Rotating electrical machines - Part 2-1: Standard methods for determining losses and efficiency from tests (excluding machines for traction vehicles)

IEC 60034-2-1:2014(B) is intended to establish methods of determining efficiencies from tests, and also to specify methods of obtaining specific losses. This standard applies to d.c. machines and to a.c. synchronous and induction machines of all sizes within the scope of IEC 60034-1. This new edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition: grouping of the test methods into preferred methods and methods for field or routine testing; addition of the details of the requirements regarding instrumentation; addition of the description of tests required for a specific method in the same sequence as requested for the performance of the test.

Drehende elektrische Maschinen - Teil 2-1: Standardverfahren zur Bestimmung der Verluste und des Wirkungsgrades aus Prüfungen (ausgenommen Maschinen für Schienen- und Straßenfahrzeuge)

Machines électriques tournantes - Partie 2-1: Méthodes normalisées pour la détermination des pertes et du rendement à partir d’essais (à l’exclusion des machines pour véhicules de traction)

L'IEC 60034-2-1:2014(B) a pour objet de définir les méthodes de détermination du rendement à partir d'essais et également de spécifier les méthodes permettant de déterminer des pertes spécifiques. La présente norme s'applique aux machines à courant continu ainsi qu'aux machines à courant alternatif, synchrones et à induction, de toutes dimensions, qui entrent dans le domaine d'application de l'IEC 60034-1. Cette nouvelle édition inclut les modifications techniques majeures suivantes par rapport à l'édition précédente: regroupement des méthodes d'essai en méthodes préférentielles et en méthodes d'essai sur le terrain ou d'essai individuel de série; ajout des exigences détaillées en matière d'instrumentation; ajout de la description des essais requis pour une méthode spécifique dans la même séquence que celle requise pour la réalisation des essais.

Električni rotacijski stroji - 2-1. del: Metode za ugotavljanje izgub in izkoristka s preskušanjem (razen strojev za vlečna vozila) (IEC 60034-2-1:2014)

Ta del standarda IEC 60034 je namenjen vzpostavitvi metod za ugotavljanje izkoristkov s preskušanjem in določitvi metod za pridobivanje določenih izgub. Ta standard se uporablja za enosmerne naprave ter dvosmerne sinhrone in indukcijske naprave vseh velikosti, ki so zajete v standardu IEC 60034-1.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
04-Sep-2014
Technical Committee
Drafting Committee
Current Stage
6060 - Document made available
Due Date
05-Sep-2014
Completion Date
05-Sep-2014

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN 60034-2-1:2015
01-februar-2015

(OHNWULþQLURWDFLMVNLVWURMLGHO0HWRGH]DXJRWDYOMDQMHL]JXELQL]NRULVWNDV

SUHVNXãDQMHP UD]HQVWURMHY]DYOHþQDYR]LOD  ,(&

Rotating electrical machines - Part 2-1: Standard methods for determining losses and

efficiency from tests (excluding machines for traction vehicles) (IEC 60034-2-1:2014)

Drehende elektrische Maschinen - Teil 2-1: Standardverfahren zur Bestimmung der
Verluste und des Wirkungsgrades aus Prüfungen (ausgenommen Maschinen für
Schienen- und Straßenfahrzeuge) (IEC 60034-2-1:2014)
Machines électriques tournantes - Partie 2-1: Méthodes normalisées pour la

détermination des pertes et du rendement à partir d'essais (à l'exclusion des machines

pour véhicules de traction) (CEI 60034-2-1:2014)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN 60034-2-1:2014
ICS:
29.160.01 Rotacijski stroji na splošno Rotating machinery in
general
SIST EN 60034-2-1:2015 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST EN 60034-2-1:2015
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST EN 60034-2-1:2015
EUROPEAN STANDARD EN 60034-2-1
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
September 2014
ICS 29.160 Supersedes EN 60034-2:1996 (partially), EN 60034-2-
1:2007
English Version
Rotating electrical machines - Part 2-1: Standard methods for
determining losses and efficiency from tests (excluding
machines for traction vehicles)
(IEC 60034-2-1:2014)

Machines électriques tournantes - Partie 2-1: Méthodes Drehende elektrische Maschinen - Teil 2-1:

normalisées pour la détermination des pertes et du Standardverfahren zur Bestimmung der Verluste und des

rendement à partir d'essais (à l'exclusion des machines Wirkungsgrades aus Prüfungen (ausgenommen Maschinen

pour véhicules de traction) für Schienen- und Straßenfahrzeuge)
(CEI 60034-2-1:2014) (IEC 60034-2-1:2014)

This European Standard was approved by CENELEC on 2014-08-01. CENELEC members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC

Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration.

Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC

Management Centre or to any CENELEC member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation

under the responsibility of a CENELEC member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre has the

same status as the official versions.

CENELEC members are the national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, the Czech Republic,

Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia,

Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and the United Kingdom.
European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization
Comité Européen de Normalisation Electrotechnique
Europäisches Komitee für Elektrotechnische Normung
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Brussels

© 2014 CENELEC All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CENELEC Members.

Ref. No. EN 60034-2-1:2014 E
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST EN 60034-2-1:2015
EN 60034-2-1:2014 - 2 -
Foreword

The text of document 2/1742/FDIS, future edition 2 of IEC 60034-2-1, prepared by IEC/TC 2 "Rotating

machinery" was submitted to the IEC-CENELEC parallel vote and approved by CENELEC as

EN 60034-2-1:2014.
The following dates are fixed:
– latest date by which the document has to be implemented at (dop) 2015-05-01
national level by publication of an identical national
standard or by endorsement
– latest date by which the national standards conflicting with (dow) 2017-08-01
the document have to be withdrawn
This document supersedes EN 60034-2:1996 (partially), EN 60034-2-1:2007.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CENELEC [and/or CEN] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such

patent rights.

This document has been prepared under a mandate given to CENELEC by the European Commission

and the European Free Trade Association.
Endorsement notice

The text of the International Standard IEC 60034-2-1:2014 was approved by CENELEC as a

European Standard without any modification.

