Ergonomics of the thermal environment - Instruments for measuring physical quantities (ISO 7726:1998)

This International Standard specifies the minimum characteristics of instruments for measuring physical quantities characterizing an environment as well as the methods for measuring the physical quantities of this environment. It does not aim to define an overall index of comfort or thermal stress but simply to standardize the process of recording information to the determination of such indices. Other International Standards give details of the methods making use of the information obtained in accordance with this standard.

Umgebungsklima - Instrumente zur Messung physikalischer Größen (ISO 7726:1998)

Diese Internationale Norm legt Mindestanforderungen an Instrumente zur Messung physikalischer Größen zur Beschreibung des Umgebungsklimas sowie Verfahren zur Messung dieser physikalischen Größen des Umgebungsklimas fest.
Zweck der Norm ist es hingegen nicht, einen einheitlichen Index für die Behaglichkeit oder die thermische Belastung anzugeben, sondern lediglich Verfahren zu normen, mit denen die Daten zur Bestimmung solcher Indizes erfasst werden können. In anderen Internationalen Normen werden die Verfahren detailliert beschrieben, die auf den mit dieser Norm ermittelten Daten basieren.
Diese Internationale Norm dient als Referenzquelle
a) bei der Erarbeitung von Festlegungen für Hersteller und Benutzer von Instrumenten zur Messung von Klimagrößen;
b) für vertragliche Vereinbarungen über die Messung von Klimagrößen.
Die Norm gilt für die Untersuchung der Auswirkung warmer, gemäßigter, angenehmer oder kalter Umgebungsklimata auf den Menschen.

Ergonomie des ambiances thermiques - Appareils de mesure des grandeurs physiques (ISO 7726:1998)

La présente Norme internationale spécifie les caractéristiques minimales des appareils de mesure des grandeurs physiques d'une ambiance, ainsi que les méthodes de mesure des grandeurs physiques de cette ambiance. Elle n'a pas pour but de définir un indice global de confort ou de contrainte thermique, mais simplement de normaliser la prise des informations devant conduire à de tels indices. D'autres Normes internationales précisent les méthodes permettant d'exploiter les informations recueillies conformément à la présente norme. La présente Norme internationale pourra servir de référence pour la constitution a) d'un cahier des charges pour les constructeurs et les utilisateurs d'appareils de mesure des grandeurs physiques de l'environnement; b) d'un document contractuel entre deux parties pour la mesure de ces grandeurs. Elle s'applique à l'influence des ambiances chaudes, confortables ou froides sur les personnes.

Ergonomija toplotnega okolja - Instrumenti za merjenje fizikalnih veličin (ISO 7726:1998)

Podlaga privzetega evropskega standarda je mednarodni standard, ki določa minimalne zahteve za instrumente za merjenje fizikalnih veličin, značilnih za neko okolje, ter navaja metode za merjenje fizikalnih veličin tega okolja. Namen standarda ni določati splošne kazalnike udobja ali toplotne obremenitve, temveč standardizirati postopke beleženja podatkov za določitev teh kazalnikov. Podrobnosti o metodah, ki temeljijo na podatkih, zbranih v skladu s standardom SIST EN ISO 7726:2002, navajajo drugi (mednarodni) standardi.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
17-Jul-2001
Current Stage
9093 - Decision to confirm - Review Enquiry
Due Date
30-Sep-2006
Completion Date
30-Sep-2006

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SIST EN ISO 7726:2002
01-september-2002
1DGRPHãþD
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Ergonomics of the thermal environment - Instruments for measuring physical quantities

(ISO 7726:1998)
Umgebungsklima - Instrumente zur Messung physikalischer Größen (ISO 7726:1998)
Ergonomie des ambiances thermiques - Appareils de mesure des grandeurs physiques
(ISO 7726:1998)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 7726:2001
ICS:
13.180 Ergonomija Ergonomics
17.020 Meroslovje in merjenje na Metrology and measurement
splošno in general
SIST EN ISO 7726:2002 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN ISO 7726:2002
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SIST EN ISO 7726:2002
EUROPEAN STANDARD
EN ISO 7726
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
July 2001
ICS 13.180 Supersedes EN 27726:1993
English version
Ergonomics of the thermal environment - Instruments for
measuring physical quantities (ISO 7726:1998)

