Application integration at electric utilities - System interfaces for distribution management - Part 1: Interface architecture and general recommendations

IEC 61968-1:2012 is the first part in a series that, taken as a whole, define interfaces for the major elements of an interface architecture for distribution management. This International Standard identifies and establishes recommendations for standard interfaces based on an Interface Reference Model (IRM). Subsequent clauses of this standard are based on each interface identified in the IRM. This set of standards is limited to the definition of interfaces. They provide for interoperability among different computer systems, platforms, and languages. Methods and technologies used to implement functionality conforming to these interfaces are recommended in IEC 61968-100. This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous one: - update of IRM table which has been out of date; - addition of missing Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) related functions; - alignment with newly released IEC documents; - alignment with IEC 61968-100; update of annexes.

Integration von Anwendungen in Anlagen der Elektrizitätsversorgung - Systemschnittstellen für Netzführung - Teil 1: Schnittstellenarchitektur und allgemeine Anforderungen

Intégration d'applications pour les services électriques - Interfaces système pour la gestion de distribution - Partie 1: Architecture des interfaces et recommandations générales

La CEI 61968-1:2012 est la première partie d'une série qui, prise dans son ensemble, définit les interfaces pour les éléments principaux d'une architecture d'interface de gestion de la distribution. Cette Norme Internationales identifie et établit des recommandations pour des interfaces standard basées sur un Modèle d'Interface de Référence (IRM). Les articles suivants de cette norme sont basés sur chaque interface identifiée par l'IRM. Cet ensemble de normes se limite à la définition des interfaces. Elles pourvoient à l'interopérabilité entre les différents systèmes informatiques, plates-formes, et langages. Les processus et les technologies utilisés pour mettre en application une fonctionnalité se conformant à ces interfaces sont recommandés par la CEI 61968-100. Cette édition inclut les modifications techniques majeures suivantes par rapport à la précédente: - mise à jour du tableau intitulé Modèle d'interface de référence (IRM); - ajout des fonctions manquantes relatives à l'infrastructure de comptage avancée (AMI); - alignement avec les documents de la CEI récemment publiés; - alignement avec le contenu de la CEI 61968-100; - mise à jour des annexes.

Združevanje aplikacij v elektropodjetjih - Sistemski vmesniki za upravljanje distribucije - 1. del: Arhitektura vmesnikov in splošne zahteve (IEC 61968-1:2012)

Ta del skupine standardov IEC 61968 je prvi v skupini, ki kot celota določa vmesnike za glavne elemente arhitekture vmesnikov za upravljanje distribucije. Ta mednarodni standard določa in vzpostavlja priporočila za standardne vmesnike na podlagi referenčnega modela vmesnika (IRM). Nadaljnje točke tega standarda temeljijo na vseh vmesnikih, opredeljenih v IRM. Ta sklop standardov je omejena na opredelitev vmesnikov. Zagotavljajo interoperabilnost med različnimi računalniškimi sistemi, platformami in jeziki. Metode in tehnologije, ki se uporabljajo za izvajanje funkcionalnosti v skladu s temi vmesniki, so priporočene v standardu IEC 61968-100. Kot se uporablja v standardu IEC 61968, upravljanje distribucije zajema različne distribuirane sestavne dele aplikacij za upravljanje električnih distribucijskih omrežij. Te zmogljivosti vključujejo spremljanje in krmiljenje opreme za dobavo električne energije, procese upravljanja za zagotavljanje zanesljivosti sistema, upravljanje napetosti, upravljanje na strani povpraševanja, upravljanje izpadov, upravljanje dela, avtomatizirano kartiranje, upravljanje obratov in merjenje. IRM je določen v točki 3.

General Information

Status
Withdrawn
Publication Date
03-Mar-2013
Withdrawal Date
03-Dec-2015
Current Stage
6060 - Document made available - Publishing
Completion Date
11-Jan-2013

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN 61968-1:2013
01-marec-2013
1DGRPHãþD
SIST EN 61968-1:2004
Združevanje aplikacij v elektropodjetjih - Sistemski vmesniki za upravljanje

distribucije - 1. del: Arhitektura vmesnikov in splošne zahteve (IEC 61968-1:2012)

Application integration at electric utilities - System interfaces for distribution management

- Part 1: Interface architecture and general requirements
Integration von Anwendungen in Anlagen der Elektrizitätsversorgung -

Systemschnittstellen für Netzführung - Teil 1: Schnittstellenarchitektur und allgemeine

