Space engineering - Multipactor handbook

This Handbook describes the guidelines and recommendations for the design and test of RF components and equipment to achieve acceptable performance with respect to multipactor-free operation in service in space. This document is the mirror document of the EN 16603-20-01 (based on ECSS-ST-20-01) normative document. Thus it includes the same contents as the normative text and has the same structure.
This Handbook is intended to result in the effective design and verification of the multipactor performance of the equipment and consequently in a high confidence in achieving successful product operation.
This Handbook covers multipactor events occurring in all classes of RF satellite components and equipment at all frequency bands of interest. Operation in single carrier CW and pulse modulated mode are included, as w ell as multicarrier operations. A detailed chapter on secondary emission yield is also included.
This Handbook does not include breakdow n processes caused by collisional processes, such as plasma formation.

Raumfahrttechnik - Multipactorhandbuch

Ingénierie spatiale - Manuel sur l’effet Multipactor

Vesoljska tehnika - Priročnik o pojavu multipaktor

General Information

Status
Published
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - Definitive text made available (DAV) - Publishing
Due Date
29-Sep-2021
Completion Date
29-Sep-2021

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
kSIST-TP FprCEN/CLC/TR 17603-20-01:2021
01-julij-2021
Vesoljska tehnika - Priročnik o pojavu multipaktor
Space engineering - Multipactor handbook
Raumfahrttechnik - Multipactor-Handbuch
Ingénierie spatiale - Manuel sur la décharge auto-entretenue
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: FprCEN/CLC/TR 17603-20-01
ICS:
49.140 Vesoljski sistemi in operacije Space systems and
operations
kSIST-TP FprCEN/CLC/TR 17603-20- en,fr,de
01:2021

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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kSIST-TP FprCEN/CLC/TR 17603-20-01:2021
TECHNICAL REPORT
FINAL DRAFT
FprCEN/CLC/TR 17603-
RAPPORT TECHNIQUE
20-01
TECHNISCHER BERICHT
May 2021
ICS 49.140
English version
Space engineering - Multipactor handbook

Ingénierie spatiale - Manuel sur la décharge auto- Raumfahrttechnik - Multipactor-Handbuch

entretenue

This draft Technical Report is submitted to CEN members for Vote. It has been drawn up by the Technical Committee

CEN/CLC/JTC 5.

CEN and CENELEC members are the national standards bodies and national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium,

Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy,

Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia,

Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and United Kingdom.

Recipients of this draft are invited to submit, with their comments, notification of any relevant patent rights of which they are

aware and to provide supporting documentation.

Warning : This document is not a Technical Report. It is distributed for review and comments. It is subject to change without

notice and shall not be referred to as a Technical Report.
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre:
Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2021 CEN/CENELEC All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means Ref. No. FprCEN/CLC/TR 17603-20-01:2021 E

reserved worldwide for CEN national Members and for
CENELEC Members.
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Table of contents

European Foreword .......................................................................................... 9

Introduction ..................................................................................................... 10

1 Scope ............................................................................................................ 11

2 References ................................................................................................... 12

3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms ................................................. 14

3.1 Terms from other documents ......................................................................... 14

3.2 Abbreviated terms.......................................................................................... 15

4 Verification ................................................................................................... 16

4.1 Verification process ....................................................................................... 16

4.2 Multipactor verification plan ........................................................................... 16

4.2.1 Generation and updating .................................................................. 16

4.2.2 Description ....................................................................................... 16

4.3 Power requirements ....................................................................................... 16

4.3.1 General power requirements ............................................................ 16

4.4 Classification of equipment or component type .............................................. 17

4.4.1 General classification of equipment or component type ................... 17

4.5 Verification routes .......................................................................................... 20

4.6 Single carrier ................................................................................................. 20

4.6.1 General ............................................................................................ 20

4.6.2 Verification by analysis ..................................................................... 20

4.6.3 Verification by test ............................................................................ 20

4.7 Multicarrier ..................................................................................................... 22

