Cable networks for television signals, sound signals and interactive services - Part 5: Headend equipment

IEC 60728-5:2015 specifies the characteristics of equipment used in the headends of terrestrial broadcast and satellite receiving systems (without satellite outdoor units and without those broadband amplifiers in the headend as described in IEC 60728-3). It: - covers the frequency range 5 MHz to 3 000 MHz; - identifies performance requirements for certain parameters; - lays down data publication requirements for certain parameters; - stipulates methods of measurements; - introduces minimum requirements defining quality grades (Q-grades). This third edition cancels and replaces the second edition published in 2007. This edition constitutes a technical revision. This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition: - new text for the introduction, following the scope of IEC TC 100/TA 5; - introduction of IPTV to the scope; - headend specification for digital terrestrial TV signals according to the DVB-T2 standard; - headend specification for digital TV signals in cable networks according to the DVB-S2 standard.

Kabelnetze für Fernsehsignale, Tonsignale und interaktive Dienste - Teil 5: Geräte für Kopfstellen

Réseaux de distribution par câbles pour signaux de télévision, signaux de radiodiffusion sonore et services interactifs - Partie 5: Équipements de tête de réseau

L'IEC 60728-5:2015 spécifie les caractéristiques de l'équipement utilisé dans les têtes de réseaux pour la réception de la radiodiffusion terrestre et par satellite (à l'exception des unités extérieures et des amplificateurs large bande situés dans la tête de réseau tels que décrits dans l'IEC 60728-3). Elle: - couvre la plage de fréquences de 5 MHz à 3 000 MHz; - identifie les exigences de fonctionnement pour certains paramètres; - spécifie les exigences relatives à la publication des données pour certains paramètres; - stipule les méthodes de mesure; - présente les exigences minimales définissant les classes de qualité (Q). Cette troisième édition annule et remplace la deuxième édition parue en 2007. Cette édition constitue une révision technique. Cette édition inclut les modifications techniques majeures suivantes par rapport à l'édition précédente: - nouveau texte pour l'introduction suivant le domaine d'application de l'IEC TC 100/TA 5; - introduction de l'IPTV au domaine d'application; - spécification relative aux têtes de réseaux pour signaux TV numériques par voie terrestre conformément à la norme DVB-T2; - spécification relative aux têtes de réseaux pour signaux TV numériques dans des réseaux de distribution par câbles conformément à la norme DVB-S2.

Kabelska omrežja za televizijske in zvokovne signale ter interaktivne storitve - 5. del: Oprema glavne sprejemne postaje

Ta del standarda IEC 60728 določa značilnosti opreme, ki se uporablja za glavne sprejemne postaje prizemnih radiodifuzijskih in satelitskih sprejemnih sistemov (brez zunanjih satelitskih enot in tistih širokopasovnih ojačevalnikov v glavni sprejemni postaji, kot so opisani v standardu IEC 60728-3). Zunanje satelitske enote za fiksne satelitske sisteme (FSS) so opisane v standardu ETSI ETS 300 158, tiste za radiodifuzijske satelitske sisteme (BSS) pa v standardu ETSI ETS 300 249. Preskusne metode za obe vrsti (fiksni in radiodifuzijski satelitski sistemi) zunanjih satelitskih enot so določene v standardu ETSI ETS 300 457.
Ta del standarda IEC 60728
a) zajema frekvenčno območje od 5 MHz do 3000 MHz;
b) opredeljuje zahteve glede učinkovitosti za določene parametre;
c) določa zahteve za objavo podatkov za določene parametre;
č) določa metode za merjenje;
d) uvaja minimalne zahteve, ki opredeljujejo kakovostne razrede (K-razredi).
Ta del standarda IEC 60728 določa splošne značilnosti signalov navzgornjega/navzdolnjega prenosa med zunanjimi viri/odtoki (npr. antene, sistemi zaključevanja kabelskih modemov itd.) ter sistemskim vmesnikom kabelskega omrežja. V primeru modularnih sistemov glavnih sprejemnih postaj so opisani tudi posamezni elementi opreme, kot so modulatorji, pretvorniki itd. Prekinitveni sistemi kabelskih modemov, kodirniki, dekodirniki itd. niso opisani v tem delu standarda IEC 60728. Če je takšna oprema uporabljena v glavnih sprejemnih postajah, morajo biti izpolnjeni ustrezni parametri za radiofrekvenčne, video, zvočne in podatkovne vmesnike.
V skladu z definicijami iz točke 3.1 so glavne sprejemne postaje razdeljene v naslednje tri kakovostne razrede:
• 1. razred: osrednja glavna sprejemna postaja;
• 2. razred: razdelilna glavna sprejemna postaja ali razdelilna postaja;
• 3. razred: glavna sprejemna postaja MATV/glavna sprejemna postaja za posamezni sprejem.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
21-Apr-2016
Current Stage
6060 - Document made available
Due Date
07-Mar-2016