Anforderungen

Intégration d'applications pour les services électriques - Interfaces système pour la

gestion de distribution - Partie 1: Architecture des interfaces et recommandations

générales
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN 61968-1:2013
ICS:
29.240.30 Krmilna oprema za Control equipment for electric
elektroenergetske sisteme power systems
35.200 Vmesniška in povezovalna Interface and interconnection
oprema equipment
SIST EN 61968-1:2013 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST EN 61968-1:2013
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SIST EN 61968-1:2013
EUROPEAN STANDARD
EN 61968-1
NORME EUROPÉENNE
January 2013
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 33.200 Supersedes EN 61968-1:2004
English version
Application integration at electric utilities -
System interfaces for distribution management -
Part 1: Interface architecture and general recommendations
(IEC 61968-1:2012)

Intégration d'applications pour les services Integration von Anwendungen in Anlagen

électriques - der Elektrizitätsversorgung -
Interfaces système pour la gestion de Systemschnittstellen für Netzführung -
distribution - Teil 1: Schnittstellenarchitektur und
Partie 1: Architecture des interfaces et allgemeine Anforderungen
recommandations générales (IEC 61968-1:2012)
(CEI 61968-1:2012)

This European Standard was approved by CENELEC on 2012-12-04. CENELEC members are bound to comply

with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard

the status of a national standard without any alteration.

Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on

application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CENELEC member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other

language made by translation under the responsibility of a CENELEC member into its own language and notified

to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CENELEC members are the national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus,

the Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany,

Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland,

Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the United Kingdom.

CENELEC
European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization
Comité Européen de Normalisation Electrotechnique
Europäisches Komitee für Elektrotechnische Normung
Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B - 1000 Brussels

© 2013 CENELEC - All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CENELEC members.

Ref. No. EN 61968-1:2013 E
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SIST EN 61968-1:2013
EN 61968-1:2013 - 2 -
Foreword

The text of document 57/1272/FDIS, future edition 2 of IEC 61968-1, prepared by IEC TC 57 "Power

systems management and associated information exchange" was submitted to the IEC-CENELEC

parallel vote and approved by CENELEC as EN 61968-1:2013.
The following dates are fixed:
• latest date by which the document has (dop) 2013-09-04
to be implemented at national level by
publication of an identical national
standard or by endorsement
(dow) 2015-12-04
• latest date by which the national
standards conflicting with the
document have to be withdrawn
This document supersedes EN 61968-1:2004.

EN 61968-1:2013 includes the following significant technical changes with respect to EN 61968-1:2004:

a) update of IRM table which has been out of date since the 1 edition;
b) addition of missing Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) related functions;
c) alignment with newly released documents from the technical committee;
d) alignment with EN 61968-100;
e) update of annexes.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CENELEC [and/or CEN] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent

rights.
Endorsement notice

The text of the International Standard IEC 61968-1:2012 was approved by CENELEC as a European

Standard without any modification.

In the official version, for Bibliography, the following notes have to be added for the standards indicated:

IEC 61968-4 NOTE Harmonized as EN 61968-4.
IEC 61970-501 NOTE Harmonized as EN 61970-501.
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SIST EN 61968-1:2013
- 3 - EN 61968-1:2013
Annex ZA
(normative)
Normative references to international publications
with their corresponding European publications

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

NOTE When an international publication has been modified by common modifications, indicated by (mod), the relevant EN/HD

applies.
Publication Year Title EN/HD Year
IEC 61968-3 - Application integration at electric utilities - EN 61968-3 -
System interfaces for distribution
management -
Part 3: Interface for network operations
IEC 61968-9 - Application integration at electric utilities - EN 61968-9 -
System interfaces for distribution
management -
Part 9: Interface for meter reading and control
IEC 61968-11 - Application integration at electric utilities - EN 61968-11 -
System interfaces for distribution
management -
Part 11: Common Information Model (CIM)
extensions for distribution
IEC 61968-13 - Application integration at electric utilities - EN 61968-13 -
System interfaces for distribution
management -
Part 13: CIM RDF Model exchange format for
distribution
IEC 61970-301 - Energy management system application EN 61970-301 -
program interface (EMS-API) -
Part 301: Common information model (CIM)
base
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SIST EN 61968-1:2013
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SIST EN 61968-1:2013
IEC 61968-1
Edition 2.0 2012-10
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
colour
inside

Application integration at electric utilities – System interfaces for distribution

management –
Part 1: Interface architecture and general recommendations
Intégration d'applications pour les services électriques – Interfaces système
pour la gestion de distribution –
Partie 1: Architecture des interfaces et recommandations générales
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
PRICE CODE
INTERNATIONALE
CODE PRIX XB
ICS 33.200 ISBN 978-2-83220-425-2