4.7.1 General ............................................................................................ 22

4.7.2 Verification by analysis ..................................................................... 22

4.7.3 Verification by test ............................................................................ 22

4.8 Bibliography for clause 4................................................................................ 23

5 Design analysis ........................................................................................... 24

5.1 Overview ....................................................................................................... 24

5.2 Field analysis ................................................................................................. 24

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5.3 Multipactor design analysis ............................................................................ 24

5.3.1 Frequency selection ......................................................................... 24

5.3.2 Design analysis levels ...................................................................... 24

5.3.3 Available data for Multipactor analysis ............................................. 58

5.4 Bibliography for clause 5................................................................................ 62

6 Multipactor - Test conditions ...................................................................... 64

6.1 Cleanliness .................................................................................................... 64

6.2 Pressure ........................................................................................................ 65

6.3 Temperature .................................................................................................. 66

6.4 Signal characteristics ..................................................................................... 67

6.4.1 Applicable bandwidth ....................................................................... 67

6.4.2 Single-frequency test case ............................................................... 67

6.4.3 Multi-frequency test case ................................................................. 68

6.4.4 Pulsed testing .................................................................................. 73

6.5 Electron seeding ............................................................................................ 74

6.5.1 General ............................................................................................ 74

6.5.2 Multipactor test in CW operation ...................................................... 74

6.5.3 Multipactor test in pulsed operation .................................................. 74

6.5.4 Multipactor test in multi-carrier operation .......................................... 74

6.5.5 Seeding sources .............................................................................. 74

6.5.6 Seeding verification .......................................................................... 82

6.6 Bibliography for clause 6................................................................................ 82

7 Multipactor - Methods of detection ............................................................ 83

7.1 General .......................................................................................................... 83

7.2 Detection methods ......................................................................................... 83

7.2.1 Introduction ...................................................................................... 83

7.2.2 Global detection methods................................................................. 84

7.2.3 Local detection methods .................................................................. 86

7.3 Detection method parameters ........................................................................ 87

7.3.1 Verification ....................................................................................... 87

7.3.2 Sensitivity ......................................................................................... 87

7.3.3 Rise time .......................................................................................... 87

8 Multipactor - test procedure ....................................................................... 88

8.1 General .......................................................................................................... 88

8.2 Test bed configuration ................................................................................... 89

8.3 Test bed validation......................................................................................... 89

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8.3.1 Reference multipactor test ............................................................... 89

8.4 Test sequence ............................................................................................... 93

8.4.1 Power profile .................................................................................... 93

8.5 Acceptance criteria ........................................................................................ 93

8.5.1 Definitions ........................................................................................ 93

8.5.2 Multipactor Free Equipment or component ....................................... 93

8.5.3 Steps in case of Discharges or Events during test............................ 93

8.5.4 Investigation of Test Anomalies........................................................ 93

8.6 Test procedure .............................................................................................. 93

8.6.1 Test procedure for high power loads ................................................ 93

8.7 Test reporting ................................................................................................ 97

8.8 Bibliography for clause 8................................................................................ 99

9 Secondary electron emission yield requirements .................................. 100

9.1 General ........................................................................................................ 100

9.1.1 SEY definition and properties ......................................................... 100

9.1.2 SEY and Multipactor ...................................................................... 101

9.1.3 Factors affecting SEY .................................................................... 102

9.1.4 SEY testing .................................................................................... 103

9.2 SEY measurements justification .................................................................. 106

9.3 Worst case SEY measurement .................................................................... 106

9.4 SEY measurements conditions .................................................................... 106

9.4.1 Environmental conditions ............................................................... 106

9.4.2 SEY test bed conditions ................................................................. 115

9.4.3 SEY sample characteristics ............................................................ 118

9.5 SEY measurements procedure .................................................................... 119

9.5.1 SEY Measurements procedure documents .................................... 119

9.5.2 SEY measurement calibration ........................................................ 119

9.6 ECSS SEY data selection ............................................................................ 120

9.7 Bibliography for clause 9.............................................................................. 139

Figures

Figure 4-1: Component assembly with consideration of reflection coefficient .............. 16

Figure 4-2: Isolator block diagram ............................................................................... 17

Figure 4-3: Tested component – Coaxial filter ............................................................. 18

