Waste - Guidance on analysis of eluates

This document summarizes methods for the determination of the parameters pH, ammonium, AOX, As, Ba, Cd, Cl-, easily liberatable cyanide, Co, Cr, Cr(VI), Cu, DOC/TOC, electrical conductivity, F-, Hg, Mo, Ni, NO2-, Pb, phenol index, total S, Sb, Se, SO42-, TDS, V and Zn in aqueous eluates for the characterization of waste.

Abfällen - Anleitung zur analyse von Eluaten

Diese Europäische Norm legt Verfahren zur Bestimmung der Parameter pH-Wert, Ammonium, AOX, As, Ba, Cd, Cl−, leicht freisetzbares CN−, Co, Cr, Cr(VI), Cu, DOC/TOC, elektrische Leitfähigkeit, F−, Hg, Mo, Ni, NO2−, Pb, Phenolindex, Gesamt-S, Sb, Se, SO42−, TDS, V und Zn in wässrigen Eluaten für die Charakterisierung von Abfällen fest.

Déchets - Recommandations pour analyse des éluats

Le présent document spécifie des méthodes de détermination des paramètres pH, ammonium, AOX, As, Ba, Cd, Cl-, cyanures aisément libérables, Co, Cr, Cr(VI), Cu, COD/COT, conductivité électrique, F-, Hg, Mo, Ni, NO2-, Pb, indice phénol, S total, Sb, Se, SO42-, TDS, V et Zn dans les éluats aqueux en vue de la caractérisation des déchets.

Odpadki - Navodilo za analizo izlužkov

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
24-Mar-2020
Current Stage
6060 - Definitive text made available (DAV) - Publishing
Due Date
25-Mar-2020
Completion Date
25-Mar-2020

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST-TP CEN/TR 16192:2020
01-junij-2020
Nadomešča:
SIST EN 16192:2012
Odpadki - Navodilo za analizo izlužkov
Waste - Guidance on analysis of eluates
Abfällen - Anleitung zur analyse von Eluaten
Déchets - Lignes directices pour analyse des éluats
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: CEN/TR 16192:2020
ICS:
13.030.20 Tekoči odpadki. Blato Liquid wastes. Sludge
SIST-TP CEN/TR 16192:2020 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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CEN/TR 16192
TECHNICAL REPORT
RAPPORT TECHNIQUE
March 2020
TECHNISCHER BERICHT
ICS 13.030.99 Supersedes EN 16192:2011
English Version
Waste - Guidance on analysis of eluates

Déchets - Lignes directices pour analyse des éluats Abfällen - Anleitung zur analyse von Eluaten

This Technical Report was approved by CEN on 2 March 2020. It has been drawn up by the Technical Committee CEN/TC 444.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2020 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. CEN/TR 16192:2020 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................... 4

1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................................... 5

2 Normative references .................................................................................................................................... 5

3 Terms and definitions ................................................................................................................................... 5

4 Sample pretreatment ..................................................................................................................................... 6

5 Blank determination ...................................................................................................................................... 6

6 Interference ...................................................................................................................................................... 6

7 Selection of the suitable test method ....................................................................................................... 7

8 Expression of results ................................................................................................................................... 10

9 Test report ...................................................................................................................................................... 11

Annex A (informative) Validation of EN 12506:2003 and EN 13370:2003 ............................................ 12

A.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 12

A.2 Interlaboratory study ................................................................................................................................. 12

A.3 Selection of laboratories ............................................................................................................................ 12

A.4 Selection of samples .................................................................................................................................... 12

A.5 Validation scope ........................................................................................................................................... 13

A.6 Results and statistics .................................................................................................................................. 15

A.7 Conclusion....................................................................................................................................................... 24

Annex B (informative) Additional validation data .......................................................................................... 25

B.1 Round robin test for the determination of Ba, Cd, Cr, Mo, Sb and Se in eluates .................... 25

B.1.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 25

B.1.2 Round robin samples .................................................................................................................................. 25

B.1.3 Results of the round robin test ................................................................................................................ 25

B.1.4 Conclusion from the round robin test .................................................................................................. 30

B.2 Round robin tests in the framework of acceptability of waste at landfills ............................. 30

Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................. 34

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European foreword

This document (CEN/TR 16192:2020) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 444 “Test

methods for environmental characterization of solid matrices”, the secretariat of which is held by NEN.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document supersedes EN 16192:2011.

