Railway applications - Braking - Requirements for the brake system of trains hauled by locomotives

This European Standard specifies basic requirements for the braking of trains hauled by locomotives:
-   For trains hauled by locomotives and intended for use in general operation each vehicle is fitted with the traditional brake system with a brake pipe compatible with the UIC brake system.
NOTE   This ensures technical compatibility of the brake function between vehicles of various origins in a train (see 5.4).
-   For trains hauled by locomotives and intended for use in fixed or predefined formation, the requirements on the vehicle and the train are necessary. In the case of a UIC brake system, this standard applies; if not, the EN 16185 series or the EN 15734 series applies.
If concerned, the UIC brake architecture described in this standard (see 5.4) can be used for brakes for multiple unit train and high speed trains and urban rail described in the EN 13452 series, the EN 16185 series and the EN 15734 series.
This European Standard also takes into account electrical and electronic control functions and additional brake systems like dynamic brakes and adhesion independent brakes.
The brake system requirements, which are specific for on-track machines are set out in EN 14033 1.
This European Standard does not apply to Urban Rail rolling stock braking system, which is specified by EN 13452 1.

Bahnanwendungen - Bremsen - Anforderungen an die Bremsausrüstung lokbespannter Züge

Diese Europäische Norm legt grundsätzliche Anforderungen an die Bremsung von lokbespannten Zügen fest:
-   Für lokbespannte Züge zur Verwendung im allgemeinen Betrieb wird jedes Fahrzeug mit einem herkömmlichen Bremssystem mit einer Hauptluftleitung, die mit dem UIC-Bremssystem kompatibel ist, ausgestattet.
ANMERKUNG   Dies stellt die technische Kompatibilität der Bremsfunktion zwischen Fahrzeugen verschiedener Herkünfte in einem Zugverband sicher (siehe 5.4).
-   Für lokbespannte Züge zur Verwendung in festen oder vordefinierten Zugverbänden sind die Anforderungen bezüglich Fahrzeug und Zug notwendig. Im Falle eines UIC-Bremssystems ist diese Norm anwendbar, falls nicht, greift die Reihe EN 16185 oder die Reihe EN 15734.
Im Zweifelsfall kann die UIC-Bremsenarchitektur, die in dieser Norm beschrieben wird (siehe 5.4), für Bremsen von Triebzügen und Hochgeschwindigkeitszügen sowie für städtische Eisenbahnen, wie in den Reihen EN 13452, EN 16185 und EN 15734 beschrieben, verwendet werden.
Diese Europäische Norm berücksichtigt ebenfalls die elektrischen und elektronischen Steuerungs  und Regelungsfunktionen sowie zusätzliche Bremssysteme, wie dynamische Bremsen und kraftschluss-unabhängige Bremsen.
Die Anforderungen an das Bremssystem von schienengebundenen Maschinen sind in EN 14033 1 enthalten.
Diese Europäische Norm ist nicht für Bremssysteme der Schienenfahrzeuge des öffentlichen Nahverkehrs nach EN 13452 1 anzuwenden.

Applications ferroviaires - Freinage - Exigences concernant le système de freinage des trains tractés par locomotive

La présente Norme européenne définit les exigences fondamentales pour le freinage de trains remorqués par locomotive :
-   pour les trains remorqués par locomotive et destinés à l’utilisation pour exploitation conventionnelle, chaque véhicule est équipé d’une architecture classique de système de freinage avec une conduite générale, compatible avec un système de freinage UIC ;
NOTE   Cela permet d’assurer la compatibilité technique de la fonction de freinage entre différents véhicules d’origines différentes dans un train (voir 5.4).
-   pour les trains remorqués par locomotive et destinés à l’utilisation en composition fixe ou prédéfinie, les exigences sont applicables sur le véhicule et sur le train. Dans le cas d’un système de freinage UIC, la présente norme s’applique ; dans d’autres cas la série de normes EN 16185 ou la série de normes EN 15734 s’appliquent.
Le cas échéant, l’architecture du système de freinage UIC décrite dans la présente norme (voir 5.4) peut être utilisée pour les freins des trains à unités multiples, pour les trains à grande vitesse et pour le rail urbain, décrites dans la série de normes EN 13452, EN 16185 et EN 15734.
La présente Norme européenne prend en compte les fonctions de commande électriques et électroniques et des systèmes de freinage supplémentaires, tels que les freins dynamiques et les freins qui ne dépendent pas de l’adhérence.
Les exigences relatives aux systèmes de freinage spécifiques aux machines de construction et de maintenance empruntant exclusivement les voies ferrés sont définies dans l’EN 14033-1.
La présente Norme européenne ne s’applique pas aux systèmes de freinage du matériel roulant du Rail Urbain, qui sont spécifiés dans l’EN 13452-1.