In the official version, for Bibliography, the following notes have to be added for the standards indicated:

IEC 60034-2-2 NOTE Harmonized as EN 60034-2-2.
IEC/TS 60034-2-3 NOTE Harmonized as CLC/TS 60034-2-3.
IEC 60044 (Series) NOTE Harmonized as EN 60044 (Series).
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
SIST EN 60034-2-1:2015
- 3 - EN 60034-2-1:2014
Annex ZA
(normative)
Normative references to international publications
with their corresponding European publications

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

NOTE 1 When an International Publication has been modified by common modifications, indicated by (mod), the relevant

EN/HD applies.

NOTE 2 Up-to-date information on the latest versions of the European Standards listed in this annex is available here:

www.cenelec.eu.
Publication Year Title EN/HD Year
IEC 60027-1 - Letter symbols to be used in electrical EN 60027-1 -
technology -- Part 1: General
IEC 60034-1 2010 Rotating electrical machines -- Part 1: EN 60034-1 2010
Rating and performance
IEC 60034-4 2008 Rotating electrical machines -- Part 4: EN 60034-4 2008
Methods for determining synchronous
machine quantities from tests
IEC 60034-19 - Rotating electrical machines -- Part 19: EN 60034-19 -
Specific test methods for d.c. machines on
conventional and rectifier-fed supplies
IEC 60034-29 - Rotating electrical machines -- Part 29: EN 60034-29 -
Equivalent loading and superposition
techniques - Indirect testing to determine
temperature rise
IEC 60051 Series Direct acting indicating analogue electrical EN 60051 Series
measuring instruments and their
accessories
IEC 60051-1 - Direct acting indicating analogue electrical EN 60051-1 -
measuring instruments and their
accessories -- Part 1: Definitions and
general requirements common to all parts
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
SIST EN 60034-2-1:2015
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
SIST EN 60034-2-1:2015
IEC 60034-2-1
Edition 2.0 2014-06
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
Rotating electrical machines –
Part 2-1: Standard methods for determining losses and efficiency from tests
(excluding machines for traction vehicles)
Machines électriques tournantes –
Partie 2-1: Méthodes normalisées pour la détermination des pertes et du
rendement à partir d’essais (à l’exclusion des machines pour véhicules
de traction)
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
PRICE CODE
INTERNATIONALE
CODE PRIX XD
ICS 29.160 ISBN 978-2-8322-1606-4

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

Attention! Veuillez vous assurer que vous avez obtenu cette publication via un distributeur agréé.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
SIST EN 60034-2-1:2015
– 2 – IEC 60034-2-1:2014 © IEC 2014
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 5

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 7

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 7

3 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................... 7

4 Symbols and abbreviations ............................................................................................ 12

4.1 Symbols ................................................................................................................ 12

4.2 Additional subscripts ............................................................................................. 13

5 Basic requirements ........................................................................................................ 14

5.1 Direct and indirect efficiency determination ........................................................... 14

5.2 Uncertainty ........................................................................................................... 15

5.3 Preferred methods and methods for customer-specific acceptance tests,

field-tests or routine-tests ..................................................................................... 15

5.4 Power supply ........................................................................................................ 15

5.4.1 Voltage .......................................................................................................... 15

5.4.2 Frequency ..................................................................................................... 15

5.5 Instrumentation ..................................................................................................... 15

5.5.1 General ......................................................................................................... 15

5.5.2 Measuring instruments for electrical quantities .............................................. 16

5.5.3 Torque measurement ..................................................................................... 16

5.5.4 Speed and frequency measurement ............................................................... 16

5.5.5 Temperature measurement ............................................................................ 17

5.6 Units ..................................................................................................................... 17

5.7 Resistance ............................................................................................................ 17

5.7.1 Test resistance .............................................................................................. 17

5.7.2 Winding temperature ..................................................................................... 17

5.7.3 Correction to reference coolant temperature .................................................. 18

5.8 State of the machine under test and test categories .............................................. 18

5.9 Excitation circuit measurements ............................................................................ 19

5.10 Ambient temperature during testing ...................................................................... 19

6 Test methods for the determination of the efficiency of induction machines ................... 19

6.1 Preferred testing methods ..................................................................................... 19

6.1.1 General ......................................................................................................... 19

6.1.2 Method 2-1-1A – Direct measurement of input and output .............................. 20

6.1.3 Method 2-1-1B – Summation of losses, additional load losses according

to the method of residual loss ........................................................................ 21

6.1.4 Method 2-1-1C – Summation of losses with additional load losses from

assigned allowance ....................................................................................... 28

6.2 Testing methods for field or routine-testing ........................................................... 32

6.2.1 General ......................................................................................................... 32

6.2.2 Method 2-1-1D – Dual supply back-to-back-test ............................................. 33

6.2.3 Method 2-1-1E – Single supply back-to-back-test .......................................... 34

6.2.4 Method 2-1-1F – Summation of losses with additional load losses

determined by test with rotor removed and reverse rotation test .................... 35

6.2.5 Method 2-1-1G – Summation of losses with additional load losses

determined by Eh-star method ....................................................................... 39

6.2.6 Method 2-1-1H – Determination of efficiency by use of the equivalent

circuit parameters .......................................................................................... 42

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SIST EN 60034-2-1:2015
IEC 60034-2-1:2014 © IEC 2014 – 3 –

7 Test methods for the determination of the efficiency of synchronous machines .............. 47

7.1 Preferred testing methods ..................................................................................... 47

7.1.1 General ......................................................................................................... 47

7.1.2 Method 2-1-2A – Direct measurement of input and output .............................. 48

7.1.3 Method 2-1-2B – Summation of separate losses with a rated load

temperature test and a short circuit test ......................................................... 50

7.1.4 Method 2-1-2C – Summation of separate losses without a full load test ......... 55

7.2 Testing methods for field or routine testing ........................................................... 57

7.2.1 General ......................................................................................................... 57

7.2.2 Method 2-1-2D – Dual supply back-to-back-test ............................................. 57

7.2.3 Method 2-1-2E – Single supply back-to-back-test .......................................... 58

7.2.4 Method 2-1-2F – Zero power factor test with excitation current from

Potier-, ASA- or Swedish-diagram ................................................................. 60