The changes between this document and the previous edition involve updating the relevant EN and ISO

standards or removing them if withdrawn, and adding new relevant standards. Furthermore, the

document has changed from a normative standard into an informative report.
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Introduction

This document is intended to be used for the characterization of waste as defined in the Council

Directive 75/442/EEC on waste, as amended by Council Directive 91/156/EEC of 18th March 1991, and

national regulations, whose final destination for disposal is landfill. In the Council Decision of 19

December 2002 establishing criteria and procedures for the acceptance of waste at landfills pursuant to

Article 16 of and Annex II to Directive 1999/31/EC, the test methods are described for determining the

acceptability of waste at landfills. In section 3 of the Annex of this Decision, the European standards

EN 12506 and EN 13370 are included which are replaced by this document.

This document deals with the determination of chemical constituents, electrical conductivity, pH and

total dissolved solids (TDS) in eluates which have been obtained by leaching of waste samples, for

example using EN 12457-1 to EN 12457-4: “Characterization of waste - Leaching - Compliance test for

leaching of granular waste materials and sludges”. In principle, it can be used for the analysis of every

kind of eluate as long as the performance characteristics of the applied analytical method fulfil the

specific requirements.
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1 Scope

This document summarizes methods for the determination of the parameters pH, ammonium, AOX, As,

- -

Ba, Cd, Cl , easily liberatable cyanide, Co, Cr, Cr(VI), Cu, DOC/TOC, electrical conductivity, F , Hg, Mo, Ni,

- 2-

NO , Pb, phenol index, total S, Sb, Se, SO , TDS, V and Zn in aqueous eluates for the characterization

2 4
of waste.
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at https://www.iso.org/obp/ui
3.1
eluate
solution obtained by a defined leaching test
3.2
laboratory sample
sample or subsample(s) sent to or received by a laboratory
3.3
leachant
aqueous solution used in a leaching test
3.4
leaching test

laboratory test for the determination of the release of matter from a waste into water or an aqueous

solution
3.5
sample
portion of material selected from a larger quantity of material
3.6
test portion
analytical portion

quantity of material of proper size for measurement of the concentration or other properties of interest,

removed from the test sample

Note 1 to entry: The test portion can be taken from the laboratory sample directly if no preparation of sample is

required (e.g. with liquids), but usually it is taken from the prepared test sample.

Note 2 to entry: A unit or increment of suitable homogeneity, size and fineness, needing no further preparation,

can be a test portion.
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3.7
test sample
analytical sample

sample, prepared from the laboratory sample, from which test portions are removed for testing or

analysis
4 Sample pretreatment

The eluate should be analysed for the total content of its constituents. If precipitation occurs between

the preparation of the eluate and the analysis it is necessary to ensure by appropriate methods (e.g. re-

dissolution, separate analysis of solution and precipitate) that the total content of the parameters of

interest is determined. If the eluate results from a procedure including a 0,45 µm membrane filtration

process, then the analytical results refer to the content dissolved by the leaching process.

Eluates are susceptible to change to different extents as a result of physical, chemical or biological

reactions which could take place between the time of leaching and the analysis. pH should be

determined immediately after preparation of the eluates and prior to sample pretreatment and this

should be recorded.

It is therefore recommended to take the necessary precautions to minimize these reactions and in the

case of many parameters to analyse the eluate sample with a minimum of delay. The recommended

maximum delay is given in EN ISO 5667-3 or in the respective analytical standards.

Precautions should be taken before and during transport as well as during the time in which the

samples are preserved in the laboratory before being analysed, to avoid alteration of the test portion.

The eluate should be split in an adequate number of test portions for different chemical analyses and

they should be preserved according to the requirements in the analytical standards or EN ISO 5667-3.

One specific test portion may be an untreated aliquot of the laboratory sample for the analysis of

substances such as chloride, fluoride, sulfate, nitrite and chromium(VI) as well as for the determination

of electrical conductivity.

For trace metal analysis test portions usually need to be acidified to pH ≤ 2 with nitric acid.

For safety reasons, it is recommended to acidify the test portion under an extraction hood or in a fume

cupboard as volatile toxic substances could be generated.