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN 60728-5:2016
01-julij-2016
1DGRPHãþD
SIST EN 60728-5:2008

Kabelska omrežja za televizijske in zvokovne signale ter interaktivne storitve - 5.

del: Oprema glavne sprejemne postaje

Cable networks for television signals, sound signals and interactive services - Part 5:

Headend equipment
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN 60728-5:2016
ICS:
33.060.40 Kabelski razdelilni sistemi Cabled distribution systems
SIST EN 60728-5:2016 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST EN 60728-5:2016
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SIST EN 60728-5:2016
EUROPEAN STANDARD EN 60728-5
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
April 2016
ICS 33.060.40 Supersedes EN 60728-5:2008
English Version
Cable networks for television signals, sound signals and
interactive services - Part 5: Headend equipment
(IEC 60728-5:2015)

Réseaux de distribution par câbles pour signaux de Kabelnetze für Fernsehsignale, Tonsignale und interaktive

télévision, signaux de radiodiffusion sonore et services Dienste - Teil 5: Geräte für Kopfstellen

interactifs - Partie 5: Équipements de tête de réseau (IEC 60728-5:2015)
(IEC 60728-5:2015)

This European Standard was approved by CENELEC on 2016-01-13. CENELEC members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC

Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration.

Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC

Management Centre or to any CENELEC member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation

under the responsibility of a CENELEC member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre has the

same status as the official versions.

CENELEC members are the national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, the Czech Republic,

Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia,

Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and the United Kingdom.
European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization
Comité Européen de Normalisation Electrotechnique
Europäisches Komitee für Elektrotechnische Normung
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Brussels

© 2016 CENELEC All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CENELEC Members.

Ref. No. EN 60728-5:2016 E
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SIST EN 60728-5:2016
EN 60728-5:2016
European foreword

The text of document 100/2555/FDIS, future edition 3 of IEC 60728-5, prepared by Technical Area 5

“Cable networks for television signals, sound signals and interactive services” of IEC/TC 100 “Audio,

video and multimedia systems and equipment" was submitted to the IEC-CENELEC parallel vote and

approved by CENELEC as EN 60728-5:2016.
The following dates are fixed:
• latest date by which the document has to be (dop) 2016-10-22
implemented at national level by
publication of an identical national
standard or by endorsement
(dow) 2019-04-22
• latest date by which the national
standards conflicting with the
document have to be withdrawn
This document supersedes EN 60728-5:2008.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CENELEC [and/or CEN] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such

patent rights.
Endorsement notice

The text of the International Standard IEC 60728-5:2015 was approved by CENELEC as a European

Standard without any modification.

In the official version, for Bibliography, the following notes have to be added for the standards indicated:

IEC 60050 (series) NOTE Harmonized as EN 60050 (series).
IEC 60130-9 NOTE Harmonized as EN 60130-9.
IEC 61169-2:2001 NOTE Harmonized as EN 61169-2:2001.
IEC 61169-8 NOTE Harmonized as EN 61169-8.
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SIST EN 60728-5:2016
EN 60728-5:2016
Annex ZA
(normative)
Normative references to international publications
with their corresponding European publications

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

NOTE 1 When an International Publication has been modified by common modifications, indicated by (mod), the relevant

EN/HD applies.