7.2.5 Method 2-1-2G – Summation of separate losses with a load test without

consideration of additional load losses .......................................................... 64

8 Test methods for the determination of the efficiency of d.c. machines ............................ 65

8.1 Testing methods for field or routine testing ........................................................... 65

8.1.1 General ......................................................................................................... 65

8.1.2 Method 2-1-3A – Direct measurement of input and output .............................. 65

8.1.3 Method 2-1-3B – Summation of losses with a load test and d.c.

component of additional load losses from test................................................ 67

8.1.4 Method 2-1-3C – Summation of losses with a load test and d.c.

component of additional load losses from assigned value .............................. 73

8.1.5 Method 2-1-3D – Summation of losses without a load test ............................. 75

8.1.6 Method 2-1-3E – Single supply back-to-back test .......................................... 77

Annex A (normative) Calculation of values for the Eh-star method ....................................... 80

Annex B (informative) Types of excitation systems .............................................................. 83

Annex C (informative) Induction machine slip measurement................................................. 84

Annex D (informative) Test report template for method 2-1-1B ............................................. 86

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 87

Figure 1 – Sketch for torque measurement test ..................................................................... 20

Figure 2 – Efficiency determination according to method 2-1-1A ........................................... 21

Figure 3 – Efficiency determination according to method 2-1-1B ........................................... 22

Figure 4 – Smoothing of the residual loss data...................................................................... 27

Figure 5 – Efficiency determination according to method 2-1-1C ........................................... 29

Figure 6 – Vector diagram for obtaining current vector from reduced voltage test ................ 30

Figure 7 – Assigned allowance for additional load losses P ............................................... 31

Figure 8 – Efficiency determination according to method 2-1-1D ........................................... 33

Figure 9 – Sketch for dual supply back-to-back test .............................................................. 33

Figure 10 – Efficiency determination according to method 2-1-1E ......................................... 34

Figure 11 – Efficiency determination according to method 2-1-1F ......................................... 36

Figure 12 – Efficiency determination according to method 2-1-1G ......................................... 39

Figure 13 – Eh-star test circuit .............................................................................................. 40

Figure 14 – Induction machine, T-model with equivalent iron loss resistor ............................ 42

Figure 15 – Efficiency determination according to method 2-1-1H ......................................... 43

Figure 16 – Induction machines, reduced model for calculation ............................................. 46

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SIST EN 60034-2-1:2015
– 4 – IEC 60034-2-1:2014 © IEC 2014

Figure 17 – Sketch for torque measurement test ................................................................... 49

Figure 18 – Efficiency determination according to method 2-1-2A ......................................... 49

Figure 19 – Efficiency determination according to method 2-1-2B ......................................... 50

Figure 20 – Efficiency determination according to method 2-1-2C ......................................... 56

Figure 21 – Efficiency determination according to method 2-1-2D ......................................... 57

Figure 22 – Sketch for dual supply back-to-back test ( I If, f ) ............................. 58

M GM G

Figure 23 – Efficiency determination according to method 2-1-2E ......................................... 59

Figure 24 – Single supply back-to-back test for synchronous machines ................................ 59

Figure 25 – Efficiency determination according to method 2-1-2F ......................................... 60

Figure 26 – Efficiency determination according to method 2-1-2G ......................................... 64

Figure 27 – Sketch for torque measurement test ................................................................... 66

Figure 28 – Efficiency determination according to method 2-1-3A ......................................... 66

Figure 29 – Efficiency determination according to method 2-1-3B ......................................... 67

Figure 30 – Sketch for single supply back-to-back test for determination of d.c.

component of additional load losses ..................................................................................... 71

Figure 31 – Efficiency determination according to method 2-1-3C ......................................... 73

Figure 32 – Efficiency determination according to method 2-1-3D ......................................... 76

Figure 33 – Efficiency determination according to method 2-1-3E ......................................... 78

Figure 34 – Sketch for single supply back-to-back test .......................................................... 78

Figure C.1 – Slip measurement system block diagram .......................................................... 85

Table 1 – Reference temperature .......................................................................................... 17

Table 2 – Induction machines: preferred testing methods ...................................................... 20

Table 3 – Induction machines: other methods ....................................................................... 32

Table 4 – Synchronous machines with electrical excitation: preferred testing methods.......... 48

Table 5 – Synchronous machines with permanent magnets: preferred testing methods ......... 48

Table 6 – Synchronous machines: other methods ................................................................. 57

Table 7 – DC machines: test methods ................................................................................... 65

Table 8 – Multiplying factors for different speed ratios .......................................................... 74

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SIST EN 60034-2-1:2015
IEC 60034-2-1:2014 © IEC 2014 – 5 –
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
ROTATING ELECTRICAL MACHINES –
Part 2-1: Standard methods for determining losses and efficiency
from tests (excluding machines for traction vehicles)
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote

international co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To

this end and in addition to other activities, IEC publishes International Standards, Technical Specifications,

Technical Reports, Publicly Available Specifications (PAS) and Guides (hereafter referred to as “IEC

Publication(s)”). Their preparation is entrusted to technical committees; any IEC National Committee interested

in the subject dealt with may participate in this preparatory work. International, governmental and non-

governmental organizations liaising with the IEC also participate in this preparation. IEC collaborates closely

with the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by

agreement between the two organizations.

2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international

consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation from all

interested IEC National Committees.

3) IEC Publications have the form of recommendations for international use and are accepted by IEC National

Committees in that sense. While all reasonable efforts are made to ensure that the technical content of IEC

Publications is accurate, IEC cannot be held responsible for the way in which they are used or for any

misinterpretation by any end user.

4) In order to promote international uniformity, IEC National Committees undertake to apply IEC Publications

transparently to the maximum extent possible in their national and regional publications. Any divergence

between any IEC Publication and the corresponding national or regional publication shall be clearly indicated in

the latter.