Ergonomie des ambiances thermiques - Appareils de Umgebungsklima - Instrumente zur Messung

mesure des grandeurs physiques (ISO 7726:1998) physikalischer Größen (ISO 7726:1998)

This European Standard was approved by CEN on 10 May 2001.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European

Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national

standards may be obtained on application to the Management Centre or to any CEN member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation

under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the Management Centre has the same status as the official

versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece,

Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.

EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
Management Centre: rue de Stassart, 36 B-1050 Brussels

© 2001 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 7726:2001 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN ISO 7726:2002
EN ISO 7726:2001 (E)
Foreword

The text of the International Standard from Technical Committee ISO/TC 159 "Ergonomics" of

the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has been taken over as an European

Standard by Technical Committee CEN/TC 122 "Ergonomics", the secretariat of which is held

by DIN.
This European Standard replaces EN 27726:1993.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication

of an identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by January 2002, and conflicting national

standards shall be withdrawn at the latest by January 2002.

According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of

the following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium,

Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Italy,

Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United

Kingdom.
Endorsement notice

The text of the International Standard ISO 7726:1998 has been approved by CEN as a

European Standard without any modification.

NOTE: Normative references to International Standards are listed in annex ZA (normative).

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SIST EN ISO 7726:2002
EN ISO 7726:2001 (E)
Annex ZA (normative)
Normative references to international publications
with their relevant European publications

This European Standard incorporates by dated or undated reference, provisions from other

publications. These normative references are cited at the appropriate places in the text and the

publications are listed hereafter. For dated references, subsequent amendments to or revisions

of any of these publications apply to this European Standard only when incorporated in it by

amendment or revision. For undated references the latest edition of the publication referred to

applies (including amendments).

NOTE Where an International Publication has been modified by common modifications,

indicated by (mod.), the relevant EN/HD applies.
Publication Year Title EN/HD Year
ISO 7730 1994 Moderate thermal environments - EN ISO 7730 1995
Determination of the PMV and PPD
indices and specification of the
conditions for thermal comfort
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SIST EN ISO 7726:2002
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SIST EN ISO 7726:2002
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 7726
Second edition
1998-11-01
Ergonomics of the thermal environment —
Instruments for measuring physical
quantities
Ergonomie des ambiances thermiques — Appareils de mesure des
grandeurs physiques
Reference number
ISO 7726:1998(E)
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SIST EN ISO 7726:2002
ISO 7726:1998(E)
Contents
Page

1 Scope............................................................................................... 1

2 Normative reference ........................................................................ 1

3 General ............................................................................................ 1

4 Measuring instruments .................................................................... 2

5 Specifications relating to measuring methods ................................. 5

Annex A Measurement of air temperature........................................... 12

Measurement of the mean radiant temperature....................
Annex B 14
Annex C Measurement of plane radiant temperature .......................... 28
Measurement of the absolute humidity of the air ..................
Annex D 35

Annex E Measurement of air velocity................................................... 45

Annex F Measurement of surface temperature ................................... 48

Annex G Measurement of operative temperature................................ 49

Annex H Bibliography........................................................................... 51