NOTE 2 Up-to-date information on the latest versions of the European Standards listed in this annex is available here:

www.cenelec.eu.
Publication Year Title EN/HD Year
IEC 60068-2-1 - Environmental testing -- Part 2-1: Tests - EN 60068-2-1 -
Test A: Cold
IEC 60068-2-2 - Environmental testing -- Part 2-2: Tests - EN 60068-2-2 -
Test B: Dry heat
IEC 60068-2-14 - Environmental testing -- Part 2-14: Tests - EN 60068-2-14 -
Test N: Change of temperature
IEC 60068-2-27 - Environmental testing -- Part 2-27: Tests - EN 60068-2-27 -
Test Ea and guidance: Shock
IEC 60068-2-30 - Environmental testing -- Part 2-30: Tests - EN 60068-2-30 -
Test Db: Damp heat, cyclic (12 h + 12 h
cycle)
IEC 60068-2-31 - Environmental testing -- Part 2-31: Tests - EN 60068-2-31 -
Test Ec: Rough handling shocks, primarily
for equipment-type specimens
IEC 60068-2-40 - Basic environmental testing procedures - EN 60068-2-40 -
Part 2: Tests. Test Z/AM: Combined
cold/low air pressure tests
IEC 60244-5 - Methods of measurement for radio EN 60244-5 -
transmitters -- Part 5: Performance
characteristics for television transmitters
IEC 60529 - Degrees of protection provided by EN 60529 -
enclosures (IP Code)
IEC 60728-1 - Cable networks for television signals, EN 60728-1 -
sound signals and interactive services --
Part 1: System performance of forward
paths
IEC 60728-2 - Cable networks for television signals, EN 50083-2 -
sound signals and interactive services -
Part 2: Electromagnetic compatibility for
equipment
IEC 60728-3 2010 Cable networks for television signals, EN 60728-3 2011
sound signals and interactive services --
Part 3: Active wideband equipment for
cable networks
IEC 60728-11 - Cable networks for television signals, EN 60728-11 -
sound signals and interactive services --
Part 11: Safety
IEC 61319-1 - Interconnections of satellite receiving EN 61319-1 -
equipment -- Part 1: Europe
ISO/IEC 13818-1 - Information technology - Generic coding of - -
moving pictures and associated audio
information - Part 1: Systems
ISO/IEC 13818-2 - Information technology - Generic coding of - -
moving pictures and associated audio
information - Part 2: Video
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SIST EN 60728-5:2016
EN 60728-5:2016
ISO/IEC 13818-3 - Information technology - Generic coding of - -
moving pictures and associated audio
information - Part 3: Audio
ISO/IEC 13818-4 - Information technology - Generic coding of - -
moving pictures and associated audio
information - Part 4: Conformance testing
ETSI EN 300 421 - Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB): Framing - -
structure, channel coding and modulation
for 11/12 GHz satellite services
ETSI EN 300 429 - Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB): Framing - -
structure, channel coding and modulation
for cable systems
ETSI EN 300 468 - Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB): - -
Specification for Service Information (SI) in
DVB systems
ETSI EN 300 473 - Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB): Satellite - -
Master Antenna Television (SMATV)
distribution systems
ETSI EN 300 744 - Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB): Framing - -
structure, channel coding and modulation
for digital terrestrial television
ETSI EN 302 307 - Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB);Second - -
generation framing structure, channel
coding and modulation systems for
Broadcasting, Interactive Services, News
Gathering and other broadband satellite
applications (DVB-S2)
ETSI EN 302 755 - Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB); Frame - -
structure channel coding and modulation
for a second generation digital terrestrial
television broadcasting system (DVB-T2)
ETSI ETS 300 163 - Television systems; NICAM 728: - -
transmission of two-channel digital sound
with terrestrial television systems B, G, H,
I, K1 and L
ETSI TR 101 211 - Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB); - -
Guidelines on implementation and usage
of Service Information (SI)
ITU-R - Measurement of audio-frequency noise - -
Recommendation voltage level in sound broadcasting (Vol.
BS 468-4 X-1)
ITU-R Report 624-4 - Characteristics of television systems - -
ITU-T - Transmission performance of television - -
Recommendation circuits designed for use in international
J.61 connections
ITU-T - Measurement methods and test - -
Recommendation procedures for teletext signals
J.101
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SIST EN 60728-5:2016
EN 60728-5:2016
Annex ZB
(normative)
Special national conditions