Železniške naprave - Zavore - Zahteve, ki jih morajo izpolnjevati zavorni sistemi vlakov, vlečeni z lokomotivami

General Information

Status
Published
Current Stage
6060 - Definitive text made available (DAV) - Publishing
Due Date
12-May-2021
Completion Date
12-May-2021

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN 14198:2017+A2:2021
01-julij-2021

Železniške naprave - Zavore - Zahteve, ki jih morajo izpolnjevati zavorni sistemi

vlakov, vlečeni z lokomotivami

Railway applications - Braking - Requirements for the brake system of trains hauled by

locomotives
Bahnanwendungen - Bremsen - Anforderungen an die Bremsausrüstung lokbespannter
Züge

Applications ferroviaires - Freinage - Exigences concernant le système de freinage des

trains tractés par locomotive
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN 14198:2016+A2:2021
ICS:
45.040 Materiali in deli za železniško Materials and components
tehniko for railway engineering
45.060.01 Železniška vozila na splošno Railway rolling stock in
general
SIST EN 14198:2017+A2:2021 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST EN 14198:2017+A2:2021
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST EN 14198:2017+A2:2021
EN 14198:2016+A2
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
May 2021
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 45.040; 45.060.01 Supersedes EN 14198:2016+A1:2018
English Version
Railway applications - Braking - Requirements for the
brake system of trains hauled by locomotives

Applications ferroviaires - Freinage - Exigences Bahnanwendungen - Bremsen - Anforderungen an die

concernant le système de freinage des trains tractés Bremsausrüstung lokbespannter Züge

par locomotive

This European Standard was approved by CEN on 5 August 2018 and includes Amendment 2 approved by CEN on 12 April 2021.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2021 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN 14198:2016+A2:2021 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST EN 14198:2017+A2:2021
EN 14198:2016+A2:2021 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 4

1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................................... 5

2 Normative References ................................................................................................................................... 5

3 Terms and definitions ................................................................................................................................... 7

4 Symbols and abbreviations ......................................................................................................................... 9

5 Requirements ................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.1 General requirements of the train braking system ............................................................................ 9

5.2 General safety requirements ...................................................................................................................... 9

5.2.1 Design principles ............................................................................................................................................. 9

5.2.2 Fire protection .............................................................................................................................................. 11

5.2.3 Environmental condition .......................................................................................................................... 11

5.3 Requirements of the main brake system ............................................................................................. 11

5.3.1 General requirements ................................................................................................................................ 11

5.3.2 General functions on train level ............................................................................................................. 12

5.3.3 Additional requirements at the vehicle level ..................................................................................... 18

5.4 “EN-UIC” brake system - based on air brake system ....................................................................... 19

5.4.1 Foreword ......................................................................................................................................................... 19

5.4.2 General architecture ................................................................................................................................... 20

5.4.3 Additional brake systems.......................................................................................................................... 21

5.4.4 Functional requirements at train level ................................................................................................ 21

5.4.5 Design requirements .................................................................................................................................. 35

5.4.6 Brake functions at vehicle level .............................................................................................................. 36

5.5 Direct EP brake control .............................................................................................................................. 41

5.6 Additional brake systems.......................................................................................................................... 41

5.6.1 Dynamic brakes ............................................................................................................................................ 41

5.6.2 Direct brake ................................................................................................................................................... 44

5.6.3 Magnetic Track brake ................................................................................................................................. 46

5.7 Brake management ..................................................................................................................................... 46

5.7.1 Brake blending at vehicle level ............................................................................................................... 46

5.7.2 Manual mode ................................................................................................................................................. 46

5.7.3 Brake blending at train level ................................................................................................................... 46

5.7.4 Jerk / ramps ................................................................................................................................................... 47

5.8 Wheel slide protection ............................................................................................................................... 48

5.9 Compressed air supply ............................................................................................................................... 48

5.9.1 General requirements ................................................................................................................................ 48

5.9.2 Capacity............................................................................................................................................................ 49

5.9.3 Air quality ....................................................................................................................................................... 49

5.10 Enhancement of wheel/rail adhesion ................................................................................................... 49

6 Performances ................................................................................................................................................ 50

6.1 General aspects ............................................................................................................................................. 50

6.2 Performance calculation ........................................................................................................................... 51

6.2.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 51

6.2.2 Calculations for nominal mode ............................................................................................................... 52

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SIST EN 14198:2017+A2:2021
EN 14198:2016+A2:2021 (E)