© ISO 1998

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced

or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and

microfilm, without permission in writing from the publisher.
International Organization for Standardization
Case postale 56 • CH-1211 Genève 20 • Switzerland
Internet iso@iso.ch
Printed in Switzerland
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SIST EN ISO 7726:2002
ISO 7726:1998(E)
Foreword
ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide
federation of national standards bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of
preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO
technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which
a technical committee has been established has the right to be represented
on that committee. International organizations, governmental and non-
governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO
collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission
(IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.
Draft International Standards adopted by the technical committees are
circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publication as an International
Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting
a vote.
International Standard ISO 7726 was prepared by Technical Committee
ISO/TC 159, Ergonomics, Subcommittee SC 5, Ergonomics of the physical
environment.
This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 7726:1985),
of which it constitutes a technical revision.
Annexes A to H of this International Standard are for information only.
iii
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SIST EN ISO 7726:2002
ISO 7726:1998(E)
Introduction
This document is one of a series of International Standards intended for
use in the study of thermal environments.
This series of International Standards deals in particular with
— the finalization of definitions for the terms to be used in the methods of
measurement, testing or interpretation, taking into account standards
already in existence or in the process of being drafted;
— the laying down of specifications relating to the methods for measuring
the physical quantities which characterize thermal environments;
— the selection of one or more methods for interpreting the parameters;
— the specification of recommended values or limits of exposure for the
thermal environments coming within the comfort range and for extreme
environments (both hot and cold);
— the specification of methods for measuring the efficiency of devices or
processes for personal or collective protection from heat or cold.
Any measuring instrument which achieves the accuracy indicated in this
International Standard, or even better improves on, may be used.
The description or listing of certain instruments in the annexes can only
signify that they are "recommended", since characteristics of these
instruments may vary according to the measuring principle, their
construction and the way in which they are used. It is up to users to
compare the quality of the instruments available on the market at any given
moment and to check that they conform to the specifications contained in
this International Standard.
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SIST EN ISO 7726:2002
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO ISO 7726:1998(E)
Ergonomics of the thermal environment — Instruments for
measuring physical quantities
1 Scope

This International Standard specifies the minimum characteristics of instruments for measuring physical quantities

characterizing an environment as well as the methods for measuring the physical quantities of this environment.

It does not aim to define an overall index of comfort or thermal stress but simply to standardize the process of

recording information leading to the determination of such indices. Other International Standards give details of the

methods making use of the information obtained in accordance with this standard.
This International Standard is used as a reference when establishing

a) specifications for manufacturers and users of instruments for measuring the physical quantities of the

environment;

b) a written contract between two parties for the measurement of these quantities.

It applies to the influence of hot, moderate, comfortable or cold environments on people.

2 Normative reference

The following standard contains provisions which, through reference in this text, constitute provisions of this

International Standard. At the time of publication, the edition indicated was valid. All standards are subject to

revision, and parties to agreements based on this International Standard are encouraged to investigate the

possibility of applying the most recent edition of the standard indicated below. Members of ISO and IEC maintain

registers of currently valid International Standards.

ISO 7730:1994, Moderate thermal environments — Determination of the PMV and PPD indices and specification of

the conditions for thermal comfort.
3 General
3.1 Comfort standard and stress standard

The specifications and methods contained in this International Standard have been divided into two classes

according to the extent of the thermal annoyance to be assessed.

The type C specifications and methods relate to measurements carried out in moderate environments approaching

comfort conditions (comfort standard).

The type S specifications and methods relate to measurements carried out in environments subject to a greater

thermal stress or even environments of extreme thermal stress (heat stress standard).

The specifications and methods described for each of these classes have been determined bearing in mind the

practical possibilities of in situ measurements and the performances of measuring instruments available at present.

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SIST EN ISO 7726:2002
ISO
ISO 7726:1998(E)
3.2 Physical quantities characterizing the environment
3.2.1 Introduction

The determination of overall indices of comfort or thermal stress requires knowledge of physical quantities

connected with the environment. These quantities can be divided into two categories according to their degree of

dependence on the environment.
3.2.2 Basic physical quantities

Each of the basic physical quantities characterizes one of the factors of the environment independently of the

others. They are often used to define the indices of comfort or thermal stress based on the rationalization of the

establishment of the thermal balance of a person placed in a given thermal environment. These quantities are as

follows:
a) air temperature, expressed in kelvins ( ) or in degrees Celsius ( );
T t
a a

b) mean radiant temperature expressed in kelvins T , or in degrees Celsius t plane radiant temperature

() ()
r r

expressed in kelvins (T ) or in degrees Celsius (t ) direct radiation expressed in watts per square metre;

pr pr

c) absolute humidity of the air, expressed by partial vapour pressure (p ) in kilopascals;

d) air velocity (V ), expressed in metres per second;
e) surface temperature, expressed in kelvins (T ), or in degrees Celsius (t ).
s s

The connections between these quantities and the various gains and losses of heat in relation to the human body

are shown in table 1. Table 1 also gives four other quantities which, because they are usually estimated from data

tables rather than measured, are not included in the remainder of this International Standard.