Figure 4-4: Multipactor simulations and multipactor measurements with and without

thermal baking for a RF component with different dielectric materials ....... 19

Figure 4-5: Schematic diagram of discharge at a triple point in the inverted voltage

gradient configuration with potential contours indicated by colour scale. ... 20
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Figure 4-6: Component assembly with consideration of the reflection coefficient of the

downstream component assembly for test margin ..................................... 21

Figure 4-7: Power correction with respect to mismatch of the payload downstream

component assembly ................................................................................ 21

Figure 5-1: 2D schematic of a typical iris-like structure ................................................ 25

Figure 5-2: 2D Typical Sombrin chart with fringing field effect for different d/l ratios. ... 27

Figure 5-3: 2D Typical multipactor chart computed with non-stationary theory with

fringing field effect for different d/l ratios. ................................................... 28

Figure 5-4: 2D Experimental results corresponding to EVEREST project [5-12] .......... 29

Figure 5-5: 2D Experimental results corresponding to ESA-TESAT activity [5-10] ....... 29

Figure 5-6: 2D Experimental results corresponding to ESA-AURORASAT activity [5-

11] ............................................................................................................. 30

Figure 5-7: 2D Numerical results corresponding to ESA-AURORASAT activity [5-11] . 30

Figure 5-8: 2D Analytical results corresponding to ESA-AURORASAT activity [5-11] .. 31

Figure 5-9: Fringing field analysis method 1 for L1 analysis type. ................................ 32

Figure 5-10: Fringing field analysis method 2 for L1 analysis type. .............................. 33

Figure 5-11: Single-carrier L1 analysis flow diagram. .................................................. 34

Figure 5-12: Schematic network used for multipactor analysis. ................................... 36

Figure 5-13: Example of multicarrier signal and corresponding pulse approximation. .. 37

Figure 5-14: Electron absorption rate for zero applied voltage. .................................... 38

Figure 5-15: L1 analysis for multicarrier, Pulsed model flow chart ............................... 39

Figure 5-16: 3D view of Ku-band transformer of ESA TRP activity [5-19] .................... 40

Figure 5-17: Pulse amplitude and carrier amplitude vs t ............................................ 41

Figure 5-18: Example with 3 different “on intervals” corresponding to 10%, 30% and

70% of the envelope period together with the theoretical limit (boundary) . 42

Figure 5-19: 3D of Ku band bandpass filter of ESA TRP activity [5-19] ........................ 43

Figure 5-20: Hybrid L1/L2 multi-carrier analysis steps. ................................................ 45

Figure 5-21: Electron growth over 10 envelope periods for 10 different “on intervals” for

one amplitude factor .................................................................................. 47

Figure 5-22: Convergence of the amplitude factor, showing also how Γ converges

towards one electron ................................................................................. 47

Figure 5-23: Hatch and William chart with the multicarrier in-phase amplitude indicated

by a green circle. The red dashed line is the fd-product of the average

multicarrier frequency and the critical gap size .......................................... 48

Figure 5-24: KS3 sample geometry. ............................................................................ 49

Figure 5-25: KS3 sample simulated RF performance .................................................. 50

Figure 5-26: 3D view of L-band sample ....................................................................... 51

Figure 5-27: Predicted S-parameter Performance of Preliminary L-band RF Device

Design ....................................................................................................... 52

Figure 5-28: Predicted Voltage Distribution in Preliminary L-band RF Device Design .. 53

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Figure 5-29: Predicted S-parameter Performance of Finalised L-band RF Device (1525

MHz) ......................................................................................................... 53

Figure 5-30: Predicted Voltage Distribution in Finalised L-band RF Device

(1525 MHz) ............................................................................................... 54

Figure 5-31: Predicted S-parameter Performance of Finalised L-band RF Device

(1405 MHz) ............................................................................................... 54

Figure 5-32: Predicted Voltage Distribution in Finalised L-band RF Device

(1405 MHz) ............................................................................................... 55

Figure 5-33: Variation of peak voltage on each resonator with frequency – 30 MHz

design bandwidth ...................................................................................... 56

Figure 5-34: Variation of peak voltage on each resonator with frequency – 10 MHz

design bandwidth ...................................................................................... 56