5) IEC itself does not provide any attestation of conformity. Independent certification bodies provide conformity

assessment services and, in some areas, access to IEC marks of conformity. IEC is not responsible for any

services carried out by independent certification bodies.

6) All users should ensure that they have the latest edition of this publication.

7) No liability shall attach to IEC or its directors, employees, servants or agents including individual experts and

members of its technical committees and IEC National Committees for any personal injury, property damage or

other damage of any nature whatsoever, whether direct or indirect, or for costs (including legal fees) and

expenses arising out of the publication, use of, or reliance upon, this IEC Publication or any other IEC

Publications.

8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of

patent rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

International Standard IEC 60034-2-1 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 2:

Rotating machinery.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition of IEC 60034-2-1, issued in 2007,

as well as IEC 60034-2A, issued in 1974. This edition constitutes a technical revision.

This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous

edition:

a) The test methods are now grouped into preferred methods and methods for field or routine

testing. Preferred methods have a low uncertainty and for a specific rating and type of

machine only one preferred method is now defined.
b) The requirements regarding instrumentation have been detailed and refined.

c) The description of tests required for a specific method is now given in the same sequence

as requested for the performance of the test. This will avoid misunderstandings and

---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
SIST EN 60034-2-1:2015
– 6 – IEC 60034-2-1:2014 © IEC 2014

improve the accuracy of the procedures. In addition, for each method a flowchart shows

the sequence of tests graphically.
The text of this standard is based on the following documents:
FDIS Report on voting
2/1742/FDIS 2/1748/RVD

Full information on the voting for the approval of this standard can be found in the report on

voting indicated in the above table.

This publication has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

NOTE A table of cross-references of all IEC TC 2 publications can be found in the IEC TC 2 dashboard on the

IEC website.

The committee has decided that the contents of this publication will remain unchanged until

the stability date indicated on the IEC web site under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data

related to the specific publication. At this date, the publication will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
SIST EN 60034-2-1:2015
IEC 60034-2-1:2014 © IEC 2014 – 7 –
ROTATING ELECTRICAL MACHINES –
Part 2-1: Standard methods for determining losses and efficiency
from tests (excluding machines for traction vehicles)
1 Scope

This part of IEC 60034 is intended to establish methods of determining efficiencies from tests,

and also to specify methods of obtaining specific losses.

This standard applies to d.c. machines and to a.c. synchronous and induction machines of all

sizes within the scope of IEC 60034-1.

NOTE These methods may be applied to other types of machines such as rotary converters, a.c. commutator

motors and single-phase induction motors.
2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and

are indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any
amendments) applies.

IEC 60027-1, Letter symbols to be used in electrical technology – Part 1: General

IEC 60034-1:2010, Rotating electrical machines – Part 1: Rating and performance
IEC 60034-4:2008, Rotating electrical machines – Part 4: Methods for determining
synchronous machine quantities from tests

IEC 60034-19, Rotating electrical machines – Part 19:Specific test methods for d.c. machines

on conventional and rectifier-fed supplies

IEC 60034-29, Rotating electrical machines – Part 29: Equivalent loading and superposition

techniques – Indirect testing to determine temperature rise

IEC 60051(all parts), Direct acting indicating analogue electrical measuring instruments and

their accessories

IEC 60051-1, Direct acting indicating analogue electrical measuring instruments and their

accessories – Part 1: Definitions and general requirements common to all parts
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in IEC 60034-1,

IEC 60051-1 and the following apply.
3.1
efficiency

ratio of output power to input power expressed in the same units and usually given as a

percentage
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SIST EN 60034-2-1:2015
– 8 – IEC 60034-2-1:2014 © IEC 2014
3.2
direct efficiency determination

method by which the determination of efficiency is made by measuring directly the input

power and the output power
3.3
dynamometer

device for measuring torque applied to the rotating part of the machine under test. It is

equipped with means for measuring and indicating torque and speed, and is not limited to a

cradle base construction. An in-line torque transducer may be used to provide a direct

measu
...

SLOVENSKI SIST EN 60034-2-1
STANDARD
februar 2015

Električni rotacijski stroji – 2-1. del: Metode za ugotavljanje izgub in izkoristka s

preskušanjem (razen strojev za vlečna vozila)
(IEC 60034-2-1:2014)

Rotating electrical machines – Part 2-1: Standard methods for determining losses and

efficiency from tests (excluding machines for traction vehicles)
(IEC 60034-2-1:2014)
Machines électriques tournantes – Partie 2-1: Méthodes normalisées pour la

détermination des pertes et du rendement à partir d'essais (à l'exclusion des machines

pour véhicules de traction)
(CEI 60034-2-1:2014)
Drehende elektrische Maschinen – Teil 2-1: Standardverfahren zur Bestimmung der
Verluste und des Wirkungsgrades aus Prüfungen (ausgenommen Maschinen für
Schienen- und Straßenfahrzeuge)
(IEC 60034-2-1:2014)
Referenčna oznaka
ICS 29.160.01 SIST EN 60034-2-1:2015 (sl)
Nadaljevanje na straneh II in III ter od 1 do 86

© 2016-11. Standard je založil in izdal Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST EN 60034-2-1 : 2015
NACIONALNI UVOD

Standard SIST EN 60034-2-1:2015 (sl), Električni rotacijski stroji – 2-1. del: Metode za ugotavljanje

izgub in izkoristka s preskušanjem (razen strojev za vlečna vozila) (IEC 60034-2-1:2014) ima status

slovenskega standarda in je enakovreden evropskemu standardu EN 60034-2-1:2014 (en), Rotating

electrical machines – Part 2-1: Standard methods for determining losses and efficiency from tests

(excluding machines for traction vehicles) (IEC 60034-2-1:2014), 2014.
NACIONALNI PREDGOVOR

Mednarodni standard IEC 60034-2-1:2014 je pripravil tehnični odbor Mednarodne elektrotehniške

komisije IEC/TC 2 Rotacijski stroji. Vzporedno je standard potrdil Evropski komite za standardizacijo v

elektrotehniki CLC/TC 2 Rotacijski stroji.