6.2.3 Equivalent response and delay time ...................................................................................................... 52

6.2.4 Calculations for degraded mode ............................................................................................................. 53

6.2.5 Calculations for degraded conditions ................................................................................................... 53

6.3 Relevant load conditions ........................................................................................................................... 53

6.3.1 Locomotives .................................................................................................................................................... 53

6.3.2 Coaches ............................................................................................................................................................. 53

6.3.3 Wagons ............................................................................................................................................................. 54

6.4 Service braking .............................................................................................................................................. 54

6.5 Thermal capacity .......................................................................................................................................... 54

6.6 Adhesion .......................................................................................................................................................... 55

6.6.1 General requirements ................................................................................................................................. 55

6.6.2 Emergency brake application .................................................................................................................. 55

6.6.3 Service brake application .......................................................................................................................... 55

6.7 Parking brake performance ..................................................................................................................... 56

Annex A (normative) Vehicle requirements .................................................................................................... 57

Annex B (informative) Train related brake performance categories..................................................... 59

Annex C (informative) Explanation of “proven design” concept .............................................................. 63

Annex D (informative) Corresponding standards EN – UIC ........................................................................ 64

Annex E (normative) Brake pipe pressure control system ........................................................................ 66

E.1 General requirements ................................................................................................................................. 66

E.2 Release position ............................................................................................................................................ 67

E.3 Service brake application .......................................................................................................................... 68

E.4 Emergency brake application .................................................................................................................. 68

E.5 Overcharge function .................................................................................................................................... 69

E.6 Quick release function ................................................................................................................................ 70

Annex F (normative) Venting performance of Emergency Valves ............................................................ 74

F.1 Purpose ............................................................................................................................................................ 74

F.2 General rules .................................................................................................................................................. 74

F.3 Test procedure .............................................................................................................................................. 74

Annex ZA (informative) Relationship between this European Standard and the Essential

Requirements of Directive (EU) 2016/797 aimed to be covered ................................................ 76

Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................. 80

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SIST EN 14198:2017+A2:2021
EN 14198:2016+A2:2021 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN 14198:2016+A2:2021) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 256

“Railway applications”, the secretariat of which is held by DIN.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by November 2021, and conflicting national standards

shall be withdrawn at the latest by November 2021.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document includes Amendment 1 approved by CEN on 2018-08-05.
This document includes Amendment 2 approved by CEN on 2021-04-12.
This document supersedes #EN 14198:2016+A1:2018$.

The start and finish of text introduced or altered by amendment is indicated in the text by tags !",

#$.

#This document has been prepared under a standardization request addressed to CEN by the

European Commission, and it aims to support essential or other requirements of EU Directive(s) or

Regulation(s).

For relationship with EU Directive(s) or Regulation(s), see informative Annex ZA, which is an integral

part of this document.$
!deleted text"

According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia,

France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta,

Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and the United Kingdom.
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
SIST EN 14198:2017+A2:2021
EN 14198:2016+A2:2021 (E)
1 Scope

This European Standard specifies basic requirements for the braking of trains hauled by locomotives:

— For trains hauled by locomotives and intended for use in general operation each vehicle is fitted

with the traditional brake system with a brake pipe compatible with the UIC brake system.

NOTE This ensures technical compatibility of the brake function between vehicles of various origins in a train

(see 5.4).

— For trains hauled by locomotives and intended for use in fixed or predefined formation, the

requirements on the vehicle and the train are necessary. In the case of a UIC brake system, this

standard applies; if not, the EN 16185 series or the EN 15734 series applies.

If concerned, the UIC brake architecture described in this standard (see 5.4) can be used for brakes for

multiple unit train and high speed trains and urban rail described in the EN 13452 series, the

EN 16185 series and the EN 15734 series.

This European Standard also takes into account electrical and electronic control functions and

additional brake systems like dynamic brakes and adhesion independent brakes.

The brake system requirements, which are specific for on-track machines are set out in EN 14033-1.