NOTE In cases where high contents of soluble solids are leached, acidification of the eluates can lead to

precipitation of salts. This can be avoided by using a suitable dilution prior to acidification.

5 Blank determination

The blank contribution of the applied analytical procedures should be determined as described in the

analytical standards and allowed for in the calculation of the results when appropriate.

6 Interference

A large number of compounds can interfere with the determination of the parameters concerned. These

potential interferences are listed in the individual standards in question.

Several types of interference effects can contribute to inaccuracies in the determination of the various

parameters, especially at low concentrations. These potential interference effects are listed in the

individual standards and should be considered separately for each analytical technique.

Chemical interferences are characterized by molecular compound formation, ionization effects, solute

vaporization, precipitation and effects of degradation of organic matter. Addition of a pH buffer and/or

other preservation methods could reduce these effects.
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Physical interferences can be caused by changes of viscosity and surface tension. They can cause

significant inaccuracies especially in eluate samples containing high concentrations of acids and/or

dissolved components. The colour or turbidity of eluates can cause interference in spectrophotometric

determination.
7 Selection of the suitable test method

The appropriate standardized test method listed in Table 1 can be selected according to the type of

waste eluate, the concentration range of the parameter of interest and the expected interferences.

For analytical quality control purposes ISO/TS 13530 and EN ISO/IEC 17025 should be considered.

It is pointed out that the standardized test methods listed in Table 1 have primarily been developed for

the analysis of water samples. Most of them were validated in an interlaboratory trial for a limited

number of waste eluate matrices (see Annex A). Their suitability for other waste eluates should be

checked in the laboratory performing the analysis. Additional validation data obtained in the evaluation

of the analytical performance of laboratories are given in Annex B.

Those standards cited in Table 1 that have not been validated in the CEN/TC 292 interlaboratory trial in

1999 - 2001 (Annex A), including revised or newly developed standards since this trial, have the matrix

waste water and/or leachates included in their scope, and they proved to be applicable for the analysis

of eluates in routine analyses.

If the methods referred to in Table 1 are found to be inappropriate by reason of, for example, detection

limits, repeatability or interferences, other methods validated for water analysis can be used. Their

suitability for waste eluates should be checked in the laboratory performing the analysis. The reason for

the deviation should be stated in the test report.
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Table 1 — Parameters and test methods
Parameter Test method
pH EN ISO 10523:2012
Ammonium EN ISO 11732:2005
EN ISO 14911:1999
ISO 7150-1:1984
ISO 15923-1:2013
AOX EN ISO 9562:2004
As EN ISO 11885:2009
EN ISO 15586:2003
EN ISO 17294-1:2006
EN ISO 17294-2:2016
ISO 17378-1:2014
ISO 17378-2:2014
Ba EN ISO 11885:2009
EN ISO 17294-1:2006
EN ISO 17294-2:2016
Cd ISO 8288:1986
EN ISO 11885:2009
EN ISO 15586:2003
EN ISO 17294-1:2006
EN ISO 17294-2:2016
- ISO 9297:1989
EN ISO 10304-1:2009
EN ISO 15682:2001
EN ISO 14403-1:2012
CN easily liberatable
EN ISO 14403-2:2012
ISO 6703-2:1984
Co EN ISO 11885:2009
EN ISO 15586:2003
EN ISO 17294-1:2006
EN ISO 17294-2:2016
Cr EN ISO 11885:2009
EN ISO 15586:2003
EN ISO 17294-1:2006
EN ISO 17294-2:2016
Cr(VI) ISO 11083:1994
EN ISO 10304-3:1997
EN ISO 23913:2009
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Parameter Test method
Cu ISO 8288:1986
EN ISO 11885:2009
EN ISO 15586:2003
EN ISO 17294-1:2006
EN ISO 17294-2:2016
DOC/TOC EN 1484:1997
Electrical conductivity EN 27888:1993
EN ISO 10304-1:2009
ISO 10359-1:1992
Hg EN ISO 12846:2012
EN ISO 17852:2008
Mo EN ISO 11885:2009
EN ISO 15586:2003
EN ISO 17294-1:2006
EN ISO 17294-2:2016
Ni ISO 8288:1986
EN ISO 11885:2009
EN ISO 15586:2003
EN ISO 17294-1:2006
EN ISO 17294-2:2016
- EN 26777:1993
EN ISO 10304-1:2009
EN ISO 13395:1996
ISO 15923-1:2013
Pb ISO 8288:1986
EN ISO 11885:2009
EN ISO 15586:2003
EN ISO 17294-1:2006
EN ISO 17294-2:2016
Phenol index
EN ISO 14402:1999
ISO 6439:1990
Total S EN ISO 11885:2009
Sb EN ISO 11885:2009
EN ISO 15586:2003
EN ISO 17294-1:2006
EN ISO 17294-2:2016
ISO 17378-1:2014
ISO 17378-2:2014
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Parameter Test method
Se EN ISO 11885:2009
EN ISO 15586:2003
EN ISO 17294-1:2006
EN ISO 17294-2:2016
ISO/TS 17379-1:2013
ISO/TS 17379-2:2013
2- EN ISO 10304-1:2009
ISO 15923-1:2013
ISO 22743:2006
TDS EN 15216:2007
V EN ISO 11885:2009
EN ISO 15586:2003
EN ISO 17294-1:2006
EN ISO 17294-2:2016
Zn ISO 8288:1986
EN ISO 11885:2009
EN ISO 15586:2003
EN ISO 17294-1:2006
EN ISO 17294-2:2016
free cyanide is equivalent to easily liberatable cyanide for
eluates with low organic content after distillation.
for eluates with low organic content.
after distillation.