Slovenski standard SIST EN 60034-2-1:2015 je prevod evropskega standarda EN 60034-2-1:2014. V

primeru spora glede besedila slovenskega prevoda v tem standardu je odločilen izvirni evropski

standard v angleškem jeziku. Slovensko izdajo standarda je pripravil tehnični odbor SIST/TC ERS

Električni rotacijski stroji.

Odločitev za privzem tega standarda je 14. januarja 2015 sprejel tehnični odbor SIST/TC ERS Električni

rotacijski stroji.
ZVEZA Z NACIONALNIMI STANDARDI

S privzemom tega evropskega standarda veljajo za omejeni namen referenčnih standardov vsi

standardi, navedeni v izvirniku, razen tistih, ki so že sprejeti v nacionalno standardizacijo:

SIST EN 60027-1 Črkovni simboli za električno tehnologijo – 1. del: Splošno

SIST EN 60034-1:2010 Električni rotacijski stroji – 1. del: Nazivni podatki in preskus lastnosti (IEC

60034-1:2010, spremenjen)

SIST EN 60034-4:2008 Električni rotacijski stroji – 4. del: Metode za preskusno ugotavljanje veličin

sinhronskih strojev (IEC 60034-4:2008)

SIST EN 60034-19 Električni rotacijski stroji – 19. del: Posebne metode za preskušanje

enosmernih strojev s konvencionalnim (enosmernim) in usmerjenim
napajanjem (IEC 60034-19)

SIST EN 60034-29 Električni rotacijski stroji – 29. del: Nadomestna obremenitev in tehnika

superpozicije – Posredno preskušanje za določanje povišanja temperature
(IEC 60034-29)

SIST EN 60051 (vsi deli) Neposredni kazalni analogni električni merilni instrumenti in njihov pribor

(IEC 60051)

SIST EN 60051-1 Neposredni kazalni analogni električni merilni instrumenti in njihov pribor –

1. del: Definicije in splošne zahteve, skupne vsem delom
OSNOVA ZA IZDAJO STANDARDA
– privzem standarda EN 60034-2-1:2014
PREDHODNA IZDAJA

– SIST EN 60034-2-1:2009, Električni rotacijski stroji – 2-1. del: Metode za ugotavljanje izgub in

izkoristka s preskušanjem (razen strojev za vlečna vozila) (IEC 60034-2-1:2007)
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST EN 60034-2-1 : 2015
OPOMBE

– Povsod, kjer se v besedilu standarda uporabljata izraza “evropski standard” ali "mednarodni

standard", v SIST EN 60034-2-1:2015 to pomeni “slovenski standard”.
– Nacionalni uvod in nacionalni predgovor nista sestavni del standarda.

– Ta nacionalni dokument je istoveten EN 60034-2-1:2014 in je objavljen z dovoljenjem

CEN /CENELEC
Upravni center
Avenue Marnix 17
B-1000 Bruselj

This national document is identical with EN 60034-2-1:2014 and is published with the permission

CEN /CENELEC
Management Centre
Avenue Marnix 17
B -1000 Brussels
III
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST EN 60034-2-1 : 2015
(prazna stran)
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
EVROPSKI STANDARD EN 60034-2-1
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM september 2014
ICS 29.160 Nadomešča EN 60034-2-1:1996 (delno), EN 60034-2-1:2007
Slovenska izdaja

Električni rotacijski stroji – 2-1. del: Metode za ugotavljanje izgub in izkoristka s

preskušanjem (razen strojev za vlečna vozila)
(IEC 60034-2-1:2014)
Rotating electrical machines – Machines électriques tournantes –
Drehende elektrische Maschinen –
Part 2-1: Standard methods for Partie 2-1: Méthodes normalisées
Teil 2-1: Standardverfahren zur
determining losses and efficiency pour la détermination des pertes et
Bestimmung der Verluste und des
from tests (excluding machines du rendement à partir d'essais
Wirkungsgrades aus Prüfungen
for traction vehicles) (à l'exclusion des machines pour
(ausgenommen Maschinen für
(IEC 60034-2-1:2014) véhicules de traction)
Schienen- und Straßenfahrzeuge)
(CEI 60034-2-1:2014)
(IEC 60034-2-1:2014)

Ta evropski standard je CENELEC sprejel 1. avgusta 2014. Člani CENELEC morajo izpolnjevati

notranje predpise CEN/CENELEC, ki določajo pogoje, pod katerimi dobi ta standard status

nacionalnega standarda brez kakršnih koli sprememb.

Najnovejši seznami teh nacionalnih standardov in njihovi bibliografski podatki se na zahtevo lahko dobijo

pri Upravnem centru CEN-CENELEC ali katerem koli članu CENELEC.

Ta evropski standard obstaja v treh uradnih izdajah (angleški, francoski in nemški). Izdaje v drugih

jezikih, ki jih člani CENELEC na lastno odgovornost prevedejo in izdajo ter prijavijo pri Upravnem centru

CEN-CENELEC, veljajo kot uradne izdaje.

Člani CENELEC so nacionalni elektrotehniški komiteji Avstrije, Belgije, Bolgarije, Cipra, Češke

republike, Danske, Estonije, Finske, Francije, Grčije, Hrvaške, Islandije, Irske, Italije, Latvije, Litve,

Luksemburga, Madžarske, Malte, Nekdanje jugoslovanske republike Makedonije, Nemčije,

Nizozemske, Norveške, Poljske, Portugalske, Romunije, Slovaške, Slovenije, Španije, Švedske, Švice,

Turčije in Združenega kraljestva.
CENELEC
Evropski komite za standardizacijo v elektrotehniki
European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization
Comité Européen de Normalisation Electrotechnique
Europäisches Komitee für Elektrotechnische Normung
Upravni center CEN-CENELEC: Avenue Marnix 17, B-1050 Bruselj

© 2014 CENELEC Lastnice avtorskih pravic so vse države članice CENELEC Ref. oznaka EN 60034-2-1:2014 E

---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
SIST EN 60034-2-1 : 2015
Predgovor k evropskemu standardu

Besedilo dokumenta 2/1742/FDIS, poznejša druga izdaja standarda IEC 60034-2-1, ki ga je pripravil

tehnični odbor IEC/TC 2 Rotacijski stroji, je bilo predloženo v vzporedno glasovanje v IEC in CENELEC

ter ga je CENELEC odobril kot EN 60034-2-1:2014.
Določena sta bila naslednja datuma:
– zadnji datum, do katerega mora EN dobiti status nacionalnega

standarda bodisi z objavo istovetnega besedila ali z razglasitvijo (dop) 2015-05-01

– zadnji datum, ko je treba razveljaviti nacionalne standarde,
ki so z EN v nasprotju (dow) 2017-08-01
Ta dokument nadomešča EN 60034-2:1996 (delno), EN 60034-2-1:2007.