Figure 5-35: Variation of peak voltage on central resonator with bandwidth change (Fc

= 1525 MHz) ............................................................................................. 57

Figure 5-36: RF performances with machining tolerances (Resonant reference sample

S-3 and S-4) .............................................................................................. 58

Figure 5-37: Electric field (12,75 GHz – samples S-3 and S-4) .................................... 59

Figure 5-38: Voltage inside critical gap (samples S-3 and S-4) .................................... 59

Figure 5-39: Nominal model ........................................................................................ 60

Figure 5-40: Re-tuned model ....................................................................................... 61

Figure 5-41: Return Loss nominal (red) and tuned (pink) ............................................. 61

Figure 6-1: Work in a clean room environment. ........................................................... 64

Figure 6-2: Screenshot of clean room monitoring. The pressure reading corresponds to

the overpressure delta in the clean room. .................................................. 64

Figure 6-3: A pressure gauge. ..................................................................................... 65

Figure 6-4: Picture of a typical pressure profile for a P1 component or equipment. ..... 65

Figure 6-5: Picture of a typical pressure profile for a P2/P3 component or equipment

with pressure spikes related to outgassing. ............................................... 66

Figure 6-6: RF cable with thermocouples. ................................................................... 66

Figure 6-7: RF cable with thermocouples. ................................................................... 67

Figure 6-8: A multicarrier test facility ............................................................................ 68

Figure 6-9: Schematic of a three-carrier multipactor test bed....................................... 68

Figure 6-10: Error probability distributions for different f·d ........................................... 69

Figure 6-11: Error dependency on the similarity degree .............................................. 70

Figure 6-12: Margin definition with respect pulsed model and CW operation ............... 71

Figure 6-13: Typical pulse parameters during multipactor test ..................................... 73

Figure 6-14: Decay of Strontium-90. ............................................................................ 75

Figure 6-15: Picture of an encapsulated radioactive source. ....................................... 75

Figure 6-16: Sketch of the photoelectric effect. ............................................................ 77

Figure 6-17: Picture of the UV lamp as part of a test bed. ........................................... 77

Figure 6-18: Spectrum of the typical lamps used for electron seeding. ........................ 78

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Figure 6-19: Diagram of an electron gun. .................................................................... 79

Figure 6-20: Sketch of the functioning of an electron gun. ........................................... 79

Figure 6-21: Picture of an electron gun installed into a test bed. .................................. 80

Figure 7-1: Schematic of global detection systems implemented in a typical test bed.. 84

Figure 7-2: Electron probe circuit diagram. .................................................................. 86

Figure 8-1: Multipactor test procedure overview. ......................................................... 89

Figure 8-2: Example of an L- and S-band reference sample. ....................................... 90

Figure 8-3: Measured S-parameter performance of broadband multipactor sample. ... 91

Figure 8-4: Ku-band Broadband Multipactor Sample. .................................................. 91

Figure 8-5: Multipactor threshold variation vs. gap height. ........................................... 92

Figure 8-6: Ku-band reference sample dimensions. .................................................... 92

Figure 8-7: Heat pipe. .................................................................................................. 94

Figure 9-1: Typical dependence of SEY coefficients on primary electron energy. ...... 101

Figure 9-2: Energy distribution curve of emitted electron from gold target surface

submitted to 112 eV electron irradiation [9-1] .......................................... 101

Figure 9-3: Experimental arrangement for SEY test with emission collector .............. 103

Figure 9-4: SEY experimental setup (without collector around the sample) ............... 105

Figure 9-5: Typical composition of exposed to air metal surface ................................ 107

Figure 9-6: Measured SEY of metals exposed to air without a specific surface cleaning

procedure ................................................................................................ 108

Figure 9-7: Schematic view of material exposed to atmosphere: the case of silver .... 109

Figure 9-8: Effect of cleaning of the surface by heating on the SEY of Nb. ................ 110

Figure 9-9: Effect of the water absorption on the SEY. .............................................. 110

Figure 9-10: Effect of baking on the SEY of dielectrics. ............................................. 111

Figure 9-11: Evolution of the SEY of the technical silver versus pressure.................. 112

