Space engineering - Communications

This Standard specifies the requirements for the development of the end­to­end data communications system for spacecraft.
Specifically, this standard specifies:
- The terminology to be used for space communication systems engineering.
- The activities to be performed as part of the space communication system engineering process, in accordance with the ECSS-E-ST-10 standard.
- Specific requirements on space communication systems in respect of functionality and performance.
The communications links covered by this Standard are the space­to­ground and space­to­space links used during spacecraft operations, and the communications links to the spacecraft used during the assembly, integration and test, and operational phases.
Spacecraft end­to­end communication systems comprise components in three distinct domains, namely the ground network, the space link, and the space network. This Standard covers the components of the space link and space network in detail. However, this Standard only covers those aspects of the ground network that are necessary for the provision of the end­to­end communication services.
NOTE Other aspects of the ground network are covered in ECSS-E ST 70.
This Standard may be tailored for the specific characteristics and constraints of a space project in conformance with ECSS-S ST 00.

Raumfahrttechnik - Kommunikation

Ingénierie spatiale - Communications

La présente norme spécifie les exigences de développement du système de communication de données de bout en bout pour les engins spatiaux.
En particulier, la présente norme spécifie :
• la terminologie à utiliser pour l'ingénierie des systèmes de communication spatiale ;
• les activités à mener dans le cadre du processus d'ingénierie des systèmes de communication spatiale, conformément à la norme ECSS-E-ST-10 ;
• des exigences spécifiques concernant les systèmes de communication spatiale en termes de fonctionnalité et de performances.
Les liaisons de communication traitées dans la présente norme sont les liaisons espace-sol (c’est-à-dire de l’espace vers le sol et du sol vers l’espace) et espace-espace utilisées pendant l’exploitation des engins spatiaux, et les liaisons de communications avec les engins spatiaux utilisées lors des phases d'assemblage, d'intégration et d'essais, et pendant les phases opérationnelles.
Les systèmes de communication de bout en bout des engins spatiaux comprennent des composants de trois catégories distinctes, à savoir le réseau sol, la liaison spatiale et le réseau spatial. La présente norme traite en détail des composants de la liaison spatiale et du réseau spatial. Toutefois, elle ne traite que des aspects du réseau sol qui sont nécessaires à la fourniture de services de communication de bout en bout.
NOTE Les autres aspects du réseau sol sont traités dans l'ECSS-E-ST-70.
La présente norme peut être adaptée aux caractéristiques et contraintes spécifiques à un projet spatial, selon la norme ECSS-S-ST-00.

Vesoljska tehnika - Komunikacije

General Information

Status
Published
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - Definitive text made available (DAV) - Publishing
Due Date
11-Aug-2020

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
oSIST prEN 16603-50:2021
01-januar-2021
Vesoljska tehnika - Komunikacije
Space engineering - Communications
Raumfahrttechnik - Kommunikation
Ingénierie spatiale - Communications
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: prEN 16603-50
ICS:
49.140 Vesoljski sistemi in operacije Space systems and
operations
oSIST prEN 16603-50:2021 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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oSIST prEN 16603-50:2021
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oSIST prEN 16603-50:2021
EUROPEAN STANDARD
DRAFT
prEN 16603-50
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
October 2020
ICS 49.140
Will supersede EN 16603-50:2014
English version
Space engineering - Communications
Ingénierie spatiale - Communications Raumfahrttechnik - Kommunikation

This draft European Standard is submitted to CEN members for enquiry. It has been drawn up by the Technical Committee

CEN/CLC/JTC 5.

If this draft becomes a European Standard, CEN and CENELEC members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal

Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any

alteration.

This draft European Standard was established by CEN and CENELEC in three official versions (English, French, German). A

version in any other language made by translation under the responsibility of a CEN and CENELEC member into its own

language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN and CENELEC members are the national standards bodies and national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium,

Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy,

Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia,

Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and United Kingdom.

Recipients of this draft are invited to submit, with their comments, notification of any relevant patent rights of which they are

aware and to provide supporting documentation.Recipients of this draft are invited to submit, with their comments, notification

of any relevant patent rights of which they are aware and to provide supporting documentation.