Opozoriti je treba na možnost, da je kateri od elementov tega dokumenta lahko predmet patentnih

pravic. CENELEC [in/ali CEN] nista odgovorna za prepoznavanje katere koli ali vseh takih patentnih

pravic.

Ta dokument je bil pripravljen v okviru mandata, ki sta ga Evropska komisija in Evropsko združenje za

prosto trgovino dala CENELEC.
Razglasitvena objava

Besedilo mednarodnega standarda IEC 60034-2-1:2014 je CENELEC odobril kot evropski standard

brez sprememb.

V uradni verziji je treba v poglavju Literatura dodati naslednje opombe k navedenim standardom:

IEC 60034-2-2 OPOMBA: Harmoniziran kot EN 60034-2-2
IEC/TS 60034-2-3 OPOMBA: Harmoniziran kot CLC/TS 60034-2-3
IEC 60044 (skupina) OPOMBA: Harmoniziran kot EN 60044 (skupina)
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
SIST EN 60034-2-1 : 2015
Dodatek ZA
(normativni)
Normativna sklicevanja na mednarodne publikacije z njihovimi ustreznimi
evropskimi publikacijami

Za uporabo tega standarda so, delno ali v celoti, nujno potrebni spodaj navedeni referenčni dokumenti.

Pri datiranih sklicevanjih se uporablja le navedena izdaja. Pri nedatiranih sklicevanjih se uporablja

zadnja izdaja publikacije (vključno z dopolnili).

OPOMBA 1: Kadar je bila mednarodna publikacija spremenjena s skupnimi spremembami, označenimi z (mod), se uporablja

ustrezni EN/HD.

OPOMBA 2: Posodobljene informacije o zadnjih verzijah evropskih standardov, navedenih v tem dodatku, so na voljo na:

www.cenelec.eu.
Publikacija Leto Naslov EN/HD Leto
IEC 60027-1 – Črkovni simboli za električno tehnologijo – EN 60027 –
1. del: Splošno
IEC 60034-1 2010 Električni rotacijski stroji – 1. del: Nazivni EN 60034-1 2010
podatki in preskus lastnosti
IEC 60034-4 2008 Električni rotacijski stroji – 4. del: Metode EN 60034-4 2008
za preskusno ugotavljanje veličin
sinhronskih strojev
IEC 60034-19 – Električni rotacijski stroji – 19. del: Posebne EN 60034-19 –
metode za preskušanje enosmernih strojev
s konvencionalnim napajanjem in
napajanjem z usmerniki
IEC 60034-29 – Električni rotacijski stroji – 29. del: EN 60034-29 –
Nadomestna obremenitev in tehnika
superpozicije – posredno preskušanje za
ugotavljanje dviga temperature
IEC 60051 vsi deli Neposredni kazalni analogni električni EN 60051 vsi deli
merilni instrumenti in njihov pribor
IEC 60051-1 – Neposredni kazalni analogni električni EN 60051-1 –
merilni instrumenti in njihov pribor – 1. del:
Definicije in splošne zahteve, skupne vsem
delom
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
SIST EN 60034-2-1 : 2015
VSEBINA Stran

Predgovor k evropskemu standardu ........................................................................................................2

Dodatek ZA (normativni): Normativna sklicevanja na mednarodne publikacije z njihovimi

ustreznimi evropskimi publikacijami .......................................................................................................3

Predgovor ............................................................................................................................. 7

1 Področje uporabe .................................................................................................................................9

2 Zveze s standardi .................................................................................................................................9

3 Izrazi in definicije ..................................................................................................................................9

4 Simboli in okrajšave ............................................................................................................................14

4.1 Simboli .............................................................................................................................................14

4.2 Dodatni spodnji indeksi....................................................................................................................15

5 Osnovne zahteve ................................................................................................................................16

5.1 Ugotavljanje neposrednega in posrednega izkoristka .....................................................................16

5.2 Negotovost ......................................................................................................................................16

5.3 Prednostne metode in metode za uporabniško specifične prevzemne preskuse,

terenske preskuse ali kosovne preskuse .............................................................................................16

5.4 Napajanje ........................................................................................................................................17

5.4.1 Napetost .......................................................................................................................................17

5.4.2 Frekvenca .....................................................................................................................................17

5.5 Instrumenti .......................................................................................................................................17

5.5.1 Splošno .........................................................................................................................................17

5.5.2 Merilni instrumenti za električne veličine ......................................................................................17

5.5.3 Merjenje vrtilnega momenta .........................................................................................................17

5.5.4 Merjenje hitrosti in frekvence ........................................................................................................18

5.5.5 Merjenje temperature ...................................................................................................................18

5.6 Enote ...............................................................................................................................................18

5.7 Upornost ..........................................................................................................................................18

5.7.1 Preskus upornosti .........................................................................................................................18

5.7.2 Temperatura navitja ......................................................................................................................19

5.7.3 Popravek referenčne temperature hladila ....................................................................................19

5.8 Stanje stroja med preskušanjem in kategorije preskušanja ............................................................19

5.9 Meritve vzbujalnih tokokrogov .........................................................................................................20

5.10 Temperatura okolice med preskušanjem ......................................................................................21

6 Preskusne metode za ugotavljanje izkoristka asinhronskih strojev ...................................................21

6.1 Prednostne metode preskušanja .....................................................................................................21

6.1.1 Splošno .........................................................................................................................................21

