3:2017
EN 19694-3:2016 (E)

11.4 Uncertainties of continuous stack emission measurements ........................................................ 57

11.5 Evaluation of the overall uncertainty of a GHG inventory ............................................................. 58

11.6 Application of default values instead of analysing results ............................................................ 58

12 Considerations for applying this standard (verification procedure) ........................................ 59

Annex A (informative) Findings from the field tests (analytical interferences)................................. 61

Annex B (informative) Emission factors ............................................................................................................ 65

Annex C (informative) Uncertainty of activity data ....................................................................................... 67

Annex D (informative) Overview on terms in a cement plant .................................................................. 73

Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................. 75

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SIST EN 19694-3:2017
EN 19694-3:2016 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN 19694-3:2016) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 264 “Air

quality”, the secretariat of which is held by DIN.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by January 2017, and conflicting national standards shall

be withdrawn at the latest by January 2017.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent

rights.

This document has been prepared under a mandate M/478 given to CEN by the European Commission

and the European Free Trade Association.

EN 19694, Stationary source emissions — Determination of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in energy-

intensive industries is a series of standards that consists of the following parts:

— Part 1: General aspects
— Part 2: Iron and steel industry
— Part 3: Cement industry
— Part 4: Aluminium industry
— Part 5: Lime industry
— Part 6: Ferroalloy industry

According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia,

France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta,

Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and the United Kingdom.
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SIST EN 19694-3:2017
EN 19694-3:2016 (E)
Introduction

This European Standard for the cement industry has been based on the WBCSD/CSI and WRI: “CO and

Energy Accounting and Reporting Standard for the Cement Industry” [1].
Overview of cement manufacturing process
Cement manufacture includes three main process steps (see Figure 1):
a) preparing of raw materials and fuels;
b) producing clinker, an intermediate, through pyro-processing of raw materials;

c) grinding and blending clinker with other products (“mineral components”) to make cement.

There are two main sources of direct CO emissions in the production process: calcination of raw

materials in the pyro-processing stage, and combustion of kiln fuels. These two sources are described in

more detail below. Other CO sources include direct GHG emissions from non-kiln fuels (e.g. dryers for

cement constituents products, room heating, on-site transports and on-site power generation), and

indirect GHG emissions from, e.g. external power production and transports. Non-CO greenhouse gases

covered by the Kyoto Protocol , apart from carbon monoxide (CO) methane (CH ) and nitrous oxide

(N O), are not relevant in the cement context, in the sense that direct GHG emissions of these gases are

negligible.

Figure 1 — Process steps in cement manufacture (source: Ellis 2000, based on Ruth et al. 2000)

Methane (CH), nitrous oxide (NO), sulfur hexafluoride (SF ), partly halogenated

4 2 6
fluorohydrogencarbons (HFC) and perfluorated hydrocarbons (PFC)
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SIST EN 19694-3:2017
EN 19694-3:2016 (E)
Table 1 — Overview of input places of materials
Raw meal Input place
Raw materials from natural resources Raw mill
Alternative raw materials Raw mill
Raw material flows for clinker production Input place
Raw meal Kiln feed
Fuel ashes Burner or precalciner or fuel dryer
Additional raw materials not part of the kiln Kiln inlet
feed
Fuels flows for clinker and cement Input place
production
Fossil fuels Burner or precalciner or fuel dryer or raw material dryer
Alternative fuels Burner or precalciner or fuel dryer or raw material dryer

Alternative fossil fuels Burner or precalciner or fuel dryer or raw material dryer