NOTE — The concept of mean radiant temperature allows the study of radiative exchanges between man and his

environment. It presupposes that the effects on man of the actual environment which is generally heterogeneous and the virtual

environment which is defined as homogeneous are identical. When this hypothesis is not valid, in particular in the case of

asymmetric radiation, the radiation exchanges arising from thermally different regions and the extent of their effect on man

should also be assessed using the concept of plane radiant temperature.
3.2.3 Derived physical quantities

The derived physical quantities characterize a group of factors of the environment, weighted according to the

characteristics of the sensors used. They are often used to define an empirical index of comfort or thermal stress

without having recourse to a rational method based on estimates of the various forms of heat exchanges between

the human body and the thermal environments, and of the resulting thermal balance and physiological strain. Some

derived quantities are described in the specific standards as they apply and where measuring requirements are

included.
4 Measuring instruments
4.1 Measured quantities

4.1.1 The air temperature is the temperature of the air around the human body (see annex A).

4.1.2 The mean radiant temperature is the uniform temperature of an imaginary enclosure in which radiant heat

transfer from the human body is equal to the radiant heat transfer in the actual non-uniform enclosure.

The mean radiant temperature can be measured by instruments which allow the generally heterogeneous radiation

from the walls of an actual enclosure to be "integrated" into a mean value (see annex B).

The black globe thermometer is a device frequently used in order to derive an approximate value of the mean

radiant temperature from the observed simultaneous values of the globe temperature, t , and the temperature and

the velocity of the air surrounding the globe.
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SIST EN ISO 7726:2002
ISO
ISO 7726:1998(E)

The accuracy of measurement of the mean radiant temperature obtained using this appliance varies considerably

according to the type of environment being considered and the accuracy of measurement of the temperatures of the

globe and the air and the velocity of the air. The actual measuring accuracy shall be indicated wherever it exceeds

the tolerances specified in this International Standard.

The mean radiant temperature is defined in relation to the human body. The spherical shape of the globe

thermometer can give a reasonable approximation of the shape of the body in the case of a seated person. An

ellipsoid-shaped sensor gives a closer approximation to the human shape both in the upright position and the

seated position.

The mean radiant temperature can also be calculated from measured values of the temperature of the surrounding

walls and the size of these walls and their position in relation to a person (calculation of geometrical shape factors).

(See annex B.)

The mean radiant temperature may also be estimated for the plane radiant temperature in six opposite directions

weighted according to the projected area factors for a person. Similarly, it can be estimated from the measurement

of the radiant flux from different directions.

Any other measuring device or calculation method which allows the mean radiant temperature to be determined

with the accuracy specified in the following subclauses may be used.

4.1.3 The plane radiant temperature is the uniform temperature of an enclosure where the radiance on one side of

a small plane element is the same as in the non-uniform actual environment.

The so-called "net" radiometer is an instrument which is often used to measure this quantity (see annex C). With

this it is possible to determine the plane radiant temperature from the net radiation exchanged between the

environment and the surface element and the surface temperature of the radiometer.

A radiometer with a sensor consisting of a reflective disc (polished) and an absorbent disc (painted black) can also

be used.

The plane radiant temperature can also be calculated from the surface temperatures of the environment and the

shape factors between the surfaces and the plane element (see annex C).

The radiant temperature asymmetry is the difference between the plane radiant temperature of the two opposite

sides of a small plane element (see definition of the plane radiant temperature).

The concept of radiant temperature asymmetry is used when the mean radiant temperature does not completely

describe the radiative environment, for instance when the radiation is coming from opposite parts of the space with

appreciable thermal heterogeneities.

The asymmetric radiant field is defined in relation to the position of the plane element used as a reference. It is,

however, necessary to specify exactly the position of the latter by means of the direction of the normal to this

element.