6.1.2 Metoda 2-1-1A: neposredno merjenje vhodne in izhodne moči ...................................................21

6.1.3 Metoda 2-1-1B: seštevanje izgub, dodatne izgube pri obremenitvi skladno

z metodo preostalih izgub ....................................................................................................................22

6.1.4 Metoda 2-1-1C: seštevanje izgub z dodatnimi izgubami pri obremenitvi za

predvidene vrednosti ............................................................................................................................29

6.2 Metode preskušanja za terensko ali kosovno preskušanje .............................................................33

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SIST EN 60034-2-1 : 2015

6.2.1 Splošno .........................................................................................................................................33

6.2.2 Metoda 2-1-1D: preskus povratnega delovanja z dvojnim napajanjem .......................................33

6.2.3 Metoda 2-1-1E: preskus povratnega delovanja z enojnim napajanjem .......................................34

6.2.4 Metoda 2-1-1F: seštevanje izgub z dodatnimi izgubami pri obremenitvi, ugotovljenimi

s preskusom z odstranjenim rotorjem in preskusom z vrtenjem v nasprotni smeri ................................. 35

6.2.5 Metoda 2-1-1G: seštevanje izgub z dodatnimi izgubami zaradi obremenitve,

ugotovljenimi po metodi z eh-zvezdno vezavo ....................................................................................38

6.2.6 Metoda 2-1-1H: ugotavljanje izkoristka z uporabo parametrov nadomestnega vezja .................42

7 Preskusne metode za ugotavljanje izkoristka sinhronskih strojev .....................................................47

7.1 Prednostne metode preskušanja .....................................................................................................47

7.1.1 Splošno .........................................................................................................................................47

7.1.2 Metoda 2-1-2A: neposredno merjenje vhodne in izhodne moči ...................................................48

7.1.3 Metoda 2-1-2B: seštevanje posameznih izgub s preskusom segrevanja pri

nazivni obremenitvi in preskusom v kratkem stiku ................................................................................49

7.1.4 Metoda 2-1-2C: seštevanje posameznih izgub brez preskusa polne obremenitve .....................54

7.2 Metode preskušanja za terensko ali kosovno preskušanje .............................................................56

7.2.1 Splošno .........................................................................................................................................56

7.2.2 Metoda 2-1-2D: preskus s povratnim delovanjem z dvojnim napajanjem ....................................56

7.2.3 Metoda 2-1-2E: preskus povratnega delovanja z enojnim napajanjem .......................................57

7.2.4 Metoda 2-1-2F: preskus ničnega faktorja moči z vzbujalnim tokom iz Potierovega,

ASA ali švedskega diagrama ...............................................................................................................59

7.2.5 Metoda 2-1-2G: seštevanje posameznih izgub s preskusom obremenitve

brez upoštevanja dodatnih izgub zaradi obremenitve .........................................................................62

8 Preskusne metode za ugotavljanje izkoristka enosmernih strojev .....................................................63

8.1 Preskusne metode za terensko ali kosovno preskušanje ...............................................................63

8.1.2 Splošno .........................................................................................................................................63

8.1.2 Metoda 2-1-3A: neposredno merjenje vhodne in izhodne moči ...................................................64

8.1.3 Metoda 2-1-3B: seštevanje izgub s preskusom obremenitve in enosmerne

komponente dodatnih izgub iz preskusa obremenitve ........................................................................65

8.1.4 Metoda 2-1-3C: seštevanje izgub s preskusom obremenitve in enosmerne

komponente dodatnih izgub zaradi obremenitve iz predvidene vrednosti ...........................................71

8.1.5 Metoda 2-1-3D: seštevanje izgub brez preskusa obremenitve ....................................................74

8.1.6 Metoda 2-1-3E: preskus povratnega delovanja z enojnim napajanjem .......................................76

Dodatek A (normativni): Izračun vrednosti za eh-zvezdno metodo .......................................................79

Dodatek B (informativni): Vrste vzbujalnih sistemov ..............................................................................82

Dodatek C (informativni): Merjenje slipa asinhronskega stroja ..............................................................83

Dodatek D (informativni): Obrazec za poročilo o opravljenem preskusu za metodo 2-1-1B .................85

Literatura.................................................................................................................................................86

Slika 1: Prikaz preskusa merjenja vrtilnega momenta ...........................................................................22

Slika 2: Ugotavljanje izkoristka po metodi 2-1-1A .................................................................................22

Slika 3: Ugotavljanje izkoristka skladno z metodo 2-1-B ........................................................................23

Slika 4: Glajenje podatkov preostalih izgub ............................................................................................28

Slika 5: Ugotavljanje izkoristka po metodi 2-1-1C ..................................................................................30

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SIST EN 60034-2-1 : 2015
Slika 6: Vektorski diagram za določitev tokovnega vektorja iz preskusa

pri znižani napetosti ...........................................................................................................................31

Slika 7: Predpisane vrednosti za dodatne izgube pri obremenitvi P ...................................................32

Slika 8: Ugotavljanje izkoristka po metodi 2-1-1D ..................................................................................33

Slika 9: Prikaz preskusa s povratnim delovanjem z dvojnim napajanjem ..............................................34

Slika 10: Ugotavljanje izkoristka po metodi 2-1-1E ................................................................................34

Slika 11: Ugotavljanje izkoristka po metodi 2-1-1F ................................................................................36

Slika 12: Ugotavljanje izkoristka po metodi 2-1-1G ................................................................................39

Slika 13: Preskus z eh-zvezdno vezavo .................................................................................................40

Slika 14: Asinhronski stroj, T-vezje z nadomestnim uporom za izgube v železu ...................................42

Slika 15: Ugotavljanje izkoristka po metodi 2-1-1H ................................................................................43

Slika 16: Asinhronski stroji, poenostavljeno nadomestno vezje za izračun ...........................................46

Slika 17: Prikaz preskusa za merjenje vrtilnega momenta .....................................................................48

Slika 18: Ugotavljanje izkoristka po metodi 2-1-2A ................................................................................48