Warning : This document is not a European Standard. It is distributed for review and comments. It is subject to change without

notice and shall not be referred to as a European Standard.
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre:
Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2020 CEN/CENELEC All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means Ref. No. prEN 16603-50:2020 E

reserved worldwide for CEN national Members and for
CENELEC Members.
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Table of contents

European Foreword ................................................................................................... 6

Introduction ................................................................................................................ 7

1 Scope ....................................................................................................................... 8

2 Normative references ............................................................................................. 9

3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms .......................................................... 10

3.1 Terms defined in other standards ........................................................................... 10

3.2 Terms specific to the present standard ................................................................... 10

3.3 Abbreviated terms................................................................................................... 13

4 Space communications engineering principles ............................................... 15

4.1 Context ................................................................................................................... 15

4.2 Overall space communication ................................................................................. 16

4.3 Space communication domains .............................................................................. 21

4.3.1 Overview ................................................................................................... 21

4.3.2 Space network .......................................................................................... 21

4.3.3 Space link ................................................................................................. 22

4.3.4 Ground network ........................................................................................ 23

4.4 Communications engineering process .................................................................... 24

4.4.1 Introduction ............................................................................................... 24

4.4.2 Communication engineering activities ....................................................... 24

4.4.3 Process milestones ................................................................................... 26

4.5 Relationship with other standards ........................................................................... 26

4.6 <> ........................................................................................................... 27

4.7 Spacecraft control considerations ........................................................................... 27

5 Requirements ........................................................................................................ 28

5.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................. 28

5.2 Space communication system engineering process ................................................ 28

5.2.1 Requirements engineering ........................................................................ 28

5.2.2 Analysis .................................................................................................... 29

5.2.3 Design and configuration........................................................................... 30

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5.2.4 Implementation ......................................................................................... 31

5.2.5 Verification ................................................................................................ 32

5.2.6 Operations ................................................................................................ 33

5.3 Space communication system ................................................................................ 33

5.3.1 Bandwidth allocation ................................................................................. 33

5.3.2 Congestion ................................................................................................ 34

5.3.3 Cessation of emission ............................................................................... 34

5.4 Telecommanding .................................................................................................... 34

5.4.1 Commandability at all attitudes and rates .................................................. 34

5.4.2 Telecommand delivery service .................................................................. 34

5.4.3 Erroneous telecommand rejection ............................................................. 34

5.4.4 Essential telecommand distribution ........................................................... 34

5.4.5 Command authentication .......................................................................... 35

5.4.6 Command encryption ................................................................................ 35

5.4.7 Commanding­in­the­blind .......................................................................... 35

5.4.8 Telecommand acknowledgement .............................................................. 35

5.4.9 Hot redundancy of on-board telecommand chains .................................... 35

5.4.10 Telecommand destination identification ..................................................... 36

5.5 Telemetry ............................................................................................................... 36

5.5.1 Telemetry at all attitudes and rates ........................................................... 36

5.5.2 Essential telemetry acquisition .................................................................. 36

5.5.3 Telemetry source identification .................................................................. 36

5.5.4 Telemetry­in­the­blind ............................................................................... 37

5.5.5 Telemetry data time stamping ................................................................... 37

5.5.6 Simultaneous support of differing source rates .......................................... 37

5.5.7 Telemetry authentication and encryption ................................................... 37

5.6 Space link ............................................................................................................... 38

5.6.1 Introduction ............................................................................................... 38

5.6.2 Directionality ............................................................................................. 38

5.6.3 Short contact periods ................................................................................ 38

5.6.4 Interoperability .......................................................................................... 39

5.6.5 Orbits ........................................................................................................ 39

5.6.6 Noise sources ........................................................................................... 39

5.6.7 Mission phases ......................................................................................... 39

5.6.8 Link setup times ........................................................................................ 39

5.6.9 Mixed isochronous and asynchronous traffic ............................................. 39

5.6.10 Mixed housekeeping and payload data ..................................................... 39

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5.6.11 Space link performance ............................................................................ 40

5.6.12 Space link frequency ................................................................................. 41

5.6.13 Space link protocol .................................................................................... 42

5.6.14 Space link service ..................................................................................... 43

5.7 Space network ........................................................................................................ 45

5.7.1 On-board network ..................................................................................... 45

5.7.2 On-board network services ....................................................................... 46

5.7.3 Inter-spacecraft network ............................................................................ 47

5.7.4 Inter-spacecraft network services .............................................................. 48

5.8 Ground network ...................................................................................................... 48