Special national condition: National characteristic or practice that cannot be changed even over a

long period, e.g. climatic conditions, electrical earthing conditions.

NOTE If it affects harmonization, it forms part of the European Standard / Harmonization Document.

For the countries in which the relevant special national conditions apply these provisions are

normative, for other countries they are informative.
Clause Special national condition
5.3 Finland, Sweden

All equipment installed in locations that are not temperature controlled shall meet the

requirements within the temperature range -40 °C to +55 °C.
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SIST EN 60728-5:2016
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SIST EN 60728-5:2016
IEC 60728-5
Edition 3.0 2015-12
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
Cable networks for television signals, sound signals and interactive services –
Part 5: Headend equipment
Réseaux de distribution par câbles pour signaux de télévision, signaux de
radiodiffusion sonore et services interactifs –
Partie 5: Équipements de tête de réseau
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
INTERNATIONALE
ICS 33.060.40 ISBN 978-2-8322-3016-9

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

Attention! Veuillez vous assurer que vous avez obtenu cette publication via un distributeur agréé.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
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SIST EN 60728-5:2016
– 2 – IEC 60728-5:2015 © IEC 2015
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ......................................................................................................................... 9

INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................. 11

1 Scope .......................................................................................................................... 12

2 Normative references................................................................................................... 15

3 Terms, definitions, symbols and abbreviations .............................................................. 17

3.1 Terms and definitions .......................................................................................... 17

3.2 Symbols .............................................................................................................. 21

3.3 Abbreviations ...................................................................................................... 22

4 Methods of measurement ............................................................................................. 24

4.1 Methods of measurement for digitally modulated signals ...................................... 24

4.1.1 General ....................................................................................................... 24

4.1.2 Basic assumptions and measurement interfaces ........................................... 24

4.1.3 Signal level for digitally modulated signals .................................................... 24

4.2 Single-channel intermodulation specification for channel amplifier and

frequency converter ............................................................................................ 26

4.3 Three-carrier intermodulation measurement ......................................................... 27

4.4 Two carrier intermodulation measurements for second- and third-order

products .............................................................................................................. 28

4.4.1 General ....................................................................................................... 28

4.4.2 Intermodulation products with test signals at frequencies f and f ................ 29

a b

4.4.3 Signal levels ................................................................................................ 29

4.5 Carrier-to-spurious signal ratio at the output ........................................................ 29

4.5.1 Carrier-to-spurious signal ratio at the output of equipment for AM TV

systems ....................................................................................................... 29

4.5.2 Carrier-to-spurious signal ratio at the output of equipment for FM TV

systems ....................................................................................................... 30

4.5.3 Shoulder attenuation .................................................................................... 31

4.6 Signal-to-noise measurement .............................................................................. 32

4.6.1 Television carrier-to-noise ratio (analogue modulated signals) ...................... 32

4.6.2 RF signal-to-noise ratio (S /N) for digitally modulated signals ................. 35

D,RF

4.7 Differential gain and phase for PAL/SECAM signals ............................................. 36

4.7.1 General ....................................................................................................... 36

4.7.2 Differential gain (for PAL/SECAM only) ......................................................... 37

4.7.3 Differential phase ......................................................................................... 38

4.8 Group delay measurements ................................................................................. 41

4.8.1 Group delay variation of analogue TV signals ............................................... 41

4.8.2 Procedure for the measurement of group delay variation on DVB

channel converters ....................................................................................... 42

