Disc springs - Calculation

This standard specifies design criteria and features of disc springs, whether as single disc springs or as stacks of disc springs. It includes the definition of relevant concepts as well as design formulae, and covers the fatigue life of such springs.

Tellerfedern - Berechnung

Die vorliegende Norm legt die Auslegungskriterien und Eigenschaften von Tellerfedern sowohl für Einzeltellerfedern als auch Tellerfedersäulen fest. Sie beinhaltet die Definition relevanter Begriffe sowie Gleichungen zur Berechnung und Angaben zur Lebensdauer dieser Federn.

Rondelles ressorts - Calculs

La présente norme spécifie les critères de conception et les propriétés des rondelles ressorts, que celles-ci se présentent sous la forme de rondelles ressorts simples ou assemblées. La présente norme comprend la définition des concepts applicables ainsi que des formules de conception, et traite de la résistance à la fatigue de tels ressorts.

Krožnikaste vzmeti - Izračun

Ta standard določa merila projektiranja in lastnosti posameznih krožnikastih vzmeti ter paketov krožnikastih vzmeti. Vključuje opredelitev ustreznih konceptov in formule projektiranja ter zajema čas obrabe teh vzmeti.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
08-Nov-2016
Current Stage
6060 - Definitive text made available (DAV) - Publishing
Due Date
09-Nov-2016
Completion Date
09-Nov-2016

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN 16984:2017
01-januar-2017
.URåQLNDVWHY]PHWL,]UDþXQ
Disc springs - Calculation
Tellerfedern - Berechnung
Rondelles ressorts - Calculs
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN 16984:2016
ICS:
21.160 Vzmeti Springs
SIST EN 16984:2017 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST EN 16984:2017
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST EN 16984:2017
EN 16984
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
November 2016
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 21.160
English Version
Disc springs - Calculation
Rondelles ressorts - Calculs Tellerfedern - Berechnung
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 15 August 2016.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,

Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Brussels

© 2016 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN 16984:2016 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST EN 16984:2017
EN 16984:2016 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................................... 4

2 Normative references .................................................................................................................................... 4

3 Terms, definitions, symbols, units and abbreviated terms ............................................................. 4

3.1 Terms and definitions ................................................................................................................................... 4

3.2 Symbols, units and abbreviated terms .................................................................................................... 4

4 Representation................................................................................................................................................. 6

4.1 Single disc spring ............................................................................................................................................. 6

4.2 Disc springs stacked in parallel ................................................................................................................. 6

4.3 Disc springs stacked in series ..................................................................................................................... 6

4.4 Disc spring diagram ....................................................................................................................................... 7

5 Design formulae for single disc springs .................................................................................................. 7

5.1 General ................................................................................................................................................................ 7

5.2 Test load ............................................................................................................................................................. 7

5.3 Deflection factors ............................................................................................................................................ 8

5.4 Spring load ......................................................................................................................................................... 8

5.5 Design stresses ................................................................................................................................................. 9

5.6 Spring rate ...................................................................................................................................................... 10

5.7 Energy capacity of springs ........................................................................................................................ 10

6 Load/deflection curve for a single disc spring .................................................................................. 10

7 Stacking of disc springs .............................................................................................................................. 11

8 Effect of friction in load/deflection characteristic ........................................................................... 13

9 Design stresses .............................................................................................................................................. 14

10 Types of loading ............................................................................................................................................ 15

10.1 Static loading and moderate fatigue conditions ............................................................................... 15

10.2 Dynamic loading ........................................................................................................................................... 15

Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................. 16

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
SIST EN 16984:2017
EN 16984:2016 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN 16984:2016) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 407 “Cylindrical

helical springs made from round wire and bar - Calculation and design”, the secretariat of which is held

by AFNOR.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by May 2017, and conflicting national standards shall be

withdrawn at the latest by May 2017.

This European Standard has been prepared by the initiative of the Association of the European Spring

Federation ESF and is based on the German Standard DIN 2092 “Disc springs — Calculation”, which is

known and used in many European countries.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organisations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia,

France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta,

Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and the United Kingdom.
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
SIST EN 16984:2017
EN 16984:2016 (E)
1 Scope

This standard specifies design criteria and features of disc springs, whether as single disc springs or as

stacks of disc springs. It includes the definition of relevant concepts as well as design formulae, and

covers the fatigue life of such springs.
2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

EN 16983:2016, Disc springs - Quality specifications - Dimensions
EN ISO 26909, Springs - Vocabulary (ISO 26909)
3 Terms, definitions, symbols, units and abbreviated terms
3.1 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in EN ISO 26909 apply.

NOTE Disc springs are annular coned elements that offer resistance to a compressive load applied axially.

They may be designed as single disc springs or as disc springs stacked in parallel or in series, either singly or in

multiples. They may be subjected to both static and fatigue loading, and may have flat bearings.