5.8.1 Overview ................................................................................................... 48

5.8.2 Data labelling ............................................................................................ 48

5.8.3 Security ..................................................................................................... 49

5.8.4 Error rates ................................................................................................. 49

5.8.5 Hot redundant operation of ground network nodes .................................... 49

5.8.6 Ground network availability ....................................................................... 49

Annex A (normative) Communication system requirements document

(CSRD) - DRD ....................................................................................................... 50

Annex B (normative) Communication system baseline definition (CSBD) -

DRD ...................................................................................................................... 54

Annex C (normative) Communication system analysis document (CSAD) -

DRD ...................................................................................................................... 59

Annex D (normative) Communication system verification plan (CSVP) -

DRD ...................................................................................................................... 62

Annex E (normative) Communication system architectural design

document (CSADD) - DRD .................................................................................. 65

Annex F (normative) Communication system detailed design document

(CSDDD) - DRD .................................................................................................... 68

Annex G (normative) Communication system profile document (CSPD) -

DRD ...................................................................................................................... 70

Annex H (normative) Communication system operations manual (CSOM) -

DRD ...................................................................................................................... 72

Annex I (informative) Documentation summary .................................................... 75

Bibliography ............................................................................................................. 78

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Figures

Figure 4-1: Example configuration of a space communication system .................................. 16

Figure 4-2: CCSDS and Internet space link protocols ........................................................... 20

Tables

Table I-1 : ECSS-E-ST-50 DRD list ...................................................................................... 76

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European Foreword
This document (prEN 16603-50:2020) has been prepared by Technical
Committee CEN/CLC/TC 5 “Space”, the secretariat of which is held by DIN
(Germany).
This document (prEN 16603-50:2020) originates from ECSS-E-ST-50C Rev.1
DIR1.
This document is currently submitted to the Enquiry.
This document will supersede EN 16603-50:2014. [if applicable].
The main changes with respect to EN 16603-50:2014 are listed below:
 Implementation of Change Requests,
 Update w.r.t. update of EN 16603-50-01:2014, EN 16603-50-03:2014 and
EN 16603-50-04,
 CHANGE LOG TO BE COMPLETED BEFORE PUBLICATION.
This document has been developed to cover specifically space systems and will
therefore have precedence over any EN covering the same scope but with a
wider do-main of applicability (e.g. : aerospace).
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Introduction
This standard specifies requirements for the development of the end-to-end
data communication system for spacecraft. Implementation aspects are defined
in ECSS-E-ST-50 Level 3 standards, ECSS Adoption Notices, and CCSDS
standards.
The complete set of standards to define a complete communication link is
project dependent and cannot be specified here. ECSS-E-HB-50 provides some
guidance on this aspect, and gives some practical examples.
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Scope
This Standard specifies the requirements for the development of the end­to­end
data communications system for spacecraft.
Specifically, this standard specifies:
 The terminology to be used for space communication systems
engineering.
 The activities to be performed as part of the space communication system
engineering process, in accordance with the ECSS-E-ST-10 standard.
 Specific requirements on space communication systems in respect of
functionality and performance.
The communications links covered by this Standard are the space-ground (i.e.
space­to­ground and ground-to-space) and space­to­space links used during
spacecraft operations, and the communications links to the spacecraft used
during the assembly, integration and test, and operational phases.
Spacecraft end­to­end communication systems comprise components in three
distinct domains, namely the ground network, the space link, and the space
network. This Standard covers the components of the space link and space
network in detail. However, this Standard only covers those aspects of the
ground network that are necessary for the provision of the end­to­end
communication services.
NOTE Other aspects of the ground network are covered
in ECSS-E-ST-70.