4.9 Phase noise of an RF carrier ............................................................................... 45

4.9.1 General ....................................................................................................... 45

4.9.2 Equipment required ...................................................................................... 45

4.9.3 Connection of the equipment ........................................................................ 46

4.9.4 Measurement procedure ............................................................................... 46

4.9.5 Presentation of the results ............................................................................ 46

4.10 Hum modulation of carrier ................................................................................... 48

4.10.1 General ....................................................................................................... 48

4.10.2 Description of the method of measurement ................................................... 48

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SIST EN 60728-5:2016
IEC 60728-5:2015 © IEC 2015 – 3 –

4.10.3 Measuring procedure ................................................................................... 49

4.10.4 Calculating the hum modulation ratio ............................................................ 50

4.11 2T-pulse response, K-factor ................................................................................ 51

4.12 Chrominance-luminance delay inequalities (20T-pulse method) ............................ 52

4.13 Luminance non-linearity ...................................................................................... 54

4.14 Intermodulation distortion (FM stereo radio) ......................................................... 54

4.14.1 General ....................................................................................................... 54

4.14.2 Equipment required ...................................................................................... 55

4.14.3 Connection of equipment .............................................................................. 55

4.14.4 Measurement ............................................................................................... 55

4.15 Decoding margin (teletext) .................................................................................. 55

4.15.1 General ....................................................................................................... 55

4.15.2 Method of measurement and measuring set-up (Figure 31) ........................... 56

4.15.3 Applicability of measuring set-up .................................................................. 56

5 Performance requirements and recommendations ........................................................ 56

5.1 Safety ................................................................................................................. 56

5.2 Electromagnetic compatibility .............................................................................. 56

5.3 Environmental ..................................................................................................... 56

5.4 Marking ............................................................................................................... 57

5.4.1 Marking of equipment ................................................................................... 57

5.4.2 Marking of ports ........................................................................................... 57

6 Equipment characteristics required to be met ............................................................... 57

6.1 General ............................................................................................................... 57

6.2 Power supply voltage .......................................................................................... 58

6.3 RF signal requirements ....................................................................................... 58

6.3.1 Impedance (input) ........................................................................................ 58

6.3.2 Impedance (output) ...................................................................................... 58

6.3.3 Return loss (input, output) of equipment ....................................................... 58

6.3.4 Return loss (output) of headend ................................................................... 58

6.3.5 Typical back-off for digital against analogue signals ...................................... 58

6.3.6 Immunity against other signals in the FM radio and TV range ........................ 59

6.3.7 Carrier-to-spurious-signals ratio at output in the frequency range of

40 MHz to 862 MHz ...................................................................................... 59

6.3.8 Image rejection for AM TV and FM radio ....................................................... 60

6.3.9 Carrier to local oscillator signal ratio at the output for AM TV and FM

radio ............................................................................................................ 60

6.3.10 Frequency stability ....................................................................................... 60

6.3.11 Phase noise of digital modulated signals at the output of the headend .......... 61

6.3.12 In-channel group delay variation for digital modulated signals ....................... 62

6.3.13 In-channel peak-to-peak amplitude response variation for digitally

modulated signals ........................................................................................ 63

6.3.14 Stability of sound intercarrier ........................................................................ 63

6.3.15 Stability of residual carrier amplitude ............................................................ 63

6.3.16 Frequency stability – SAT IF/IF converter ..................................................... 63

6.3.17 Typical modulation error ratio (MER) for a QAM signal .................................. 64

6.3.18 Minimum C/N values at the output of the headend ........................................ 64

6.4 Composite video signal requirements .................................................................. 64

6.4.1 Impedance ................................................................................................... 64

6.4.2 Return loss .................................................................................................. 65

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SIST EN 60728-5:2016
– 4 – IEC 60728-5:2015 © IEC 2015

