Earthworks - Soil treatment tests - Part 1: pH-test for determination of the lime requirement of soils for stabilization (Lime Fixation Point LFP, Lime Modification Optimum LMO)

This document describes the reference method for the determination of the lime fixation point (LFP) in soil treatment for earthworks.
The test consists in measuring the lowest quantity of lime to be added in a soil suspension in water that will result in a pH value of the soil-lime mix suspension of 12,4, measured at 25 °C ± 1 °C.
This test method cannot be used to provide information about soil reactivity with lime, or other performance values (mechanical characteristics of soil-lime mixes) applicable for improvement or stabilization purposes. Those performance tests will be conducted in a laboratory from a specific study, the lime dosage to be applied being indicated from this method.

Erdarbeiten - Prüfungen zur Bodenbehandlung - Teil 1: pH Test zur Bestimmung des Kalkbedarfs von Böden zur Stabilisierung (Bestimmung des minimalen Kalkgehalts LFP und des optimalen Kalkgehalts LMO)

Dieses Dokument beschreibt das Referenzverfahren zur Bestimmung des minimalen Kalkgehalts (en: lime fixation point, LFP) bei der Bodenbehandlung für Erdarbeiten.
Die Prüfung besteht aus der Messung der geringsten Kalkmenge, die in eine wässrige Bodensuspension hinzugegeben werden muss, damit eine Boden-Kalk-Mischung mit einem pH Wert von 12,4, gemessen bei 25 °C ± 1 °C, entsteht.
Dieses Prüfverfahren kann nicht dazu verwendet werden, um Informationen über die Bodenreaktivität mit Kalk oder anderen Leistungswerten (mechanische Merkmale von Boden-Kalk-Gemischen) für Verbesserungs- oder Stabilisierungszwecke zu gewinnen. Diese Leistungsprüfungen werden unter Laborbedingungen mit einer spezifischen Studie durchgeführt, woraus die ermittelte Kalkdosierung durch dieses Verfahren angegeben wird.

Terrassements - Essais de traitement de sol - Partie 1 : Essai pH pour la détermination du besoin en chaux pour la stabilisation des sols (Point de fixation de la chaux LFP, Optimum de modification de la chaux LMO)

Ce document décrit la méthode de référence pour la détermination du point de fixation de la chaux (LFP) dans le traitement des sols pour les travaux de terrassement.
L'essai consiste à mesurer la plus petite quantité de chaux à ajouter dans une suspension de sol dans l'eau qui permettra d'obtenir une valeur de pH de la suspension du mélange sol-chaux de 12,4, mesuré à 25 °C ± 1 °C.
Cette méthode d'essai ne peut être utilisée pour fournir des informations sur la réactivité du sol avec la chaux, ou d'autres valeurs de performance (caractéristiques mécaniques des mélanges sol-chaux) applicables à des fins d'amélioration ou de stabilisation. Ces essais de performance seront réalisés en laboratoire à partir d'une étude spécifique, le dosage de la chaux à appliquer étant indiqué à partir de cette méthode.

Zemeljska dela – Preskusi obdelave zemljin – 1. del: pH test za določanje vsebnosti apna v zemljini pri stabilizaciji (točka vezave apna LFP, optimum apnene stabilizacije LMO)

General Information

Status
Published
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - Definitive text made available (DAV) - Publishing
Due Date
08-Dec-2021
Completion Date
08-Dec-2021

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
kSIST-TS FprCEN/TS 17693-1:2021
01-september-2021

Zemeljska dela - Preskusi obdelave tal - 1. del: Določevanje apna za stabilizacijo

zemljin s pH-testom (točka vezave apna LFP, optimalna vrednost modifikacije apna
LMO)

Earthworks - Soil treatment tests - Part 1: pH-test for determination of the lime

requirement of soils for stabilization (Lime Fixation Point LFP, Lime Modification

Optimum LMO)
Erdarbeiten - Prüfungen zur Bodenbehandlung - Teil 1: pH Test zur Bestimmung des
Kalkhydratbedarfs von Böden zur Stabilisierung (Bestimmung des minimalen
Kalkhydratgehalts (LFP) und des optimalen Kalkhydratgehalts (LMO))

Terrassements - Essais de traitement de sol - Partie 1 : Essai pH pour la détermination

du besoin en chaux pour la stabilisation des sols (Point de fixation de la chaux LFP,