This Standard may be tailored for the specific characteristics and constraints of

a space project in conformance with ECSS-S-ST-00.
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Normative references
The following normative documents contain provisions which, through
reference in this text, constitute provisions of this ECSS Standard. For dated
references, subsequent amendments to, or revisions of any of these
publications, do not apply. However, parties to agreements based on this ECSS
Standard are encouraged to investigate the possibility of applying the most
recent editions of the normative documents indicated below. For undated
references the latest edition of the publication referred to applies.
EN reference Reference in text Title
EN 16601-00-01 ECSS-S-ST-00-01 ECSS system — Glossary of terms
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Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms
3.1 Terms defined in other standards
a. For the purpose of this Standard, the terms and definitions from
ECSS-S-ST-00-01 apply, in particular for the following terms:
1. function
2. interface
b. For the purpose of this Standard, the terms and definitions from
ECSS-E-ST-20 apply, in particular for the following term:
1. essential function
NOTE Synonym to the term “vital function” from
ECSS‐E‐ST‐70‐11
c. For the purpose of this Standard, the terms and definitions from
ECSS-E-ST-70-11 apply, in particular for the following terms:
1. commandable vital function
2. high priority command
3. high priority telemetry
4. vital function
NOTE Synonym to the term “essential function” from
ECSS-E-ST-20.
5. vital telecommand
3.2 Terms specific to the present standard
3.2.1 channel
combination of protocol and medium that provides a physical layer service
from end­to­end
NOTE This is the transfer of the unstructured bitstream
from point­to­point.
3.2.2 communication service
service that provides the capability of moving data between users.
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NOTE At least two users are involved when a
communication service is used, one sending data
and the other(s) receiving data.
3.2.3 cross support
use by one party of part of another party’s data system resources to
complement its own system
3.2.4 downlink
see “telemetry link”
3.2.5 duplex service
point-to-point system composed of two or more connected parties or devices
that can communicate with one another in both directions
3.2.6 entity
active element within a system
3.2.7 essential telecommand
telecommand that controls essential or vital functions
NOTE This corresponds to “high priority telecommand”
in ECSS-E-ST-70-11)
3.2.8 essential telemetry
telemetry that enables a reliable determination of the current status of vital
on‐board equipment available under all circumstances
NOTE This correspond to “high priority telemetry” in
ECSS-E-ST-70-11.
3.2.9 frame
service data unit passed, at the sending end, from the protocol sublayer to the
coding and synchronization sublayer
NOTE For definition of layers see Figure 4-2.
3.2.10 isochronous service
service providing for the transfer of data with a defined maximum deviation
from a nominal delay from end to end
3.2.11 protocol
set of rules and formats (semantic and syntactic) that determine the
communication behaviour of layer entities in the performance of
communication functions
3.2.12 service
capability of a layer, and the layers beneath it (a service­provider), that is
provided to service­users at the boundary between the service­provider and the
service­users
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NOTE The service defines the external behaviour of the
service­provider, independent of the mechanisms
used to provide that behaviour. Layers, layer
entities, and application­service­elements are
examples of components of a service­provider.
3.2.13 (N) service data unit
amount of information whose identity is preserved when transferred between
peer (N+1) entities and which is not interpreted by the supporting (N) entities
3.2.14 service­provider

abstract representation of the totality of those entities which provide a service to

service­users
NOTE A service provider includes entities in the layer at
which the service is provided, and in the layers
beneath it.
3.2.15 service­user
entity in a single system that makes use of a service
NOTE The service­user makes use of the service through
a collection of service primitives defined for the
service.
3.2.16 simplex
communicating in one direction from data source to data sink
3.2.17 source
entity that sends service­data­units, using a service provider
3.2.18 sink
entity that receives service­data­units from a service provider
3.2.19 telecommand
command data transmitted to a spacecraft through a telecommand link
3.2.20 telecommand link
communication link from ground to space by which a spacecraft is commanded
NOTE The term “uplink” is synonymous.
3.2.21 telemetry
housekeeping data and payload data generated on-board the spacecraft and
transmitted through a telemetry link
3.2.22 telemetry link
communication link from spacecraft to ground over which data generated on
the spacecraft is provided to ground
NOTE The term “downlink” is synonymous.
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3.2.23 uplink
see “telecommand link”
3.2.24 user
service­user
3.2.25 user application
application that makes use of data handling system services
NOTE An application can be a software entity or a
non­software entity which is controlling an
onboard system.
3.3 Abbreviated terms
For the purpose of this Standard, the abbreviated terms from ECSS-ST-00-01
and the following apply:
Abbreviation Meaning
AIT assembly, integration, and test
AR acceptance review
ARQ automatic repeat request
BER bit error rate
CCITT Consultative Committee for International Telegraph and
Telephone
CCSDS Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems
CDMU central data management unit
CDR critical design review
CSAD communication system analysis document
CSADD communication system architectural design document
CSBD communication system baseline definition
CSDDD communication system detailed design document
CSOM communication system operations manual
CSPD communication system profile document
CSRD communication system requirements document
CSVP communication system verification plan
DRD document requirements definitions
EIRP equivalent isotropically radiated power
EMC electromagnetic compatibility
ISO International Organization for Standardization
ITU International Telecommunication Union
ITU/RR ITU / Radio Regulations
LEOP launch and early operations phase
MEC
mission experiment centre
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OSI open system interconnection
OCC
operational control centre
PDR preliminary design review
PFD power flux density
QR qualification review
radio frequency
SDLS space data link security
SDU service data unit
SRR system requirements review
TT&C telemetry, tracking and command
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Space communications engineering
principles
4.1 Context
Space communications engineering is concerned with the provision of
end­to­end communication services to and from spacecraft. Communication
links are generally between the spacecraft and ground. However, this Standard