Figure 9-12: Effect of the temperature on the SEY of silver. Figure extracted from [9-

18]. .......................................................................................................... 113

Figure 9-13: Effect of the temperature on the SEY of MgO and BN-SiO2 ceramics. .. 114

Figure 9-14: Effect of the temperature on the SEY of coverglass and CVD diamond . 115

Figure 9-15: Effect of the incidence angle variations on the SEY of silver ................. 116

Figure 9-16: Effect of electron irradiation on SEY (CERN) ......................................... 116

Figure 9-17: Influence of the primary electron energy on the charging process. TEEY =

SEY, E = E1 and E =E2 ...................................................................... 117

C1 C2
Figure 9-18: Influence of the primary electron energy on the charging process,

EEY = SEY, E = E1 and E =E2 ........................................................... 118

C1 C2

Figure 9-19: SEY as a function of the primary electron energy for aluminium ............ 120

Figure 9-20: SEY as a function of the primary electron energy for copper ................. 121

Figure 9-21: SEY as a function of the primary electron energy for gold ..................... 121

Figure 9-22: SEY as a function of the primary electron energy for silver coatings...... 122

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Figure 9-23: Comparison of the SEY curves for Cu, Al, Ag and Au ........................... 122

Tables
Table 4-1:Multipactor simulations and multipactor measurements with and without
thermal baking for a RF component with different dielectric materials ....... 18

Table 5-1: Characteristics Ku-band transformer of ESA TRP activity [5-19] ................. 40

Table 5-2: Characteristics Ku-band transformer of ESA TRP activity [5-19] ................. 43

Table 5-3: Multicarrier signal characteristics ................................................................ 43

Table 5-4: Predicted and testes multipactor breakdown levels .................................... 44

Table 5-5: SEY characteristics of KS3 sample ............................................................ 50

Table 5-6: Multipactor thresholds for KS3 sample ....................................................... 51

Table 5-7: SEY data for L-band sample ....................................................................... 57

Table 5-8: Multipactor thresholds for L-band sample ................................................... 57

Table 5-9: Multipactor threshold vs. manufacturing errors (samples S-3 and S-4) ....... 60

Table 6-1: Error statistics in dB for silver and aluminium, and different values of

carriers, frequency band and fxd product .................................................. 69

Table 6-2: Rate and energy of injected electrons going through a particular aluminium

wall [6-4]. ................................................................................................... 76

Table 8-1: Example of Multipactor Test Specification Sheet ........................................ 88

Table 8-2: Maximum RF power applied to the load range (margin in bold). ................. 95

Table 8-3: Multipactor test report summary ................................................................. 97

Table 8-4: Test setup validation without sample .......................................................... 98

Table 8-5: Test setup validation with reference sample ............................................... 98

Table 8-6: Test of DUT at reduced power level at ambient pressure just before closing

the vacuum chamber (RECOMMENDED .................................................. 99

Table 9-1: Average values of the main SEY parameters for all “as built” (mentioned,

“Before RF testing” in the below table) and all the “as tested” SEY samples
(mentioned, “After RF testing” in the below table) for a given SEY

measurement facility ............................................................................... 109

Table 9-2: Requirement in the experimental conditions for SEY measurement ......... 119

Table 9-3: SEY parameters of the SEY curves of Al, Cu, Au and Ag samples ........... 120

Table 9-4: SEY curve data for aluminium .................................................................. 123

Table 9-5: SEY curve data for copper. ....................................................................... 127

Table 9-6: SEY curve data for gold ............................................................................ 131

Table 9-7: SEY curve data for silver .......................................................................... 135

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European Foreword

This document (FprCEN/CLC/TR 17603-20-01:2021) has been prepared by Technical Committee

CEN/CLC/JTC 5 “Space”, the secretariat of which is held by DIN.

It is highlighted that this technical report does not contain any requirement but only collection of data

or descriptions and guidelines about how to organize and perform the work in support of EN 16603-20-

01:2020.

This Technical report (FprCEN/CLC/TR 17603-20-01:2021) originates from ECSS-E-HB-20-01A.

Attention is drawn to the possibili
...

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