Optimum de modification de la chaux LMO)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: FprCEN/TS 17693-1
ICS:
13.080.99 Drugi standardi v zvezi s Other standards related to
kakovostjo tal soil quality
93.020 Zemeljska dela. Izkopavanja. Earthworks. Excavations.
Gradnja temeljev. Dela pod Foundation construction.
zemljo Underground works
kSIST-TS FprCEN/TS 17693-1:2021 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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kSIST-TS FprCEN/TS 17693-1:2021
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kSIST-TS FprCEN/TS 17693-1:2021
FINAL DRAFT
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION
FprCEN/TS 17693-1
SPÉCIFICATION TECHNIQUE
TECHNISCHE SPEZIFIKATION
July 2021
ICS 13.080.99; 93.020
English Version
Earthworks - Soil treatment tests - Part 1: pH-test for
determination of the lime requirement of soils for
stabilization (Lime Fixation Point LFP, Lime Modification
Optimum LMO)

Terrassements - Essais de traitement de sol - Partie 1 : Erdarbeiten - Prüfungen zur Bodenbehandlung - Teil 1:

Essai pH pour la détermination du besoin en chaux pH Test zur Bestimmung des Kalkhydratbedarfs von

pour la stabilisation des sols (Point de fixation de la Böden zur Stabilisierung (Bestimmung des minimalen

chaux LFP, Optimum de modification de la chaux LMO) Kalkhydratgehalts (LFP) und des optimalen

Kalkhydratgehalts (LMO))

This draft Technical Specification is submitted to CEN members for Vote. It has been drawn up by the Technical Committee

CEN/TC 396.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.

Recipients of this draft are invited to submit, with their comments, notification of any relevant patent rights of which they are

aware and to provide supporting documentation.

Warning : This document is not a Technical Specification. It is distributed for review and comments. It is subject to change

without notice and shall not be referred to as a Technical Specification.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2021 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. FprCEN/TS 17693-1:2021 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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kSIST-TS FprCEN/TS 17693-1:2021
FprCEN/TS 17693-1:2021 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ............................................................................................................................................ 3

Introduction .......................................................................................................................................................... 4

1 Scope .......................................................................................................................................................... 5

2 Normative references .......................................................................................................................... 5

3 Terms, definitions, abbreviations and symbols ........................................................................ 5

3.1 Terms ........................................................................................................................................................ 5

3.2 Abbreviations and symbols ............................................................................................................... 6

4 Principle of the test .............................................................................................................................. 7

5 Reagents ................................................................................................................................................... 7

5.1 Lime ........................................................................................................................................................... 7

5.2 Water ......................................................................................................................................................... 7

6 Apparatus ................................................................................................................................................ 7

7 Preparation of the test portions ...................................................................................................... 8

7.1 If D is greater than 50 mm ............................................................................................................ 8

max

7.2 If D is ranging between 5 mm and 50 mm .............................................................................. 8

max

7.3 If D is smaller than or equal at 5 mm ........................................................................................ 8

max

8 Test procedure ....................................................................................................................................... 9

8.1 Water calibration of the pH-meter ................................................................................................. 9

8.2 Main test procedure ............................................................................................................................. 9

8.3 Alternative test procedure .............................................................................................................. 10

9 Expression of results and determination of the LFP (LMO) of the soil ............................ 10

9.1 General.................................................................................................................................................... 10

9.2 pH vs added lime graph .................................................................................................................... 10

9.3 Conversion of quicklime to hydrated lime concentration ................................................... 11

9.4 Abnormal or out of range pH results ........................................................................................... 11

10 Test report ............................................................................................................................................. 11

Annex A (informative) Example of a test data sheet ........................................................................... 13

Bibliography ....................................................................................................................................................... 16

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kSIST-TS FprCEN/TS 17693-1:2021
FprCEN/TS 17693-1:2021 (E)
European foreword

This document (FprCEN/TS 17693-1:2021) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 396

“Earthworks”, the secretariat of which is held by AFNOR.
This document is currently submitted to the Vote on TS.
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kSIST-TS FprCEN/TS 17693-1:2021
FprCEN/TS 17693-1:2021 (E)
Introduction

This document describes the reference method for the determination of the lime fixation point (LFP) of

soils, also called lime modification optimum (LMO).

LFP (LMO) is the theoretical lime content from which can occur the setting and hardening of soil-lime

mix, resulting from the pozzolanic reactions due to the combination of lime with clay components of the

soil.