NOTE Some parameters as described in Table 1 can be analysed simultaneously with the same technique. For

instance, ISO 15923-1:2013 specifies methods with a discrete analysis system, allowing the simultaneous

determination of ammonium, nitrate and sulfate. ISO 17294-2:2016 and EN ISO 11885:2009 specify an ICP-MS

method and ICP-AES method, respectively, allowing the simultaneous determination of the above elements As, Ba,

Cd, Co, Cr, Cu Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, V and Zn.
8 Expression of results

Specific instructions for the calculation of the results given in the individual analytical standards should

be strictly observed.

The results of the tests except for pH and electrical conductivity should be expressed as a concentration

of the constituents in the eluate, expressed in µg/l or mg/l. The amount of constituent leached relative

to the total mass of the sample, in mg/kg of dry matter, can be calculated using the liquid to solid ratio

of the leaching test.
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9 Test report

The work carried out by the testing laboratory should be covered by a report which accurately, clearly

and unambiguously presents the test results and all other relevant information.
Each test report should include at least the following information:
a) reference to this Technical Report and supplementary standards;
b) name and address of testing laboratory;

c) unique identification of report (such as serial number) and of each page and total number of pages

of the report;
d) description and identification of the laboratory sample;
e) date of receipt of laboratory sample and date(s) of performance of test;

f) identification of the test specification or description of the method or procedure;

g) description of eluate sampling and treatment, where relevant;

h) any deviations, additions to or exclusions from the test specification, and any other information

relevant to a specific test;

i) measurements, examinations and derived results, supported by tables, graphs, sketches and

photographs as appropriate, and any failures identified;
j) a statement on measurement uncertainty (where needed);

k) a signature and job title or an equivalent marking of person(s) accepting technical responsibility for

the test report and date of issue;
l) a statement that the test results relate only to the laboratory sample;

m) a statement that the report should not be reproduced except in full without the written approval of

the testing laboratory.
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Annex A
(informative)
Validation of EN 12506:2003 and EN 13370:2003
A.1 General

During 1999 - 2001 a project for the validation of EN 12506:2003 and EN 13370:2003 (both standards

have been replaced by EN 16192:2011) organized and carried out (see [62]).

The validation included an interlaboratory study for evaluation of performance characteristics of

methods included in these standards (reproducibility and repeatability).
A.2 Interlaboratory study

The purpose of the validation trial was to check the suitability of the cited standards for analysis of

waste eluates.
A.3 Selection of laboratories

A questionnaire has been circulated by all CEN/TC 292 'Characterization of waste' members to collect a

list of interested European laboratories. 41 laboratories gave their commitment to participate in the

interlaboratory trial. All of them were asked to declare that they fulfil the minimum requirements to

carry out the analyses according to the standards. According to ISO 5725 series no selection has been

made in advance on the basis of the supposed “ability” of laboratories, their accreditation, etc. It is

therefore legitimate to regard the participating laboratories as a good average of “normal” European

laboratories.
A.4 Selection of samples

To test the analytical procedures on a proper number of eluates, four different materials were

considered to produce bulk amounts of waste eluates:
— contaminated soil (COS);
— sewage sludge (SEW);
— sand blasting waste (SBW);
— fly ash filter cake from municipal solid waste incinerator (FFC).
Additionally, three synthetic solutions were prepared (SYN1, SYN2 and SYN3).