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

Attention! Veuillez vous assurer que vous avez obtenu cette publication via un distributeur agréé.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
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SIST EN 61968-1:2013
– 2 – 61968-1 © IEC:2012
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 4

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 6

1 Scope ............................................................................................................................. 11

2 Normative references ..................................................................................................... 11

3 Interface reference model ............................................................................................... 11

3.1 Domain .................................................................................................................. 11

3.2 Business functions ................................................................................................ 12

3.3 Interface reference model ...................................................................................... 13

4 Integration infrastructure recommendations .................................................................... 39

4.1 General ................................................................................................................. 39

4.2 Requirements analysis methodology ..................................................................... 39

5 Interface profile .............................................................................................................. 39

5.1 General ................................................................................................................. 39

5.2 Abstract components ............................................................................................. 40

5.3 Component adapters ............................................................................................. 41

5.4 Interface specification ........................................................................................... 41

5.5 Middleware adapter ............................................................................................... 41

5.6 Middleware services .............................................................................................. 42

5.7 Communication services ........................................................................................ 42

5.8 Platform environment ............................................................................................ 42

6 Information exchange model ........................................................................................... 42

6.1 General requirements ............................................................................................ 42

6.2 Message structures ............................................................................................... 43

6.2.1 General recommendation ........................................................................... 43

6.2.2 Message header ........................................................................................ 44

6.2.3 Message type payload ............................................................................... 44

6.2.4 Explanation of associations ....................................................................... 46

6.2.5 Compliance philosophy .............................................................................. 47

6.2.6 Extension .................................................................................................. 47

6.2.7 Request message ...................................................................................... 47

6.2.8 Response message ................................................................................... 48

6.2.9 Event message .......................................................................................... 48

6.2.10 Fault message ........................................................................................... 48

6.2.11 Signature element ..................................................................................... 49

7 Component reporting and error handling (informative) .................................................... 49

7.1 Component reporting ............................................................................................. 49

7.2 Error message handling......................................................................................... 49

8 Security and authentication (informative) ........................................................................ 50

9 Maintenance aspects (informative) ................................................................................. 50

Annex A (informative) Use of IEC 61968 series of standards ............................................... 51

Annex B (informative) Inter-application integration performance considerations ................... 61

Annex C (informative) Views of data in a conventional electric utility ................................... 62

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 65

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SIST EN 61968-1:2013
61968-1 © IEC:2012 – 3 –

Figure 1 – Distribution management with IEC 61968 compliant interface architecture ............. 7

Figure 2 – Example utility implementation of IEC 61968 .......................................................... 9

Figure 3 – Typical functions mapped to interface reference model ........................................ 13

Figure 4 – Overview of the interface profile and corresponding subclause numbers .............. 40

Figure 5 – Logical view of an IEC 61968 message ................................................................ 44

Figure 6 – Example of a message type payload .................................................................... 45

Figure 7 – Example of how message elements are derived from the CIM .............................. 46

Figure 8 – Navigating associations in CIM (UML notation) .................................................... 46

Figure 9 – Navigating associations in message type schemas .............................................. 47

Figure 10 – Logical view of a request message ..................................................................... 47

Figure 11 – Logical view of a response message .................................................................. 48

Figure 12 – Logical view of an event message ...................................................................... 48

Figure 13 – Logical view of a fault message .......................................................................... 49

Figure A.1 – Process A: Application of IEC 61968 series by a utility...................................... 52

Figure A.2 – Process B: application of IEC 61968 series by a utility ...................................... 53

Figure C.1 – Database views depend on the time and user ................................................... 63

Table 1 – Document overview for IEC 61968-1 ..................................................................... 10

Table 2 – The Interface Reference Model (IRM) .................................................................... 15

Table A.1 – Use case template ............................................................................................. 55

Table A.2 – Commonly used verbs ........................................................................................ 58

Table B.1 – Typical load scenario ......................................................................................... 61

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SIST EN 61968-1:2013
– 4 – 61968-1 © IEC:2012
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
APPLICATION INTEGRATION AT ELECTRIC UTILITIES –
SYSTEM INTERFACES FOR DISTRIBUTION MANAGEMENT –
Part 1: Interface architecture and general recommendations
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote

international co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To

this end and in addition to other activities, IEC publishes International Standards, Technical Specifications,

Technical Reports, Publicly Available Specifications (PAS) and Guides (hereafter referred to as “IEC

Publication(s)”). Their preparation is entrusted to technical committees; any IEC National Committee interested

in the subject dealt with may participate in this preparatory work. International, governmental and non-

governmental organizations liaising with the IEC also participate in this preparation. IEC collaborates closely

with the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by

agreement between the two organizations.