3.2 Symbols, units and abbreviated terms

For the purposes of this document, the following symbols, units and abbreviated terms apply

Table 1 — Symbols, units and abbreviated terms
Symbol Unit Description
D mm Outer diameter of spring
D mm Inner diameter of spring
D mm Diameter of centre of rotation
E MPa Modulus of elasticity (see EN 16983:2016)
F N Spring load
F , F , F ... N Spring loads related to spring deflections s , s , s …
1 2 3 1 2 3
F N Design spring load when spring is in the flattened position
F N Spring load of springs stacked in parallel, related
ges
to spring deflection s
ges
F N Spring load of springs stacked in parallel, allowance being
ges R
made for friction
F N Test load for length L or l
t t t
K , K , K , K Constants (see 5.3)
1 2 3 4
L mm Length of springs stacked in series or in parallel, in
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
SIST EN 16984:2017
EN 16984:2016 (E)
Symbol Unit Description
the initial position
L , L , L ... mm Lengths of loaded springs stacked in series or in parallel,
1 2 3
related to spring loads F , F , F …
1 2 3
L mm Test length of springs stacked in series or in parallel
L mm Design length of springs stacked in series or in
parallel, in the flattened position
N Number of cycles to failure
R N/mm Spring rate
W N mm Energy capacity of spring
h mm Initial cone height of springs without flat bearings, h = l
0 0 0
− t
h' mm Initial cone height of springs with flat bearings, h′ = l − t′
0 0 0
i Number of disc springs or packets stacked in series
l mm Free overall height of spring in its initial position
l , l , l ... mm Length of loaded spring related to spring loads F , F , F …
1 2 3 1 2 3
L mm Test length of spring
n Number of single disc springs stacked in parallel
P Theoretical centre of rotation of disc cross section (see
Figure 1)
s mm Deflection of single disc spring
s , s , s ... mm Spring deflections related to spring loads F , F , F …
1 2 3 1 2 3
s mm Deflection of springs stacked in series or in parallel, no
ges
allowance being made for friction. Recommended
maximum value: s = 0,75 (L − L )
ges 0 c
t mm Thickness of single disc spring
′ mm Reduced thickness of single disc spring with flat bearings
(group 3)
w , w Coefficients of friction (see Table 3)
M R
Ratio of outer to inner diameter
µ Poisson’s ratio
σ MPa Design stress

σ , σ , σ , σ , σ MPa Design stresses at the points designated OM, I, II, III, IV

OM I II III
(see
Figure 1)
σ MPa Maximum design stress in springs subject to fatigue
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
SIST EN 16984:2017
EN 16984:2016 (E)
Symbol Unit Description
loading
σ MPa Minimum design stress in springs subject to fatigue
...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
kSIST FprEN 16984:2016
01-junij-2016
.URåQLNDVWHY]PHWL,]UDþXQ
Disc springs - Calculation
Tellerfedern - Berechnung
Rondelles ressorts - Calculs
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: FprEN 16984
ICS:
21.160 Vzmeti Springs
kSIST FprEN 16984:2016 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
kSIST FprEN 16984:2016
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
kSIST FprEN 16984:2016
FINAL DRAFT
EUROPEAN STANDARD
FprEN 16984
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
April 2016
ICS 21.160
English Version
Disc springs - Calculation
Rondelles ressorts - Calculation Tellerfedern - Berechnung

This draft European Standard is submitted to CEN members for unique acceptance procedure. It has been drawn up by the

Technical Committee CEN/TC 407.

If this draft becomes a European Standard, CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations

which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration.

This draft European Standard was established by CEN in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other

language made by translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC

Management Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,

Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.

Recipients of this draft are invited to submit, with their comments, notification of any relevant patent rights of which they are

aware and to provide supporting documentation.

Warning : This document is not a European Standard. It is distributed for review and comments. It is subject to change without

notice and shall not be referred to as a European Standard.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Brussels

© 2016 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. FprEN 16984:2016 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
kSIST FprEN 16984:2016
FprEN 16984:2016 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................................... 4

2 Normative references .................................................................................................................................... 4

3 Terms, definitions, symbols, units and abbreviated terms ............................................................. 4

3.1 Terms and definitions ................................................................................................................................... 4

3.2 Symbols, units and abbreviated terms .................................................................................................... 4

4 Representation................................................................................................................................................. 6

4.1 Single disc spring ............................................................................................................................................. 6

4.2 Disc springs stacked in parallel ................................................................................................................. 6

4.3 Disc springs stacked in series ..................................................................................................................... 6

4.4 Disc spring diagram ....................................................................................................................................... 7

5 Design formulae for single disc springs .................................................................................................. 7

5.1 General ................................................................................................................................................................ 7

5.2 Test load ............................................................................................................................................................. 7

5.3 Deflection factors ............................................................................................................................................ 8

5.4 Spring load ......................................................................................................................................................... 8

5.5 Design stresses ................................................................................................................................................. 9