The radiant temperature asymmetry is measured or calculated from the measured value of the plane radiant

temperature in the two opposing directions.

Any other device or method which allows the radiant temperature asymmetry or the plane radiant temperature to be

measured or calculated with the same accuracy as indicated below may be used.

4.1.4 The absolute humidity of the air characterizes any quantity related to the actual amount of water vapour

contained in the air as opposed to quantities such as the relative humidity or the saturation level, which gives the

amount of water vapour in the air in relation to the maximum amount that it can contain at a given temperature and

pressure.

With regard to exchanges by evaporation between a person and the environment, it is the absolute humidity of the

air which shall be taken into account. This is often expressed in the form of partial pressure of water vapour.

The partial pressure of water vapour of a mixture of humid air is the pressure which the water vapour contained in

this mixture would exert if it alone occupied the volume occupied by the humid air at the same temperature.

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SIST EN ISO 7726:2002
ISO
ISO 7726:1998(E)

The absolute humidity can be determined directly (dew-point instruments, electrolytic instruments) or indirectly by

the measurement of several quantities simultaneously (relative humidity and temperature of the air; psychrometric

wet temperature and temperature of the air) (see annex D).

The psychrometer is an appliance which is frequently used for measuring humidity. It allows the absolute humidity

of the air to be determined from a measured value of the air temperature (t ) and the psychometric wet temperature

(t ). The accuracy of measurement is likely to be in accordance with the specifications of this International Standard

only if the appliance is well designed and the precautions to be taken during use closely adhered to.

Any device which allows the absolute humidity of the air to be measured with the accuracy indicated in the following

subclauses may be used.

4.1.5 The air velocity is a quantity defined by its magnitude and direction. The quantity to be considered in the

case of thermal environments is the speed of the air, i.e. the magnitude of the velocity vector of the flow at the

measuring point considered (see annex E).

The air velocity, V , at any point in a space fluctuates with time and it is recommended that the velocity fluctuations

be recorded. An air flow can be described by the mean velocity, V , which is defined as the average of the velocity

over an interval of time (measuring period) and by the standard deviation of the velocity, SD, given by the equation:

SD = V - V
()aa
n -1
i =
where
V is the velocity at the time "i" of the measuring period.

The turbulence intensity, TU, of the airflow is defined as the standard deviation divided by the mean velocity and is

usually expressed in percent,
TU=· 100

Surface temperature is the temperature of a given surface. This is used to evaluate the radiant heat

4.1.6

exchange between the human body by means of the mean radiant and/or the plane radiant temperature. It is also

used to evaluate the effect of direct contact between the body and a given surface. The surface temperature can be

measured by the method given in annex F, including:

— contact thermometer, where the sensor is in direct contact with the surface. The sensor may change the heat

flow at the measuring point and then influence the result.

— infrared sensor, where the radiant heat flux from the surface is measured and converted to a temperature. This

may be influenced by the emissivity of surface.
4.2 Characteristics of measuring instruments
4.2.1 Characteristics of instruments for measuring the basic quantities

The measuring ranges, measuring accuracy and 90 % response times of the sensors for each of the basic

quantities are summarized in table 2. These characteristics shall be considered to be minimum requirements.

According to needs and technical manufacturing possibilities, it is always possible to specify more exact

characteristics. Thus, for certain quantities, very precise thermal stress measurements may require the use of

appliances with measuring ranges in class S and accuracy of class C.

For the purposes of this International Standard, the time constant of a sensor is considered to be numerically equal

to the time taken for the output of the sensor, in response to a step change in the environmental quantity being

measured, to reach 63 % of its final change in steady-state value without overshoot. The response time, which is in

practice the time after which the quantity being measured (for example: temperature of the thermometer) can be

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SIST EN ISO 7726:2002
ISO
ISO 7726:1998(E)

considered to be sufficiently close to the exact figure for the quantity to be measured (for example: temperature of

the air), can be calculated from the time constant. A 90 % response time is achieved after a period equal to 2,3

times the time constant. It is necessary to wait, as a minimum, for a time equivalent to the response time before a

measurement is taken.