Slika 19: Ugotavljanje izkoristka po metodi 2-1-2B ................................................................................50

Slika 20: Ugotavljanje izkoristka po metodi 2-1-2C ................................................................................55

Slika 21: Ugotavljanje izkoristka po metodi 2-1-2D ................................................................................56

Slika 22: Prikaz preskusa s povratnim delovanjem z dvojnim napajanjem (I = I , f = f ) ..................57

M G M G

Slika 23: Ugotavljanje izkoristka po metodi 2-1-2E ................................................................................58

Slika 24: Preskus povratnega delovanja z enojnim napajanjem za sinhronske stroje ...........................58

Slika 25: Ugotavljanje izkoristka po metodi 2-1-2F ................................................................................59

Slika 26: Ugotavljanje izkoristka po metodi 2-1-2G ................................................................................63

Slika 27: Prikaz preskusa za merjenje vrtilnega momenta .....................................................................64

Slika 28: Ugotavljanje izkoristka po metodi 2-1-3A ................................................................................65

Slika 29: Ugotavljanje izkoristka po metodi 2-1-3B ................................................................................66

Slika 30: Prikaz preskusa s povratnim delovanjem z enojnim napajanjem za ugotovitev

enosmerne komponente dodatnih izgub zaradi obremenitve ...........................................................69

Slika 31: Ugotavljanje izkoristka po metodi 2-1-3C ................................................................................72

Slika 32: Ugotavljanje izkoristka po metodi 2-1-3D ................................................................................75

Slika 33: Ugotavljanje izkoristka po metodi 2-1-3E ................................................................................77

Slika 34: Prikaz preskusa povratnega delovanja z enojnim napajanjem ...............................................77

Slika C.1: Blokovni diagram merilnega sistema za slip ..........................................................................84

Preglednica 1: Referenčna temperatura ................................................................................................19

Preglednica 2: Asinhronski stroji: prednostne metode preskušanja ......................................................21

Preglednica 3: Asinhronski stroji: druge metode ....................................................................................33

Preglednica 4: Sinhronski stroji z električnim vzbujanjem: prednostne metode preskušanja ................47

Preglednica 5: Sinhronski stroji s trajnimi magneti: prednostne metode preskušanja ...........................47

Preglednica 6: Sinhronski stroji: druge metode ......................................................................................56

Preglednica 7: Enosmerni stroji: preskusne metode .............................................................................64

Preglednica 8: Množilni faktorji za različna hitrostna razmerja ..............................................................73

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SIST EN 60034-2-1 : 2015
MEDNARODNA ELEKTROTEHNIŠKA KOMISIJA
Električni rotacijski stroji – 2-1. del: Metode za ugotavljanje izgub
in izkoristka s preskušanjem (razen strojev za vlečna vozila)
PREDGOVOR

1) Mednarodna elektrotehniška komisija (IEC) je svetovna organizacija za standardizacijo, ki združuje vse nacionalne

elektrotehniške komiteje (nacionalni komiteji IEC). Cilj IEC je pospeševati mednarodno sodelovanje v vseh vprašanjih

standardizacije s področja elektrotehnike in elektronike. V ta namen poleg drugih aktivnosti izdaja mednarodne standarde,

tehnične specifikacije, tehnična poročila, javno dostopne specifikacije (PAS) in vodila (v nadaljevanju: publikacije IEC). Za

njihovo pripravo so odgovorni tehnični odbori; vsak nacionalni komite IEC, ki ga zanima obravnavana tema, lahko sodeluje v

tem pripravljalnem delu. Prav tako lahko v pripravi sodelujejo mednarodne organizacije ter vladne in nevladne ustanove, ki

so povezane z IEC. IEC deluje v tesni povezavi z mednarodno organizacijo za standardizacijo ISO skladno s pogoji,

določenimi v soglasju med obema organizacijama.

2) Uradne odločitve ali sporazumi IEC o tehničnih vprašanjih, pripravljeni v tehničnih odborih, kjer so prisotni vsi nacionalni

komiteji, ki jih tema zanima, izražajo, kolikor je mogoče, mednarodno soglasje o obravnavani temi.

3) Publikacije IEC imajo obliko priporočil za mednarodno uporabo in jih kot takšne sprejmejo nacionalni komiteji IEC. Čeprav

IEC skuša na vse primerne načine zagotavljati natančnost tehničnih vsebin v publikacijah IEC, IEC ne more biti odgovoren

za način, kako se določila uporabljajo, ter za morebitne napačne razlage končnih uporabnikov.

4) Da bi se pospeševalo mednarodno poenotenje, so nacionalni komiteji IEC v svojih nacionalnih in regionalnih standardih dolžni

čim pregledneje uporabljati mednarodne standarde. Vsako odstopanje med standardom IEC in ustreznim nacionalnim ali

regionalnim standardom je treba v slednjem jasno označiti.

5) IEC sam ne izvaja potrjevanja skladnosti. Storitve ugotavljanja skladnosti in na nekaterih območjih tudi dostop do znakov

skladnosti IEC izvajajo neodvisni certifikacijski organi. IEC ne prevzema nikakršne odgovornosti za storitve, ki jih izvajajo

neodvisni certifikacijski organi.
6) Vsi uporabniki naj bi si zagotovili zadnjo izdajo teh publikacij.

7) IEC ali njegovi direktorji, zaposleni, uslužbenci ali agenti, vključno s samostojnimi strokovnjaki ter člani tehničnih odborov in

nacionalnih komitejev IEC, ne prevzemajo nobene odgovornosti za kakršno koli osebno poškodbo, škodo na premoženju ali

katero koli drugo škodo kakršne koli vrste, bodisi posredne ali neposredne, ali za stroške (vključno z zakonitim lastništvom)

in izdatke, povezane s publikacijo, njeno uporabo ali zanašanjem na to publikacijo IEC ali katero koli drugo publikacijo IEC.

8) Pozornost je treba posvetiti normativnim virom, na katere se sklicuje ta publikacija. Uporaba navedenih publikacij je nujna za

pravilno uporabo te publikacije.
9) Opozoriti je treba na možnost, da
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