Mixed fuels Burner or precalciner or fuel dryer or raw material dryer
Biomass fuels Burner or precalciner or fuel dryer or raw material dryer
Cement kiln dust Output place
Dust return Preheater
Filter dust Precipitator / filter
By pass dust Bypass filter
Cement constituents based products Output place
Clinker Kiln (cooler)
Cement Cement mill
Blast furnace slag Cement mill or grinding station
Fly ash Cement mill or grinding station
Gypsum Cement mill or grinding station
Cooler dust Cooler, is normally added to the clinker flow to the
clinker silo
Cement kiln dust Preheater or precipitator or filter or bypass filter
Limestone Cement mill or grinding station
Burnt shale Cement mill or grinding station
Pozzolana Cement mill or grinding station
Silica fume Cement mill or grinding station
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SIST EN 19694-3:2017
EN 19694-3:2016 (E)
CO from calcination of raw materials

In the clinker production process, CO is released due to the chemical decomposition of calcium,

magnesium and other carbonates (e.g. from limestone) into lime:
CaCO + heat → CaO + CO
3 2
MgCO + heat → MgO + CO
3 2

This process is called "calcining" or "calcination". It results in direct CO emissions through the kiln

stack. When considering CO emissions due to calcination, two components may be distinguished:

— CO2 from raw materials actually used for clinker production, these raw materials are fully calcined

in the clinker production process;

— CO from raw materials leaving the kiln system as partly calcined cement kiln dust (CKD), or as

normally fully calcined bypass dust.

CO from actual clinker production is proportional to the lime content of the clinker, , which in turn

varies little in time or between different cement plants. As a result, the CO emission factor per tonne of

clinker is fairly stable with a default value in this standard of 525 kg CO2/t clinker (IPCC default: 510 kg

CO /t clinker, CSI default: 525 kg CO /t clinker [19]).
2 2

The amount of kiln dust leaving the kiln system varies greatly with kiln types and cement quality

standards, ranging from practically zero to over one hundred kilograms per tonne of clinker. The

associated emissions are likely to be relevant in some countries or installations.

CO emissions from calcination of raw materials may be calculated by two methods which are in

principle equivalent: Either based on the amount and chemical composition of the products (clinker

plus dust leaving the kiln system, output methods B1 and B2), or based on the amount and composition

of the raw materials entering the kiln (input methods A1 and A2). See 7.2.1, 7.2.2 for details.

CO from organic carbon in raw materials

The raw materials used for clinker production usually contain a small fraction of organic carbon, which

may be expressed as total organic carbon (TOC) content. Organic carbon in the raw meal is converted to

CO during pyro-processing. The contribution of this component to the overall CO emissions of a

2 2

cement plant is typically very small (about 1 % or less). The organic carbon contents of raw materials

may, however, vary substantially between locations and between the types of materials used. For

example, the resulting emissions may be relevant if a cement company organization (used in this

standard) consumes large quantities of certain types of fly ash or shale as raw materials entering the

kiln.
CO from fuels for kiln operation

The cement industry traditionally uses various fossil fuels to operate cement kilns, including coal,

petroleum coke, fuel oil, and natural gas. Fuels derived from waste materials have become important

substitutes for traditional fossil fuels. These alternative fuels (AF) include fossil fuel-derived fractions

such as, e.g. waste oil and plastics, as well as biomass-derived fractions such as waste wood and

dewatered sludge from wastewater treatment. Furthermore fuels are increasingly used which contain

both fossil and biogenic carbon (mixed fuels), like e.g. (pre-treated) municipal and (pre-treated)

industrial wastes (containing plastics, textiles, paper etc.) or waste tyres (containing natural and

synthetic rubber).

A second, but much smaller factor is the CaO and MgO content of the raw materials and additives used.

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SIST EN 19694-3:2017
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Both traditional fossil and alternative fuels result in direct CO emissions through the kiln stack.

However, biomass and bioliquids are considered “climate change-neutral“ in accordance with IPCC

definitions. Use of alternative (biomass- or fossil-derived) fuels may, in addition, lead to important

emission reductions elsewhere, for instance from waste incineration plants or landfills.

Mineral components (MIC) are natural and artificial materials with latent hydraulic properties.