The analytical procedures mentioned in the cited standards require different conservation methods.

Since it was impossible to produce waste eluates using all the different conservating agents and

methods according to the corresponding standards, it was decided to use only two conservation

methods:
— addition of HNO to a pH of about 2;
— no preservation agents but storage of the eluates at 4 °C in the dark.
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The waste eluates and synthetic solutions stabilized with HNO were transferred into polyethylene

bottles and other samples into glass bottles. Table A.1 shows the different preservation procedures as

mentioned in the standards and used in this trial.
A.5 Validation scope

In this trial not all parameter/method combinations were validated for the different samples. In

Table A.1 an overview is given of the validation scope.

The parameter/method combinations marked with an x in Table A.1 were successfully validated. A

remark is given in Table A.1 for those parameter/method combinations where the validation was not

successful, because:

— the element concentrations in some samples did not match the working range for the analytical

method;
— the number of participants and/or the number of results was too low;
— matrix dependent interferences occurred.
In the other cases no validation study was performed.

It should be noted that some of the standards cited in EN 12506:2003 and EN 13370:2003 have been

validated by ISO on waste water.

NOTE The standards mentioned in Table A.1 to Table A.8 were applicable at the time of the validation trial,

but at the time being they might be updated or replaced by another standard.
Table A.1 — Validated parameter/method/sample combinations
Parameter Standard Prescribed Used COS FFC SBW SEW SYN1 SYN2 SYN3 Validated
conservation conservation by ISO on
in standard in trial waste
water
Ammonium ISO 7150-1 Immediate None, 4 °C x x
NH analysis or
H SO , pH 2
2 4
Ammonium EN ISO 11732 Immediate None, 4 °C x x x
NH analysis or
H SO , pH 2
2 4
AOX EN 1485 HNO , pH 2 HNO , pH 2 x x x
3 3
As EN ISO 11885 HNO , pH 2 HNO , pH 2 x x a x
3 3
Ba EN ISO 11885 HNO , pH 2 HNO , pH 2 x x x
3 3
Cd ISO 8288 HNO , pH 2 HNO , pH 2 x x x
3 3
Cd EN ISO 11885 HNO , pH 2 HNO , pH 2 x x
3 3
- ISO 9297 None, 4 °C None, 4 °C x x x
- EN ISO 10304-1 None, 4 °C None, 4 °C x x x x
Cyanide ISO 6703-2 NaOH pH 8 None, 4 °C b a x
easily
liberatable
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Parameter Standard Prescribed Used COS FFC SBW SEW SYN1 SYN2 SYN3 Validated
conservation conservation by ISO on
in standard in trial waste
water
Cyanide EN ISO 14403 NaOH pH 12 None, 4 °C x a x
easily series
liberatable
Co EN ISO 11885 HNO , pH 2 HNO , pH 2 x x
3 3
Cr EN ISO 11885 HNO , pH 2 HNO , pH 2 x x
3 3
Cr(Vl) ISO 11083 Buffer pH 7 None, 4 °C x x x
Cu ISO 8288 HNO , pH 2 HNO , pH 2 x x x
3 3
Cu EN ISO 11885 HNO , pH 2 HNO , pH 2 x x x
3 3
Electrical EN 27888 None, 4 °C None, 4 °C x x x x x x x
conductivity
- EN ISO 10304-1 None, 4 °C None, 4 °C x x
- ISO 10359-1 None, 4 °C None, 4 °C x x
Hg EN 1483 K Cr O , pH 1 HNO , pH 2 a x x
2 2 7 3
Mo EN ISO 11885 HNO , pH 2 HNO , pH 2 x x
3 3
Ni ISO 8288 HNO , pH 2 HNO , pH 2 x x x
3 3
Ni EN ISO 11885 HNO , pH 2 HNO , pH 2 x x x
3 3
- EN 26777 None, 4 °C None, 4 °C x c x x
within 24 h
- EN ISO 10304-1 None, 4 °C None, 4 °C a a x x
immediate
analysis
- EN ISO 13395 None, 4 °C None, 4 °C a x x
immediate
analysis
Phenol index ISO 6439 H PO None, 4 °C x a
3 4
CuSO , pH 4
Phenol index EN ISO 14402 Immediate None, 4 °C a x x
analysis or
H SO , pH 2
2 4
Pb ISO 8288 HNO , pH 2 HNO , pH 2 x x x
3 3
Pb EN ISO 11885 HNO , pH 2 HNO , pH 2 x x
3 3
pH EN ISO 10523 None, None, 4 °C x x x x x x
immediate
analysis
Total S EN ISO 11885 HNO , pH 2 HNO , pH 2 x x x
3 3
2- EN ISO 10304-1 None, 4 °C None, 4 °C x x x x
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Parameter Standard Prescribed Used COS FFC SBW SEW SYN1 SYN2 SYN3 Validated
conservation conservation by ISO on
in standard in trial waste
water
DOC/TOC EN 1484 H PO , pH 2 HNO , pH 2 x x x
3 4 3
V EN ISO 11885 HNO , pH 2 HNO , pH 2 x
3 3
Zn ISO 8288 HNO , pH 2 HNO , pH 2 x x x
3 3
Zn EN ISO 11885 HNO , pH 2 HNO , pH 2 x x x x
3 3