This European Standard does not apply to Urban Rail rolling stock braking system, which is specified by

EN 13452-1.
2 Normative References

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

EN 286-3, Simple unfired pressure vessels designed to contain air or nitrogen - Part 3: Steel pressure

vessels designed for air braking equipment and auxiliary pneumatic equipment for railway rolling stock

EN 286-4, Simple unfired pressure vessels designed to contain air or nitrogen - Part 4: Aluminium alloy

pressure vessels designed for air braking equipment and auxiliary pneumatic equipment for railway

rolling stock

EN 837-1:1996, Pressure gauges - Part 1: Bourdon tube pressure gauges - Dimensions, metrology,

requirements and testing

EN 854, Rubber hoses and hose assemblies - Textile reinforced hydraulic type - Specification

EN 10220, Seamless and welded steel tubes - Dimensions and masses per unit length

EN 10305-4, Steel tubes for precision applications - Technical delivery conditions - Part 4: Seamless cold

drawn tubes for hydraulic and pneumatic power systems

EN 10305-6, Steel tubes for precision applications - Technical delivery conditions - Part 6: Welded cold

drawn tubes for hydraulic and pneumatic power systems

EN 13749:2011, Railway applications - Wheelsets and bogies - Method of specifying the structural

requirements of bogie frames
EN 14478, Railway applications - Braking - Generic vocabulary
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SIST EN 14198:2017+A2:2021
EN 14198:2016+A2:2021 (E)

EN 14531-1, Railway applications - Methods for calculation of stopping and slowing distances and

immobilization braking - Part 1: General algorithms utilizing mean value calculation for train sets or

single vehicles

EN 14531-2, Railway applications - Methods for calculation of stopping and slowing distances and

immobilization braking - Part 2: Step by step calculations for train sets or single vehicles

EN 14535-1, Railway applications — Brake discs for railway rolling stock — Part 1: Brake discs pressed or

shrunk onto the axle or drive shaft, dimensions and quality requirements

EN 14535-2, Railway applications - Brake discs for railway rolling stock - Part 2: Brake discs mounted

onto the wheel, dimensions and quality requirements

EN 14535-3, Railway applications - Brake discs for railway rolling stock - Part 3: Brake discs, performance

of the disc and the friction couple, classification

EN 14601, Railway applications — Straight and angled end cocks for brake pipe and main reservoir pipe

EN 15220, Railway applications - Brake indicators
EN 15273-2, Railway applications - Gauges - Part 2: Rolling stock gauge

EN 15329, Railway applications - Braking - Brake block holder and brake shoe key for railway vehicles

EN 15355, Railway applications — Braking — Distributor valves and distributor-isolating devices

EN 15595, Railway applications — Braking — Wheel slide protection
EN 15611, Railway applications — Braking — Relay valves
EN 15612, Railway applications — Braking — Brake pipe accelerator valve
EN 15663, Railway applications - Definition of vehicle reference masses

EN 15734-1, Railway applications - Braking systems of high speed trains - Part 1: Requirements and

definitions
EN 15807, Railway applications - Pneumatic half couplings

EN 16185-1, Railway applications - Braking systems of multiple unit trains - Part 1: Requirements and

definitions

prEN 16186-2, Railway applications - Driver’s cab - Part 2: Integration of displays, controls and indicators

EN 16207, Railway applications - Braking - Functional and performance criteria of Magnetic Track Brake

systems for use in railway rolling stock
EN 16241, Railway applications - Slack adjuster
EN 16334, Railway applications - Passenger Alarm System - System requirements
EN 16451, Railway applications - Braking - Brake pad holder
EN 16452, Railway applications - Braking - Brake blocks
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
SIST EN 14198:2017+A2:2021
EN 14198:2016+A2:2021 (E)
prEN 16834, Railway applications - Braking - Brake performance
EN 45545 (all parts), Railway applications — Fire protection on railway vehicles

EN 50125-1, Railway applications — Environmental conditions for equipment — Part 1: Rolling stock and

on-board equipment
EN 50163, Railway applications - Supply voltages of traction systems

EN 50553, Railway applications - Requirements for running capability in case of fire on board of rolling

stock

EN ISO 1127, Stainless steel tubes - Dimensions, tolerances and conventional masses per unit length

(ISO 1127)

NF F 11-100:1995, Matériel roulant ferroviaire — Qualité de l’air comprimé destiné aux appareils et

circuits pneumatiques

UIC 541-3, Brakes - Disc brakes and their application - General conditions for the approval of brake pads

UIC 541-5:2005, Brakes — Electropneumatic brake (ep brake) — Electropneumatic emergency brake

override (EBO)

UIC 541-6:2010, Brakes — Electropneumatic brake (ep brake) and Passenger alarm signal (PAS) for

vehicles used in hauled consists
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in EN 14478 and the following

apply.
3.1
general operation

mode of operation of units intended to be coupled with other units in a train formation which is not

defined at design stage
3.2
brake mode

in the “EN-UIC” design, mode that defines the brake force build up and release timings – namely “G” for

Goods timings, i.e. slow-acting, “P” for Passenger timings, i.e. fast timing, typically controlled by the

brake distributor in an air brake system
3.3
brake positions G, P, R and others

in the “EN-UIC” design, position that defines the behaviour of the distributor valve in regard of brake

application and release timings and brake cylinder forces, combined with additional brake systems