5.6 Spring rate ...................................................................................................................................................... 10

5.7 Energy capacity of springs ........................................................................................................................ 10

6 Load/deflection curve for a single disc spring .................................................................................. 10

7 Stacking of disc springs .............................................................................................................................. 11

8 Effect of friction in load/deflection characteristic ........................................................................... 13

9 Design stresses .............................................................................................................................................. 14

10 Types of loading ............................................................................................................................................ 15

10.1 Static loading and moderate fatigue conditions ............................................................................... 15

10.2 Dynamic loading ........................................................................................................................................... 15

Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................. 16

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
kSIST FprEN 16984:2016
FprEN 16984:2016 (E)
European foreword

This document (FprEN 16984:2016) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 407 “Project

Committee - Cylindrical helical springs made from round wire and bar - Calculation and design”, the

secretariat of which is held by AFNOR.
This document is currently submitted to the Unique Acceptance Procedure.

This European Standard has been prepared by the initiative of the Association of the European Spring

Federation ESF and is based on the German Standard DIN 2092 “Disc springs — Calculation”, which is

known and used in many European countries.
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
kSIST FprEN 16984:2016
FprEN 16984:2016 (E)
1 Scope

This standard specifies design criteria and features of disc springs, whether as single disc springs or as

stacks of disc springs. It includes the definition of relevant concepts as well as design formulae, and

covers the fatigue life of such springs.
2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

FprEN 16983:2016, Disc springs - Quality specifications - Part 1: Dimensions
EN ISO 26909, Springs - Vocabulary (ISO 26909)
3 Terms, definitions, symbols, units and abbreviated terms
3.1 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in EN ISO 26909 apply.

NOTE Disc springs are annular coned elements that offer resistance to a compressive load applied axially.

They may be designed as single disc springs or as disc springs stacked in parallel or in series, either singly or in

multiples. They may be subjected to both static and fatigue loading, and may have flat bearings.

3.2 Symbols, units and abbreviated terms
Table 1 — Symbols, units and abbreviated terms
Symbol Unit Description
D mm Outer diameter of spring
D mm Inner diameter of spring
D mm Diameter of centre of rotation
E MPa Modulus of elasticity (see FprEN 16983:2016)
F N Spring load
F , F , F ... N Spring loads related to spring deflections s , s , s …
1 2 3 1 2 3
F N Design spring load when spring is in the flattened position
F N Spring load of springs stacked in parallel, related to
ges
spring deflection s
ges
F N Spring load of springs stacked in parallel, allowance being made
ges R
for friction
F N Test load for length L or l
t t t
K , K , K , K Constants (see 5.3)
1 2 3 4
L mm Length of springs stacked in series or in parallel, in the
initial position
L , L , L ... mm Lengths of loaded springs stacked in series or in parallel,
1 2 3
related to spring loads F , F , F …
1 2 3
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
kSIST FprEN 16984:2016
FprEN 16984:2016 (E)
Symbol Unit Description
L mm Test length of springs stacked in series or in parallel
L mm Design length of springs stacked in series or in parallel, in
the flattened position
N Number of cycles to failure
R N/mm Spring rate
W N mm Energy capacity of spring
h mm Initial cone height of springs without flat bearings, h = l − t
0 0 0
′ mm Initial cone height of springs with flat bearings, h′ = l − t′
0 0
i Number of disc springs or packets stacked in series
l mm Free overall height of spring in its initial position
l , l , l ... mm Length of loaded spring related to spring loads F , F , F …
1 2 3 1 2 3
L mm Test length of spring
n Number of single disc springs stacked in parallel
P Theoretical centre of rotation of disc cross section (see Figure 1)
s mm Deflection of single disc spring
s , s , s ... mm Spring deflections related to spring loads F , F , F …
1 2 3 1 2 3
s mm Deflection of springs stacked in series or in parallel, no
ges
allowance being made for friction. Recommended maximum
value: s = 0,75 (L − L )
ges 0 c
t mm Thickness of single disc spring
′ mm Reduced thickness of single disc spring with flat bearings (group
w , w Coefficients of friction (see Table 3)
M R
D Ratio of outer to inner diameter
δ =
µ Poisson’s ratio
σ MPa Design stress

σ , σ , σ , σ , σ MPa Design stresses at the points designated OM, I, II, III, IV (see

OM I II III
IV Figure 1)
σ MPa Maximum design stress in springs subject to fatigue loading
σ MPa Minimum design stress in springs subject to fatigue loading
σ MPa Fatigue stress related to the deflection of springs subject to
fatigue loading
σ MPa Maximum fatigue stress
σ MPa Minimum fatigue stress
σ = σ − σ MPa Permanent range of fatigue stress
H O U
′ mm Lever arms
V, V
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
kSIST FprEN 16984:2016
FprEN 16984:2016 (E)
4 Representation
4.1 Single disc spring
a) without flat b
...

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