Validation failed because less than 6 laboratories and/or 18 valid results were available.

Validation failed because coloured solutions cannot be analysed by this method (see Clause 6).

A.6 Results and statistics

The data from the interlaboratory study have been assessed according to ISO 5725-2. Furthermore the

results have been subjected to suitable acceptance criteria.

The tested parameters, the accepted combinations of method/parameter/sample, and the results of the

statistical evaluation are given in Table A.2 to Table A.8.

Results from rejected combinations of method/parameter/sample are not shown in the result tables.

The acceptance criteria were:
— minimum number of laboratories: 6
— minimum number of results (outliers excluded): 18

If applicable, for a given parameter an F-test on the s values and a t-test for the means have been run

for comparing alternative methods at the 99 % confidence interval. Where one of the tests failed, a

remark is given in the tables.
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Table A.2 — Results of the interlaboratory study on validation of methods for eluate analysis– Contaminated soil eluate (COS)

Parameter Standard Units Number of Mean s s CV CV Remark
r R r R
Laboratories Laboratories Values Values Outliers % %
total accepted total accepted
AOX EN 1485 µg/l 14 13 42 38 4 27,8 2,43 7,73 8,75 27,8
As - EN ISO 11885 µg/l 12 11 36 33 3 20,6 0,98 5,79 4,76 28,1
ICP-OES
Cd - EN ISO 11885 µg/l 17 17 51 51 - 207 4,72 13,5 2,28 6,5
ICP-OES
Cd - ISO 8288 µg/l 8 8 24 24 - 208 7,42 14,6 3,57 7,02
ICP-OES/ AAS
Co - EN ISO 11885 µg/l 16 14 48 42 6 74,4 1,41 11,8 1,9 15,9
ICP-OES
Cu - EN ISO 11885 µg/l 17 16 51 48 3 358 5,98 28,4 1,67 7,94
ICP-OES
Cu - AAS ISO 8288 µg/l 8 8 24 23 1 363 2,40 18,2 0,66 5,01
Electrical conductivity EN 27888 µS/cm 12 11 36 30 6 2450 7,35 207,8 0,3 8,48
Ni - EN ISO 11885 µg/l 16 14 47 41 6 49,3 1,43 4,77 2,91 9,68 F-test failed
ICP-OES
Ni - AAS ISO 8288 µg/l 7 7 21 21 - 49,4 1,55 1,67 3,14 3,38 F-test failed
Pb - EN ISO 11885 µg/l 17 16 51 48 3 324 7,00 19,9 2,16 6,13 F-test failed
ICP-OES
Pb - AAS ISO 8288 µg/l 8 8 24 24 - 326 7,79 48,9 2,39 15 F-test failed
pH - Electrode EN ISO 10523 - 13 12 38 32 6 6,14 0,025 0,287 0,41 4,68
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Parameter Standard Units Number of Mean s s CV CV Remark
r R r R
Laboratories Labora
...

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