Examples of MIC include natural pozzolana, blast furnace slag, and fly ash. In addition, gypsum is within

this standard labelled as MIC. MICs are added to clinker to produce blended cement. In some instances,

pure MICs are directly added to the concrete by the ready-mix or construction company. Use of MICs

leads to an equivalent reduction of direct CO emissions associated with clinker production, both from

calcination and fuel combustion. Artificial MICs are waste materials from other production processes

such as, e.g. steel and coal-fired power production. Related GHG emissions are monitored and reported

by the corresponding industry sector. Utilization of these MICs for clinker or cement substitution does

not entail additional GHG emissions at the production site. Consequently, these indirect GHG emissions

shall not be included in the cement production inventory.

The basic mass balance methods used in this standard are compatible with the 2006 IPCC Guidelines for

National Greenhouse Gas Inventories issued by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)

[4], and with the revised WRI / WBCSD Greenhouse Gas Protocol [9]. Default emission factors suggested

in these documents are used, except where more recent, industry-specific data has become available.

The 2006 IPCC Guidelines [4] introduced a Tier 3 method for reporting CO emissions from the cement

production based on the raw material inputs (Vol. III, Chapter 2.2.1.1, Formula 2.3). However, a large

number of raw material inputs and the need to continuously monitor their chemical composition make

this approach impractical in many cement plants. The different raw materials are normally

homogenized before and during the grinding process in the raw mill. The WRI / WBCSD therefore

recommended alternative methods for input-based reporting of CO emissions from raw material

calcination in cement plants. They rely on determining the amount of raw meal consumed in the kiln

system. In many cement plants the homogenized mass flow of raw meal is routinely monitored

including its chemical analysis for the purpose of process and product quality control. The input

methods based on the raw meal consumed are already successfully applied in cement plants in different

countries and seem to be more practical than Tier 3 of the 2006 IPCC Guidelines [4]. They were

included in the Cement CO and Energy Protocol Version 3 (Simple Input Method A1 and Detailed Input

Method A2, 7.2.1).
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SIST EN 19694-3:2017
EN 19694-3:2016 (E)
1 Scope

This European Standard specifies a harmonized methodology for calculating GHG emissions from the

cement industry, with a view to reporting these emissions for various purposes and by different basis,

such as, plant basis, company basis (by country or by region) or even international group basis. It

addresses all the following direct and indirect sources of GHG included [1]:

— Direct GHG emissions (scope 1) from sources that are owned or controlled by the organization,

such as emissions result from the following sources:

— process: calcinations of carbonates and combustion of organic carbon contained in raw

materials;

— combustion of kiln fuels (fossil kiln fuels, alternative fossil fuels, mixed fuels with biogenic

carbon content, biomass and bioliquids) related to clinker production and/or drying of raw

materials and fuels;

— combustion of non-kiln fuels (fossil fuels, alternative fossil fuels, mixed fuels with biogenic

carbon content, biomass and bioliquids) related to equipment and on-site vehicles, room

heating/cooling, drying of MIC (e.g. slag or pozzolana);
— combustion of fuels for on-site power generation;
— combustion of carbon contained in wastewater.

— Energy indirect GHG emissions (scope 2) from the generation of purchased electricity consumed in

the organization’s owned or controlled equipment;

— Other indirect GHG emissions (scope 3) from bought clinker. Excluded from this standard are all

other scope 3 emissions from the cement industry.
2 Normative references
Not applicable.
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
3.1
additional raw material
Adrm

additional raw materials are not part of the kiln feed and are fed directly to the calciner or the kiln inlet

3.2
alternative fossil fuel

fossil fuel derived from waste materials without biogenic content and not listed by IPCC

3.3
alternative raw material
Arm

alternative raw materials are raw materials for clinker production derived from artificial resources

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EN 19694-3:2016 (E)
3.4
bioliquids

liquid fuel for energy purposes other than for transport, including electricity and heating and cooling,

produced from biomass
3.5
bypass dust

discarded dust from the bypass system dedusting unit of suspension preheater, precalciner and grate

preheater kilns, normally consisting of kiln feed material which is fully calcined or at least calcined to a

high degree
3.6
cement

building material made by grinding clinker together with various mineral components such as gypsum,

limestone, blast furnace slag, coal fly ash and natural volcanic material; includes special cements such as

the ones based on calcium aluminates
3.7
cement (eq.)