6.4.3 Signal voltage .............................................................................................. 65

6.4.4 Polarity ........................................................................................................ 65

6.4.5 Offset voltage .............................................................................................. 65

6.5 Audio signal requirements ................................................................................... 65

6.5.1 Input impedance .......................................................................................... 65

6.5.2 Output impedance ........................................................................................ 65

6.5.3 Signal level .................................................................................................. 65

6.6 Requirements for decoding margin (teletext) ........................................................ 66

6.7 IF signal requirements (AM-TV) ........................................................................... 66

6.7.1 Impedance ................................................................................................... 66

6.7.2 Return loss .................................................................................................. 66

6.8 Antennas for terrestrial reception ......................................................................... 66

6.8.1 Impedance ................................................................................................... 66

6.8.2 Return loss .................................................................................................. 66

6.9 Antenna amplifier ................................................................................................ 66

7 Equipment characteristics required to be published ...................................................... 67

7.1 General ............................................................................................................... 67

7.2 Environmental conditions .................................................................................... 67

7.3 Maximum permissible output level ....................................................................... 67

7.4 Operating range for output level .......................................................................... 68

7.5 TV standard ........................................................................................................ 68

7.6 Clamp ................................................................................................................. 68

7.7 Noise figure ........................................................................................................ 68

7.7.1 Equipment without AGC ............................................................................... 68

7.7.2 Equipment with AGC .................................................................................... 69

7.8 Data control signals, description of interface ........................................................ 69

7.9 Output level stability for TV modulators, TV converters and pilot generators ......... 69

7.10 Pilot signal .......................................................................................................... 69

7.11 Differential gain and phase .................................................................................. 70

7.11.1 Differential gain ........................................................................................... 70

7.11.2 Differential phase ......................................................................................... 70

7.12 Group delay variation for analogue TV signals ..................................................... 70

7.13 Luminance non-linearity ...................................................................................... 70

7.14 2T-pulse ............................................................................................................. 71

7.15 20T-pulse............................................................................................................ 71

7.16 Hum modulation .................................................................................................. 71

7.17 Television carrier-to-noise ratio ........................................................................... 71

7.18 Audio in TV ......................................................................................................... 71

7.19 Processing units for FM radio .............................................................................. 72

7.19.1 Audio input .................................................................................................. 72

7.19.2 Stereo crosstalk ........................................................................................... 72

7.19.3 Total harmonic distortion .............................................................................. 72

7.19.4 Intermodulation distortion ............................................................................. 72

7.19.5 Deviation, pre-emphasis ............................................................................... 72

7.20 Antennas for terrestrial reception ......................................................................... 72

7.20.1 Antenna gain ............................................................................................... 72

7.20.2 Sidelobe suppression ................................................................................... 72

7.20.3 Return loss of antennas ............................................................................... 72

7.21 Control signals for outdoor units .......................................................................... 73

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SIST EN 60728-5:2016
IEC 60728-5:2015 © IEC 2015 – 5 –

Annex A (normative) Definition of the specified test frequency range for return loss

and noise figure ........................................................................................................... 74

A.1 Test frequency range for TV channel processor ................................................... 74

A.2 Test frequency range for sub-band, full-band and multi-band amplifiers ................ 74

A.3 Test frequency range for an FM radio channel processor ..................................... 74

Annex B (informative) Audio connector for European system according to IEC 60130-9 ....... 76

B.1 Contact allocation and mechanical dimensions .................................................... 76

B.2 Signal-to-pin allocations and applications ............................................................ 76

Annex C (informative) Selectivity diagram for adjacent channel transmission ...................... 77

C.1 General ............................................................................................................... 77

C.2 TV modulator for standard PAL B/G with mono or stereo sound ............................ 77

C.3 TV modulator for standard PAL B/G with NICAM 728 in the lower adjacent

channel ............................................................................................................... 78

C.4 Standard PAL I .................................................................................................... 78

C.5 Group delay for the standards B/G, D/D1/K and I ................................................. 79

C.6 Group delay
...

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