also addresses spacecraft­to­spacecraft links, e.g. in spacecraft constellations,

and can be applied to links between spacecraft and landed elements such as
orbiter­lander or orbiter­lander­rover configurations.
End­to­end communication is used both to control the operation of the
spacecraft, and to transfer data, such as payload data. However, the
requirements on the communications system for controlling the spacecraft
differ from those for payload data transfer. For control operations, the
communication system objective is to provide guaranteed delivery of
commands in the order of transmission. Commands can be repeated, but not
lost. By contrast, the requirement for payload data transfers is to transfer as
much data as possible. Some loss of data may be acceptable, and delivery order
is generally unimportant, provided the data can be reconstituted.
In addition to the end­to­end transfer of commands and data, some additional
services are provided across space communication links, such as time
correlation and orbit determination (via e.g. ranging and/or Doppler
measurements). Time correlation is used to accurately relate the local time
maintained at each end of the communication link in order to determine the
absolute time relationship between events. Ranging and/or Doppler
measurements are used to determine the distance and/or the velocity between a
ground station antenna and the spacecraft, for orbit determination.
The goals of standardization for space communication systems are:
 to ensure efficient use of the RF spectrum allocated to the space
infrastructure in a non­interfering manner;
 to ensure that the RF links to and from the spacecraft can be used for
orbit determination (via e.g. ranging and/or Doppler measurements);
 to ensure reliable and error free end­to­end communication between
ground stations and the spacecraft or between a spacecraft and a landed
element;
 to enable the use of the same ground segment infrastructure by different
spacecraft;
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 to ensure that standard communication interfaces are provided to the
spacecraft payloads and experiments in order to simplify the spacecraft
development process;
 to enable cross support between agencies.
Cross support can be beneficial for many reasons, including:
 Technical: to attain additional network coverage or to conduct some
programmatic endeavour, such as very long baseline interferometry
measurements.
 Economic: to avoid the expense of duplicate implementation, especially
to meet some short term requirement.
 Emergency: to increase mission support over that normally planned.
 Research: to avoid the cost and time delay of repeating investigations or
re­flying an experiment and to obtain unique data acquired in the past
and held by another agency.
These arguments were apparent as long ago as the early 1970s. For this reason,
the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) was established
to standardize space link protocols. Where appropriate, this ECSS Standard
calls up CCSDS recommendations directly.
4.2 Overall space communication
Figure 4-1 shows an example of a configuration for a space communication
system.
NOTE This configuration includes a space­to­space link
between two flight elements.
Mission
Spacecraft 2 Operation
Spacecraft 1 Ground Experiment
(e.g. Probe, Control
(e.g. Orbiter) station Centre
Lander) Centre (OCC)
Terrestrial Terrestrial
Space link Space link (MEC)
link link
(space-to- (space-to-
space) ground)
Figure 4-1: Example configuration of a space communication system
The overall data communication requirement is to transfer data to and from any
element of the space system in accordance with the mission requirements.
The elements of a space communication system are described in the following
paragraphs. In a real space communication system, the number and type of
elements actually present can vary. For example, in complex missions, there can
be several spacecraft, and multiple ground stations. In other missions, a single
spacecraft can be controlled from a single operation control centre, without a
mission experiment centre.
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