2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international

consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation from all

interested IEC National Committees.

3) IEC Publications have the form of recommendations for international use and are accepted by IEC National

Committees in that sense. While all reasonable efforts are made to ensure that the technical content of IEC

Publications is accurate, IEC cannot be held responsible for the way in which they are used or for any

misinterpretation by any end user.

4) In order to promote international uniformity, IEC National Committees undertake to apply IEC Publications

transparently to the maximum extent possible in their national and regional publications. Any divergence

between any IEC Publication and the corresponding national or regional publication shall be clearly indicated in

the latter.

5) IEC itself does not provide any attestation of conformity. Independent certification bodies provide conformity

assessment services and, in some areas, access to IEC marks of conformity. IEC is not responsible for any

services carried out by independent certification bodies.

6) All users should ensure that they have the latest edition of this publication.

7) No liability shall attach to IEC or its directors, employees, servants or agents including individual experts and

members of its technical committees and IEC National Committees for any personal injury, property damage or

other damage of any nature whatsoever, whether direct or indirect, or for costs (including legal fees) and

expenses arising out of the publication, use of, or reliance upon, this IEC Publication or any other IEC

Publications.

8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of

patent rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

International Standard IEC 61968-1 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 57: Power

systems management and associated information exchange.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition published in 2003. This edition

constitutes a technical revision.

This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous

edition:
a) update of IRM table which has been out of date since the 1st edition;
b) addition of missing Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) related functions;
c) alignment with newly released documents from the technical committee;
d) alignment with IEC 61968-100;
e) update of annexes.
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
SIST EN 61968-1:2013
61968-1 © IEC:2012 – 5 –
The text of this standard is based on the following documents:
FDIS Report on voting
57/1272/FDIS 57/1288/RVD

Full information on the voting for the approval of this standard can be found in the report on

voting indicated in the above table.

This publication has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

A list of all parts in the IEC 61968 series, published under the general title Application

integration at electric utilities – System interfaces for distribution management, can be found

on the IEC website.

The committee has decided that the contents of this publication will remain unchanged until

the stability date indicated on the IEC web site under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data

related to the specific publication. At this date, the publication will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.

IMPORTANT – The 'colour inside' logo on the cover page of this publication indicates

that it contains colours which are considered to be useful for the correct

understanding of its contents. Users should therefore print this document using a

colour printer.
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SIST EN 61968-1:2013
– 6 – 61968-1 © IEC:2012
INTRODUCTION
IEC 61968 is a series of standards:
IEC 61968 part Title
1 Interface architecture and general recommendations
2 Glossary
3 Interface for network operation
4 Interface for records and asset management
5 Interface standard for operational planning and optimisation
6 Interface for maintenance and construction
7 Interface standard for network extension planning
8 Interface standard for customer support
9 Interface for meter reading and control
11 Common information model (CIM) extensions for distribution
13 CIM RDF model exchange format for distribution
100 Implementation profiles

The IEC 61968 series is intended to facilitate inter-application integration, as opposed to

intra-application integration of the various distributed software application systems supporting

the management of utility electrical distribution networks. Intra-application integration is aimed

at programs in the same application system, usually communicating with each other using

middleware that is embedded in their underlying runtime environment. Additionally the intra-

application integration tends to be optimized for close, real-time, synchronous connections

and interactive request/reply or conversation communication models. IEC 61968 series by

contrast, is intended to support the inter-application integration of a utility enterprise that

needs to connect disparate applications that are already built or new (legacy or purchased

applications) each supported by dissimilar runtime environments. Therefore, IEC 61968 series

is relevant to loosely coupled applications with more heterogeneity in languages, operating

systems, protocols, and management tools. IEC 61968 series is intended to support

applications that need to exchange data on an event driven basis. IEC 61968 series is also

intended to be implemented with middleware services that broker messages among

applications and complementing, but not replacing, utility data warehouses, database

gateways, and operational stores.
———————
Under consideration.
Under consideration.
Under consideration.
Under consideration.
Under consideration.
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SIST EN 61968-1:2013
61968-1 © IEC:2012 – 7 –
IEC 1963/12

Figure 1 – Distribution management with IEC 61968 compliant interface architecture

Figure 1 clarifies the scope of IEC 61968-1 graphically in terms of business functions and

shows distribution management with IEC 61968 compliant interface architecture.