As the time constant and hence the response time of a sensor does not depend solely on the sensor (mass, surface

area, presence of a protective shield) but also on the environment, and hence on factors connected with a given

measurement (air velocity, radiation, etc.), it is necessary to indicate the conditions under which these values were

obtained. The standard environmental conditions are specified in table 3 (classes C and S). They shall be used as a

reference except where this contradicts the principle for measuring the quantities under consideration.

In addition, the accuracy of measurement for air temperatures, mean radiant temperature, radiant temperature

asymmetry, air velocity and humidity also depends on the effect of other quantities. Consequently, the accuracy

specified in table 2 shall be achieved for the environmental conditions specified in the table.

4.2.2 Characteristics of integrating types of measuring instruments

Any measuring instrument integrating the measurement of several variables shall have a measuring interval, a

response time and an accuracy equal to or better than those of the corresponding individual variables.

5 Specifications relating to measuring methods
5.1 General

The methods for measuring the physical characteristics of the environment shall take account of the fact that these

characteristics vary in location and time.

The thermal environment may vary with the horizontal location, and then account has to be taken of how long a time

a person is working at the different locations. The environment may also vary in the vertical direction, as shown in

5.2.

5.2 Specifications relating to variations in the physical quantities within the space surrounding

the subject

An environment may be considered to be "homogeneous" from the bio-climatical point of view if, at a given moment,

air temperature, radiation, air velocity and humidity can be considered to be practically uniform around the subject,

i.e. when the deviations between each of these quantities and their mean spatial value calculated as a mean of the

locations does not exceed the values obtained by multiplying the required measuring accuracy from table 2 by the

corresponding factor X listed in table 4. This condition is frequently met in the case of air temperature, air velocity

and humidity, but more rarely in the case of radiation.

When the environment is too heterogeneous, the physical quantities shall be measured at several locations at or

around the subject and account taken of the partial results obtained in order to determine the mean value of the

quantities to be considered in assessing the comfort or the thermal stress. Previous analyses of the thermal stress

of the work places being studied or of work places of a similar type may provide information which is of interest in

determining whether certain of the quantities are distributed in a homogeneous way. It is usual in the case of poorly

defined rooms or work places to consider only a limited zone of occupancy where the criteria of comfort or thermal

stress shall be respected. In case of dispute in the interpretation of data, measurements carried out presuming the

environment to be heterogeneous shall be used as a reference.

Table 5 shows the heights to be used for measuring the basic quantities and the weighting coefficients to be used

for calculating the mean values for these quantities according to the type of environment considered and the class

of measurement specifications.

The heights to be used for the derived quantities shall preferably be chosen in conformity with the information

supplied in table 5. Plane radiant temperature, mean radiant temperature and absolute humidity are normally only

measured at the centre height. Reference, however, shall be made to the general standard which defines the stress

indices or thermal comfort indices and which takes precedence over this International Standard.

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SIST EN ISO 7726:2002
ISO
ISO 7726:1998(E)

The different sensors shall be placed at the heights indicated in table 5 where the person normally carries out his

activity. When it is impossible to interrupt the activity in progress, it is necessary to place the sensors in positions

such as that the thermal exchanges are more or less identical to those to which the person is exposed (this

measurement detail shall be mentioned in the results).

5.3 Specifications relating to the variations in the physical quantities with time

The physical quantities in the space surrounding the person can change as a function of time, for the following two

reasons:

a) for a given activity, the quantities can vary as a function of external incidents such as those which accompany a

manufacturing process in the case of an industrial activity;

b) the quantities can also vary as a result of the movements of the person in different environments (for example,

a warm environment close to a machine and a comfortable rest environment).

An environment is said to be stationary in relation to the subject when the physical quantities used to describe the

level of exposure are practically independent of the time, i.e. for instance when the fluctuations in these parameters

in relation to their mean temporal value do not exceed the values obtained by multiplying the required measuring

accuracy from table 2 by the corresponding factor X listed in table 4.
It should be noted that the other q
...

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