calculated cement production value which is determined from clinker produced on-site in an integrated

cement plant applying the plant specific clinker/cement-factor
3.8
cement constituent

main and minor additional constituents of cement plus calcium sulphates and additives in cement

3.9
cement kiln dust
CKD

any discarded dust from dry and wet kiln system dedusting units, consisting of partly calcined kiln feed

material which includes bypass dust or any other dust flows coming from the clinker production

3.10
cement constituents based products

all clinker produced for cement making or direct clinker sale, plus mineral components consumed or

processed for sale excluding pre-processed mineral components imported from another cement plant

3.11
clinker

intermediate product in cement manufacturing and the main substance in cement; clinker is the result

of calcination of limestone in the kiln and subsequent reactions caused through burning (see EN 197-1)

3.12
clinker plant
plant where clinker is produced without having onsite grinding to cement
3.13
concrete addition

finely divided inorganic material with pozzolanic or latent hydraulic properties or nearly inert, used in

concrete in order to improve certain properties or to achieve special properties
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SIST EN 19694-3:2017
EN 19694-3:2016 (E)
3.14
fossil direct emissions

total direct emissions of GHGs within the boundaries excluding GHG emissions from biomass fuels or

biogenic carbon content of mixed fuels
3.15
dust return

dust arising during clinker manufacture that is ultimately returned to the raw mill or kiln system; this

does not include bypass dust

Note 1 to entry: See Figure 6 for an example of mass flows in the clinker production process.

3.16
filter dust leaving the kiln system
cement kiln dust (CKD) leaving the kiln system excluding by pass dust
3.17
fossil fuel
all fossil fuels listed by IPCC
3.18
grinding plant

plant for cement production where cement constituents are ground without having onsite clinker

production
3.19
gross emission

fossil direct GHG emissions excluding GHG emissions from on-site power production

3.20
integrated cement plant
plant where clinker is produced and partly or fully ground to cement
3.21
kiln system

tubular heating apparatus used in the production of clinker, including preheater and/or pre-calciner

3.22
kiln feed

raw materials, often processed as raw meal (including recirculated dust), which are fed to a pre-heater

or directly into the kiln system
3.23
kiln inlet
kiln hood, or entrance to the tubular heating apparatus for materials
3.24
kiln fuel

fuel fed to the kiln system plus fuels that are used for drying or processing of raw materials for the

production of clinker and the preparation of kiln fuels
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SIST EN 19694-3:2017
EN 19694-3:2016 (E)
3.25
mineral components

cement constituents other than clinker plus concrete additions processed in view of changing their

properties
3.26
net emission

gross emissions excluding GHG emissions from alternative fossil fuels and comparable benchmark

emissions from external heat or energy transfer
3.27
non-kiln fuel
fuels which are not included in the definition of kiln fuels
3.28
petcoke
petroleum coke, a carbon-based solid fuel derived from oil refineries
3.29
raw material
materials used for raw meal preparation for clinker production
3.30
raw material preparation
processes applied for converting raw materials to raw meal
3.31
raw meal
raw meal consists of the ground raw materials for clinker production
3.32
raw meal consumed

part of the raw meal, which is consumed for clinker production and the formation of calcined bypass

dust
3.33
recirculated dust
all dust flows that are reused as kiln feed

Note 1 to entry: See Figure 6 for an example of mass flows in the clinker production process.

3.34
total direct GHG emission

all direct emissions of GHGs within the boundaries including GHG emissions from raw materials

from waste water

processing, fossil fuels, biomass and biogenic carbon content of mixed fuels, and CO2

combustion
4 Symbols and abbreviated terms

For the purposes of this document, the following symbols and abbreviated terms apply.

Adrm Additional raw material
AF Alternative fuel
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