As used in IEC 61968 series, distribution management consists of various distributed

application components for the utility to manage electrical distribution networks. These

capabilities include monitoring and control of equipment for power delivery, management

processes to ensure system reliability, voltage management, demand-side management,

outage management, work management, automated mapping and facilities management. The

distribution management system could also be integrated with premise area networks (PAN)

through an advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) network. Standard interfaces are to be

defined for each class of applications identified in Clause 3, Interface Reference Model (IRM),

except for those in the group EXT (External to DMS – distribution management system).

In the distribution management domain it is important to keep in mind the basic meaning of

the following terms:
• management: effective regulation and direction;

• automation: working without human participation in accordance with pre-defined rule sets;

• system: a set of organized operations working to support a particular activity (set of

applications). Generally, a system in the context of this work is a computer based

technology.

In the world of integrated systems, systems can also be a subset of a larger system, a system

of systems or a set of federated systems. A system composed of coordinating subsystems

may support activities more efficiently than the subsystems operating independently.

As the size of an organisation increases so does the complexity of the tasks and information

exchange associated with the tasks. Furthermore, the deeper the data structure is within a

system the less transparent it is to the end user. This suggests the need for data stewardship

to avoid:
• errors arising from multiple points of data entry;
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SIST EN 61968-1:2013
– 8 – 61968-1 © IEC:2012
• lack of consistency with software interfaces;
• expensive changes with new or upgraded software;
• loss of governance of authorised data.

The standardisation of data facilitates the reduction of errors, reduced time for data entry, and

improved process control.

IEC 61968 series recommends that the semantics (domain model) of system interfaces of a

compliant utility inter-application infrastructure be defined using Unified Modelling Language

(UML).

The Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a data format for structured document interchange

particularly on the Internet. One of its primary uses is information exchange between different

and potentially incompatible computer systems. XML is thus recommended to define

grammar/syntax (profiles) of a compliant utility inter-application infrastructure.

Where applicable, IEC 61968-3 to -9 and -13 of this standard will define the information

recommended for ‘message payloads’. Message Payloads will be formatted using XML, with

structures defined using XML Schema (IEC 61968-3 to -9) or RDF Schema (IEC 61968-13)

with the intent that these payloads can be loaded on to messages of various messaging

transports, such as SOAP, JMS, RESTful HTTP, or Web Services (WS). It is the intent of

IEC 61968 series to be leveraged by Service-Oriented Architectures (SOA) and to encourage

the usage of Enterprise Service Buses (ESB). In the future, it is possible that payload formats

other than XML could be officially adopted by IEC 61968 series for specific parts or

information exchanges.

Communication between application components of the IRM requires compatibility on two

levels:
• message formats and protocols;

• message contents are mutually understood, including application-level issues of message

layout and semantics.

Clause 5 defines abstract middleware services recommended to support communication

between the applications defined in the IRM. These services are intended to be deployed,

with little additional software required, by mapping them to commonly available services from

various messaging technologies including Web services (WS-*) and middleware such as

Message Brokers, Message Oriented Middleware (MOM), Message-Queuing Middleware
(MQM), and Enterprise Service Buses (ESB). Clause 5 is organized as follows:
• Subclause 5.1 provides overview of interface profile.

• Subclause 5.2 identifies general recommendations of the applications identified in the IRM.

• Sub-clause 5.3 describes component adapters.
• Subclause 5.4 describes interface specification recommendations.

• Subclause 5.5 describes how information exchange services may either be supported

directly by middleware or that software may be required to map (adapt) the utility’s

middleware services to the standard information exchange services.

• Subclauses 5.6 to 5.8 describe environmental recommendations for information exchange.

An example of a typical utility’s implementation of IEC 61968 series is provided in Figure 2. In

this example, the utility has used interface adapters as a means to integrate many of its

legacy systems with other application systems that are IEC 61968 compliant. Note those

legacy systems and IEC 61968 compliant systems both continue to use proprietary integration

techniques among their internal applications; only information that needs to be exchanged

among applications at the utility enterprise level is expected to use IEC 61968 interface

services.
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SIST EN 61968-1:2013
61968-1 © IEC:2012 – 9 –

For purposes of this example, it is assumed that the utility’s Outage Management System

(OMS) already has the capability to issue controls to and gather device states from the

Distribution Automation system. As it is working acceptably for the utility, this interface does

not need to be changed. However, because other applications need to be noti
...

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