It can be considered as the optimal lime amount to be added in a soil in order to perform its improvement,

and the minimal lime amount from which stabilization can occur (terms “improvement” and

“stabilization” as defined in EN 16907-4).
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kSIST-TS FprCEN/TS 17693-1:2021
FprCEN/TS 17693-1:2021 (E)
1 Scope

This document describes the reference method for the determination of the lime fixation point (LFP) in

soil treatment for earthworks.

The test consists in measuring the lowest quantity of lime to be added in a soil suspension in water that

will result in a pH value of the soil-lime mix suspension of 12,4, measured at 25 °C ± 1 °C.

This test method cannot be used to provide information about soil reactivity with lime, or other

performance values (mechanical characteristics of soil-lime mixes) applicable for improvement or

stabilization purposes. Those performance tests will be conducted in a laboratory from a specific study,

the lime dosage to be applied being indicated from this method.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

EN 459-1, Building lime - Part 1: Definitions, specifications and conformity criteria

ISO 3310-1, Test sieves - Technical requirements and testing - Part 1: Test sieves of metal wire cloth

ISO 3310-2, Test sieves - Technical requirements and testing - Part 2: Test sieves of perforated metal plate

3 Terms, definitions, abbreviations and symbols
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— IEC Electropedia: available at https://www.electropedia.org/
— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https://www.iso.org/obp
3.1 Terms
3.1.1
subsample
sample obtained by means of a sample reduction procedure
3.1.2
test portion
sample used as a whole in a single test
3.1.3
lime

general term which includes quicklime, hydrated lime, lime slurry (“milk of lime”), defined and specified

according EN 459-1
3.1.4
lime content

amount of added lime in the soil, expressed as the percentage of lime mass to the dry mass of the soil, or

expressed as the percentage to the sum of dry mass of the soil and added lime mass

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kSIST-TS FprCEN/TS 17693-1:2021
FprCEN/TS 17693-1:2021 (E)
3.1.5
soil improvement with lime

operation which modifies the physical properties of a material - such as water content, plasticity, water

and frost susceptibility, compactibility and swelling potential - by the addition of lime (quicklime,

hydrated lime or lime slurry)

Note 1 to entry: The quantity of lime added may not be sufficient to induce significant permanent properties

3.1.6
soil stabilization with lime

operation consisting in obtaining an homogeneous mixture of soil with lime, and optionally with water,

which properly compacted significantly changes (generally in the medium or long term) the

characteristics of the soil in a way that renders it stable, particularly with respect to the action of water

and frost
3.1.7
lime fixation point
lime modification optimum

the theoretical lime content from which can occur the setting and hardening of soil-lime mix, resulting

from the pozzolanic reactions due to the combination of lime with clay components of the soil

Note 1 to entry: It can be considered as the optimal lime amount to be added in a soil in order to perform its

improvement, and the minimal lime amount from which stabilization can occur. In the rest of this document, the

symbol cLFP will be used to express this lime concentration.
3.1.8

figure expressing the acidity or alkalinity of a solution on a logarithmic scale on which 7 is neutral, lower

values are acid and higher values are alkaline.

Note 1 to entry: The pH is equal to −log where is the hydrogen ion concentration in moles per litre

10cH+, cH+
(mol/L).
3.2 Abbreviations and symbols
Abbreviations for terms and tests
LFP lime fixation point
LMO lime modification optimum
Symbols for quantities
C Weight ratio between 0/5 mm fraction and 0/50 mm fraction dimensionless (%)
c LFP : percentage of lime by dry mass of soil dimensionless (%)
LFP

cLFP,soil+lime LFP : percentage of lime by dry mass of soil and amount of added lime dimensionless (%)

c Lime slurry (milk of lime) concentration dimensionless (%)
c Lime slurry (milk of lime) concentration (% solid) dimensionless (%)
MLS
c Quicklime content dimensionless (%)
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kSIST-TS FprCEN/TS 17693-1:2021
FprCEN/TS 17693-1:2021 (E)
c Hydrated lime (slaked lime) content dimensionless (%)
D Maximum diameter of particles in a soil mass mm
max
m Wet mass of the subsample for the determination of the water content g
m’ Dry mass of the subsample for the determination of the water content g
m Initial wet mass of the subsamples for LFP test g
m Calculated dry mass of the subsamples for LFP test g
m Lime weight to be added g
w Water content of the subsample dimensionless (%)
4 Principle of the test

Increments of lime (quicklime, hydrated lime or lime slurry of known purities or concentrations) are

added successively in a test beaker containing a suspension
...

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