3.4
automatic brake application
automatic application of the brakes when the brake line is interrupted

1) EN 14478 is under revision and the next edition will include several of the definitions currently contained in

this document.
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SIST EN 14198:2017+A2:2021
EN 14198:2016+A2:2021 (E)
3.5
power brake
uses compressed air to apply the brake
3.6
unit

assessable entity which may be a single vehicle/locomotive or a group of vehicles that operate in a fixed

formation
3.7
train
operational formation consisting of one or more units
3.8
rear view position

position in the front cab, where the driver can observe the rear end of the train and can command the

traction and brake system for shunting
3.9
active driving cab

only cab enabled to generate and transmit train wide command for traction and brake release

3.10
brake command vehicle
vehicle where the active cab is located
3.11
emergency brake performance

result of an emergency brake application in terms of stopping distances, retardation and brake

response time
3.12
locomotive

traction vehicle (or combination of several vehicles) that is not intended to carry a payload and has the

ability to be uncoupled in normal operation from a train and to operate independently

3.13
braked weight percentage
also known as λ (lambda) brake performance in accordance with prEN 16834
3.14
braked weight

weight which is obtained by multiplying the braked weight percentage by the total mass of the

vehicle/train and dividing the result by 100 and is expressed in tonnes
3.15
build up time

time to create an emergency brake application on a single vehicle starting from the beginning of the

pressure rising until 95 % of the maximum brake cylinder pressure is reached
3.16
release time

time for reducing the brake cylinder or the pre-control brake cylinder pressure on a single vehicle,

starting from the beginning of the pressure drop down to 0,4 bar
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
SIST EN 14198:2017+A2:2021
EN 14198:2016+A2:2021 (E)

Note 1 to entry: The pressure in the brake pipe is increased up to the normal working pressure, starting from

1,5 bar below it, in less than 2 s.
4 Symbols and abbreviations

For the purposes of this document, the following symbols and abbreviations apply.

λ braked weight percentage
AC Alternating Current
BP Brake Pipe
CCS Control Command and Signalling system
CSM Common Safety Methods

CW Marking for freight wagons depending on compliance with TSI WAG requirements, for

application refer to Commission Regulation (EU) No 321/2013, Annex C, Clause 5 “Marking of

units”

DC Direct Current (“Berlin DC-Network” means network of the S-Bahn Berlin, Germany, which runs

on DC)
EMC Electromagnetic Compatibility
ETCS European Train Control System

GE Marking for freight wagons depending on compliance with TSI WAG requirements, for

application refer to Commission Regulation (EU) No 321/2013, Annex C, Clause 5 “Marking of

units”
MRP Main Reservoir Pipe
MTB Magnetic Track Brake

RER Le Réseau Express Regional (Network of Express Train Lines in and around Paris, France)

UIC International Union of Railways (Union internationale des chemins de fer)
UK United Kingdom
WSP Wheel Slide Protection system
5 Requirements
5.1 General requirements of the train braking system

The purpose of the train braking system is to ensure that the train’s speed can be reduced or

maintained on a slope, or that the train can be stopped within the maximum allowable braking distance.

Braking also provides the immobilization of a train either for a certain period of time or permanently

when it is not in operation or without any energy on board.

Units designed and assessed to be operated in general operation (various formations of vehicles from

different origins; train formation not defined at the design stage) shall be fitted with a technically

compatible brake system to ensure the brake function in all vehicles of the train.

5.2 General safety requirements
5.2.1 Design principles

The design, construction or assembly, maintenance and monitoring of safety-critical components, and

more particularly of the components involved in train movements, shall ensure safety at the level

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SIST EN 14198:2017+A2:2021
EN 14198:2016+A2:2021 (E)

corresponding to the aims laid down for the respective railway network. The braking techniques and

the stresses exerted shall be compatible with the design of the tracks, engineering structures and

signalling systems. Brake systems shall conform to the following:

— the design principles listed in the standards on brake systems referred to in Clause 2 – normative

references;
— the brake performances defined in Clause 6;
— the design principles in accordance with the requirements of this standard;

— keeping within the specified effects on the infrastructure, particularly regarding EMC and noise

emissions.

In the course of the system design, risks shall be considered and mitigated. As a minimum, the following

hazards shall be taken into account:
a) the brake force applied is greater than the maximum design level:
1) impact on track shifting forces;
2) excessive jerk (impact on standing passengers);
3) significant damage to the contact surface of the wheels or friction partners;

4) impact on load assumptions in the fatigue life of the components generating the b

...

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